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Journal Article

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor for Transient Operation in Heavy-Duty Engines

Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is widely introduced for passenger cars. Benefits include enhanced emission robustness to fuel quality variation, reduced fuel consumption due to more accurate (multi-pulse) fuel injection, and minimized after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced, high-efficient combustion concepts. The application in truck engines is foreseen, but challenges need to be overcome related to durability, increased system costs, and impact on the cylinder head. In this paper, a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty Diesel engines is presented. Compared to previous studies, this work focuses on heavy-duty Diesel powertrains, which are characterized by a relatively flexible crank shaft in contrast to the existing passenger car applications.
Technical Paper

Uncooled EGR as a Means of Limiting Wall-Wetting under Early Direct Injection Conditions

Collision of injected fuel spray against the cylinder liner (wall-wetting) is one of the main hurdles that must be overcome in order for early direct injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) combustion to become a viable alternative for conventional DI diesel combustion. Preferably, the prevention of wall-wetting should be realized in a way of selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than mechanical modification of an engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.). This paper presents the effect of external uncooled EGR (different fraction) on wall-wetting issues specified by two parameters, i.e. measured smoke number (experiment) and liquid spray penetration (model).
Technical Paper

The Impact of Operating Conditions on Post-Injection Efficacy; a Study Using Design-of-Experiments

Post-injection strategies prove to be a valuable option for reducing soot emission, but experimental results often differ from publication to publication. These discrepancies are likely caused by the selected operating conditions and engine hardware in separate studies. Efforts to optimize not only engine-out soot, but simultaneously fuel economy and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) complicate the understanding of post-injection effects even more. Still, the large amount of published work on the topic is gradually forming a consensus. In the current work, a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) procedure and regression analysis are used to investigate the influence of various operating conditions on post-injection scheduling and efficacy. The study targets emission reductions of soot and NOx, as well as fuel economy improvements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy-duty compression ignition engine at three load-speed combinations.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Spray Combustion Analysis of Humins

Second generation biomass is an attractive renewable feedstock for transport fuels. Its sulfur content is generally negligible and the carbon cycle is reduced from millions to tens of years. One hitherto non-valorized feedstock are so-called humins, a residual product formed in the conversion of sugars to platform chemicals, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and methoxymethylfurfural, intermediates in the production of FDCA, a building block used to produce the polyethylene furanoate (PEF) bottle by Avantium. The focus of this study is to investigate the spray combustion behavior of humins as a renewable alternative for heavy fuel oil (HFO) under large two-stroke engine-like conditions in an optically accessible constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Review on the Effects of Dual-Fuel Operation, Using Diesel and Gaseous Fuels, on Emissions and Performance

In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct-injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the use of liquid diesel. These gaseous fuels have more gasoline-like properties, such as high octane numbers, and thereby are resistant against auto-ignition. Diesel on the other hand, has a high cetane number which makes it prone to auto-ignition. In this case the gaseous fuel is injected in the inlet manifold, and the diesel is direct injected in the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. Thereby the diesel fuel spontaneously ignites and acts as an ignition source. The main goals for the use of a dual-fuel operation with diesel and gaseous fuels are the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission.
Technical Paper

On-Board Plasma Assisted Fuel Reforming

It is well known that the addition of gaseous fuels to the intake manifold of diesel engines can have significant benefits in terms of both reducing emissions of hazardous gases and soot and improving fuel economy. Particularly, the addition of LPG has been investigated in numerous studies. Drawbacks, however, of such dual fuel strategies can be found in storage complexity and end-user inconvenience. It is for this reason that on-board refining of a single fuel (for example, diesel) could be an interesting alternative. A second-generation fuel reformer has been engineered and successfully tested. The reformer can work with both gaseous and liquid fuels and by means of partial oxidation of a rich fuel-air mix, converts these into syngas: a mixture of H₂ and CO. The process occurs as partial oxidation takes place in an adiabatic ceramic reaction chamber. High efficiency is ensured by the high temperature inside the chamber due to heat release.
Technical Paper

Modeling of an Automotive Exhaust Gas Converter at Low Temperatures Aiming at Control Application

The LEV/ULEV emission standards pose challenging problems on automotive exhaust gas treatment. This increases the need for good catalytic converter models, which can be applied for control. A dynamic converter model was made on the basis of first principles, accounting for the accumulation of mass in the bulk gas phase, in pores of the washcoat and on the catalytic surface, as well as for the energy accumulation in the gas and solid phase. The basis for the model is the elementary step kinetics of the individual global reactions. The main purpose of the model is to describe the low temperature behavior of the converter, when the majority of the emissions occur. The light-off process is analyzed in detail with different inputs. The biggest improvement occurs when secondary air is injected in front of the converter. The converter model is also coupled with a simple SI engine model to investigate the dynamic behavior of the whole system.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Conventional and Early Diesel Injection Combustion Characteristics using FGM Approach

The wide range of diesel engine operating conditions demand for a robust combustion model to account for inherent changes. In this work, the Flamelet Generate Manifold (FGM) approach is applied, in STAR-CD framework, to simulate the conventional injection- and early injection-timing (PCCI like) combustion regimes. Igniting Counter flow Diffusion Flamelets (ICDFs) and Homogeneous Reactors (HRs) are used to tabulate chemistry for conventional and PCCI combustion modes, respectively. The validation of the models with experimental data shows that the above consideration of chemistry tabulation results in accurate ignition delay predictions. The study reveals that a moderate amount of 5 different pressure levels is necessary to include in the FGM database to capture the ignition delay in both combustion regimes.
Technical Paper

Literature Study and Feasibility Test Regarding a Gasoline/EHN Blend Consumed by Standard CI-Engine Using a Non-PCCI Combustion Strategy

A literature and experimental study was done to create an overview of the behavior of gasoline combusted in a CI-engine. This paper creates a first overview of the work to be done before implementing this Gasoline Compression Ignition concept in a multi-cylinder engine. According to literature the gasoline blend will have advantages over diesel. First the shorter molecular chain of the gasoline makes it less prone to soot. Second the lower density gives the gasoline a higher nozzle exit speed resulting in better mixing capabilities. Third the lower density and higher volatility lets the spray length decrease. This lowers the chance of wall-impingement, but creates worse mixing conditions looking from a spray point of view. The CO and HC emissions tend to increase relative to operation with diesel fuel, NOx emissions largely depend on the choice of combustion strategy and could be influenced by the nitrogen bound to the EHN molecule that is used as an ignition improver.
Technical Paper

LDA Measurements of Steady and Unsteady Flow Through the Induction System of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

LDA technique was used to investigate valve exit flow and in-cylinder flow generated by a directed intake port of a heavy duty Diesel engine under steady and unsteady conditions. The results obtained under both steady and unsteady show the flow patterns is very sensitive to the valve lift with this type of intake port. At small valve lift, flow profile around the valve periphery is relatively uniform, the corresponding in-cylinder flow is characteristic of double vortex. With valve lift increasing, the separating region appears near the valve seat in part of the valve periphery, therefore the flow pattern begins to depend on the position around the valve periphery. As a result, the valve exit flow is almost along the elongation of intake port at the maximum lift, the corresponding in-cylinder flow behaves as a solid body of rotation. The motion of valve seems to have little effects on the valve exit flow pattern.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Differences in Engine Efficiency with Regard to Fuel Volatility and Engine Load

An HSDI Diesel engine was fuelled with standard Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy methyl ester (B100) and n-heptane (PRF0) to study the effects of both operating conditions and fuel properties on engine performance, resulting emissions and spray characteristics. All experiments were based on single injection diesel combustion. A load sweep was carried out between 2 and 10 bar IMEPg. For B100, a loss in combustion efficiency as well as ITE was observed at low load conditions. Observed differences in exhaust emissions were related to differences in mixing properties and spray characteristics. For B100, the emission results differed strongest at low load conditions but converged to MK1-like results with increasing load and increasing intake pressures. For these cases, spray geometry calculations indicated a longer spray tip penetration length. For low-density fuels (PRF0) the spray spreading angle was higher.
Technical Paper

Implementation of High-Speed Laser-Induced Incandescence Imaging in CI Engines

Laser-induced incandescence (LII) is a well-established technique for tracking soot, potentially enabling soot volume fraction determination. To obtain crank angle resolved data from a single cycle, a multi-kHz system should be applied. Such an approach, however, imposes certain challenges in terms of application and interpretation. The present work intends to apply such a high-speed system to an optically-accessible, compression ignition engine. Possible problems with sublimation, local gas heating or other multishot effects have been studied on an atmospheric co-flow burner prior to the engine experiments. It was found that, in this flame, fluences around 0.1 J/cm2 provide the best balance between signal-tobackground ratio, and soot sublimation. This fluence is well below the plateau regime of LII, which poses additional problems with interpretation of the signal. This is especially true when a wide span of temperatures and gradients is present, as encountered in diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Spray Combustion Processes: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

A contemporary approach for improving and developing the understanding of heavy-duty Diesel engine combustion processes is to use a concerted effort between experiments at well-characterized boundary conditions and detailed, high-fidelity models. In this paper, combustion processes of n-dodecane fuel sprays under heavy-duty Diesel engine conditions are investigated using this approach. Reacting fuel sprays are studied in a constant-volume pre-burn vessel at an ambient temperature of 900 K with three reference cases having specific combinations of injection pressure, ambient density and ambient oxygen concentration (80, 150 & 160 MPa - 22.8 & 40 kg/m3-15 & 20.5% O2). In addition to a free jet, two different walls were placed inside the combustion vessel to study flame-wall interaction.
Journal Article

Experimental and Numerical Analyses of Liquid and Spray Penetration under Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Conditions

The modeling of fuel sprays under well-characterized conditions relevant for heavy-duty Diesel engine applications, allows for detailed analyses of individual phenomena aimed at improving emission formation and fuel consumption. However, the complexity of a reacting fuel spray under heavy-duty conditions currently prohibits direct simulation. Using a systematic approach, we extrapolate available spray models to the desired conditions without inclusion of chemical reactions. For validation, experimental techniques are utilized to characterize inert sprays of n-dodecane in a high-pressure, high-temperature (900 K) constant volume vessel with full optical access. The liquid fuel spray is studied using high-speed diffused back-illumination for conditions with different densities (22.8 and 40 kg/m3) and injection pressures (150, 80 and 160 MPa), using a 0.205-mm orifice diameter nozzle.
Journal Article

Experimental Validation of Extended NO and Soot Model for Advanced HD Diesel Engine Combustion

A computationally efficient engine model is developed based on an extended NO emission model and state-of-the-art soot model. The model predicts exhaust NO and soot emission for both conventional and advanced, high-EGR (up to 50 %), heavy-duty DI diesel combustion. Modeling activities have aimed at limiting the computational effort while maintaining a sound physical/chemical basis. The main inputs to the model are the fuel injection rate profile, in-cylinder pressure data and trapped in-cylinder conditions together with basic fuel spray information. Obtaining accurate values for these inputs is part of the model validation process which is thoroughly described. Modeling results are compared with single-cylinder as well as multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine data. NO and soot level predictions show good agreement with measurement data for conventional and high-EGR combustion with conventional timing.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on the Potential of Higher Octane Number Fuels for Low Load Partially Premixed Combustion

The optimal fuel for partially premixed combustion (PPC) is considered to be a gasoline boiling range fuel with an octane number around 70. Higher octane number fuels are considered problematic with low load and idle conditions. In previous studies mostly the intake air temperature did not exceed 30 °C. Possibly increasing intake air temperatures could extend the load range. In this study primary reference fuels (PRFs), blends of iso-octane and n-heptane, with octane numbers of 70, 80, and 90 are tested in an adapted commercial diesel engine under partially premixed combustion mode to investigate the potential of these higher octane number fuels in low load and idle conditions. During testing combustion phasing and intake air temperature are varied to investigate the combustion and emission characteristics under low load and idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Emission Performance of Lignin-Derived Cyclic Oxygenates in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

In earlier research, a new class of bio-fuels, so-called cyclic oxygenates, was reported to have a favorable impact on the soot-NOx trade-off experience in diesel engines. In this paper, the soot-NOx trade-off is compared for two types of cyclic oxygenates. 2-phenyl ethanol has an aromatic and cyclohexane ethanol a saturated or aliphatic ring structure. Accordingly, the research is focused on the effect of aromaticity on the aforementioned emissions trade-off. This research is relevant because, starting from lignin, a biomass component with a complex poly-aromatic structure, the production of 2-phenyl ethanol requires less hydrogen and can therefore be produced at lower cost than is the case for cyclohexane ethanol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Injection Strategies and EGR on Partially Premixed Combustion

Premixed Charge Compression Ignition concepts are promising to reduce NOx and soot simultaneously and keeping a high thermal efficiency. Partially premixed combustion is a single fuel variant of this new combustion concepts applying a fuel with a low cetane number to achieve the necessary long ignition delay. In this study, multiple injection strategies are studied in the partially premixed combustion approach to reach stable combustion and ultra-low NOx and soot emission at 15.5 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. Three different injection strategies (single injection, pilot-main injection, main-post injection) are experimentally investigated on a heavy duty compression ignition engine. A fuel blend (70 vol% n-butanol and 30 vol% n-heptane) was tested. The effects of different pilot and post-injection timing, as well as Exhaust-gas Recirculation rate on different injection strategies investigated.
Journal Article

Direct Injection of High Pressure Gas: Scaling Properties of Pulsed Turbulent Jets

Existing gasoline DI injection equipment has been modified to generate single hole pulsed gas jets. Injection experiments have been performed at combinations of 3 different pressure ratios (2 of which supercritical) respectively 3 different hole geometries (i.e. length to diameter ratios). Injection was into a pressure chamber with optical access. Injection pressures and injector hole geometry were selected to be representative of current and near-future DI natural gas engines. Each injector hole design has been characterized by measuring its discharge coefficient for different Re-levels. Transient jets produced by these injectors have been visualized using planar laser sheet Mie scattering (PLMS). For this the injected gas was seeded with small oil droplets. The corresponding flow field was measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) laser diagnostics.