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Journal Article

Waste Energy Driven Air Conditioning System (WEDACS)

2009-09-13
2009-24-0063
In the port injected Spark Ignition (SI) engine, the single greatest part load efficiency reducing factor are energy losses over the throttle valve. The need for this throttle valve arises from the fact that engine power is controlled by the amount of air in the cylinders, since combustion occurs stoichiometrically in this type of engine. In WEDACS (Waste Energy Driven Air Conditioning System), a technology patented by the Eindhoven University of Technology, the throttle valve is replaced by a turbine-generator combination. The turbine is used to control engine power. Throttling losses are recovered by the turbine and converted to electrical energy. Additionally, when air expands in the turbine, its temperature decreases and it can be used to cool air conditioning fluid. As a result, load of the alternator and air conditioning compressor on the engine is decreased or even eliminated, which increases overall engine efficiency.
Journal Article

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor for Transient Operation in Heavy-Duty Engines

2015-04-14
2015-01-0872
Cylinder pressure-based combustion control is widely introduced for passenger cars. Benefits include enhanced emission robustness to fuel quality variation, reduced fuel consumption due to more accurate (multi-pulse) fuel injection, and minimized after treatment size. In addition, it enables the introduction of advanced, high-efficient combustion concepts. The application in truck engines is foreseen, but challenges need to be overcome related to durability, increased system costs, and impact on the cylinder head. In this paper, a new single cylinder pressure sensor concept for heavy-duty Diesel engines is presented. Compared to previous studies, this work focuses on heavy-duty Diesel powertrains, which are characterized by a relatively flexible crank shaft in contrast to the existing passenger car applications.
Technical Paper

Validation of a Reduced Chemical Mechanism Coupled to CFD Model in a 2-Stroke HCCI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0392
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion technology has demonstrated a profound potential to decrease both emissions and fuel consumption. In this way, the significance of the 2-stroke HCCI engine has been underestimated as it can provide more power stroke in comparison to a 4-stroke engine. Moreover, the mass of trapped residual gases is much larger in a 2-stroke engine, causing higher initial charge temperatures, which leads to easier auto-ignition. For controlling 2-stroke HCCI engines, it is vital to find optimized simulation approaches of HCCI combustion with a focus on ignition timing. In this study, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model for a 2-stroke gasoline engine was developed coupled to a semi-detailed chemical mechanism of iso-octane to investigate the simulation capability of the considered chemical mechanism and the effects of different simulation parameters such as the turbulence model, grid density and time step size.
Technical Paper

Towards Control-Oriented Modeling of Natural Gas-Diesel RCCI Combustion

2015-04-14
2015-01-1745
For natural gas (NG)-diesel RCCI, a multi-zonal, detailed chemistry modeling approach is presented. This dual fuel combustion process requires further understanding of the ignition and combustion processes to maximize thermal efficiency and minimize (partially) unburned fuel emissions. The introduction of two fuels with different physical and chemical properties makes the combustion process complicated and challenging to model. In this study, a multi-zone approach is applied to NG-diesel RCCI combustion in a heavy-duty engine. Auto-ignition chemistry is believed to be the key process in RCCI. Starting from a multi-zone model that can describe auto-ignition dominated processes, such as HCCI and PCCI, this model is adapted by including reaction mechanisms for natural gas and NOx and by improving the in-cylinder pressure prediction. The model is validated using NG-diesel RCCI measurements that are performed on a 6 cylinder heavy-duty engine.
Journal Article

The Influence of Fuel Properties on Transient Liquid-Phase Spray Geometry and on Cl-Combustion Characteristics

2009-11-02
2009-01-2774
A transparent HSDI CI engine was used together with a high speed camera to analyze the liquid phase spray geometry of the fuel types: Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy Methyl Ester (B100), n-Heptane (PRF0) and a gas-to-liquid derivate (GTL) with a distillation range similar to B100. The study of the transient liquid-phase spray propagation was performed at gas temperatures and pressures typical for start of injection conditions of a conventional HSDI CI engine. Inert gas was supplied to the transparent engine in order to avoid self-ignition at these cylinder gas conditions. Observed differences in liquid phase spray geometry were correlated to relevant fuel properties. An empirical relation was derived for predicting liquid spray cone angle and length prior to ignition.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Operating Conditions on Post-Injection Efficacy; a Study Using Design-of-Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0229
Post-injection strategies prove to be a valuable option for reducing soot emission, but experimental results often differ from publication to publication. These discrepancies are likely caused by the selected operating conditions and engine hardware in separate studies. Efforts to optimize not only engine-out soot, but simultaneously fuel economy and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) complicate the understanding of post-injection effects even more. Still, the large amount of published work on the topic is gradually forming a consensus. In the current work, a Design-of-Experiments (DoE) procedure and regression analysis are used to investigate the influence of various operating conditions on post-injection scheduling and efficacy. The study targets emission reductions of soot and NOx, as well as fuel economy improvements. Experiments are conducted on a heavy-duty compression ignition engine at three load-speed combinations.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Spray Combustion Analysis of Humins

2017-09-04
2017-24-0119
Second generation biomass is an attractive renewable feedstock for transport fuels. Its sulfur content is generally negligible and the carbon cycle is reduced from millions to tens of years. One hitherto non-valorized feedstock are so-called humins, a residual product formed in the conversion of sugars to platform chemicals, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and methoxymethylfurfural, intermediates in the production of FDCA, a building block used to produce the polyethylene furanoate (PEF) bottle by Avantium. The focus of this study is to investigate the spray combustion behavior of humins as a renewable alternative for heavy fuel oil (HFO) under large two-stroke engine-like conditions in an optically accessible constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Spray Analysis of the PFAMEN Injector

2013-09-08
2013-24-0036
In an earlier study, a novel type of diesel fuel injector was proposed. This prototype injects fuel via porous (sintered) micro pores instead of via the conventional 6-8 holes. The micro pores are typically 10-50 micrometer in diameter, versus 120-200 micrometer in the conventional case. The expected advantages of the so-called Porous Fuel Air Mixing Enhancing Nozzle (PFAMEN) injector are lower soot- and CO2 emissions. However, from previous in-house measurements, it has been concluded that the emissions of the porous injector are still not satisfactory. Roughly, this may have multiple reasons. The first one is that the spray distribution is not good enough, the second one is that the droplet sizing is too big due to the lack of droplet breakup. Furthermore air entrainment into the fuel jets might be insufficient. All reasons lead to fuel rich zones and associated soot formation.
Technical Paper

Review on the Effects of Dual-Fuel Operation, Using Diesel and Gaseous Fuels, on Emissions and Performance

2012-04-16
2012-01-0869
In recent years the automotive industry has been forced to reduce the harmful and pollutant emissions emitted by direct-injected diesel engines. To accomplish this difficult task various solutions have been proposed. One of these proposed solutions is the usage of gaseous fuels in addition to the use of liquid diesel. These gaseous fuels have more gasoline-like properties, such as high octane numbers, and thereby are resistant against auto-ignition. Diesel on the other hand, has a high cetane number which makes it prone to auto-ignition. In this case the gaseous fuel is injected in the inlet manifold, and the diesel is direct injected in the cylinder at the end of the compression stroke. Thereby the diesel fuel spontaneously ignites and acts as an ignition source. The main goals for the use of a dual-fuel operation with diesel and gaseous fuels are the reduction of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Investigation of a Bio-Based Low Sulfur Heavy Fuel Oil

2017-09-04
2017-24-0114
Recently introduced sulfur caps on marine fuels in so-called sulfur emission control areas (SECAs) are forcing shipping companies to sail on more or less automotive grade diesel in lieu of the considerably less expensive, but sulfur-laden heavy fuel oil (HFO) to which they were accustomed. This development is an opportunity for a bio-based substitute, given that most biomass is sulfur free by default. Moreover, given that biomass is typically solid to start with, cracking it to an HFO grade, which is highly viscous in nature, will involve fewer and/or less harsh process steps than would be the case if an automotive grade fuel were to be targeted. In this study, a renewable low sulfur heavy fuel oil (LSHFO) has been produced by means of subcritical water assisted lignin depolymerization in the presence of a short length surfactant, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE).
Journal Article

Porous Fuel Air Mixing Enhancing Nozzle (PFAMEN)

2009-09-13
2009-24-0028
One of the challenges with conventional diesel engines is the emission of soot. To reduce soot emission whilst maintaining fuel efficiency, an important pathway is to improve the fuel-air mixing process. This can be achieved by creating small droplets in order to enhance evaporation. Furthermore, the distribution of the droplets in the combustion chamber should be optimized, making optimal use of in-cylinder air. To deal with these requirements a new type of injector is proposed, which has a porous nozzle tip with pore diameters between 1 and 50 μm. First, because of the small pore diameters the droplets will also be small. From literature it is known that (almost) no soot is formed when orifice diameters are smaller than 50 μm. Second, the configuration of the nozzle can be chosen such that the whole cylinder can be filled with fine droplets (i.e., spray angle nearly 180°).
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Studies in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with an N-Butanol and N-Heptane Blend

2019-04-02
2019-01-0575
N-butanol, as a biomass-based renewable fuel, has many superior fuel properties. It has a higher energy content and cetane number than its alcohol competitors, methanol and ethanol. Previous studies have proved that n-butanol has the capability to achieve lower emissions without sacrifice on thermal efficiency when blended with diesel. However, most studies on n-butanol are limited to low blending ratios, which restricts the improvement of emissions. In this paper, 80% by volume of n-butanol was blended with 20% by volume of n-heptane (namely BH80). The influences of various engine parameters (combustion phasing, EGR ratio, injection timing and intake pressure, respectively) on its combustion and emission characteristics are tested at different loads. The results showed that when BH80 uses more than 40% EGR, the emitted soot and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions are below the EURO VI legislation.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of the Impulse Shift CVT

2004-08-23
2004-40-0023
Due to rotating inertias within the engine and transmission, the response of a vehicle during large engine speed shifts may appear reluctant or even counteractive. To overcome this behaviour, a CVT drivetrain was augmented with a powersplitting planetary gear stage and steel flywheel in the so-called Zero Inertia (ZI) powertrain [1]. This transmission concept managed to combine two contradictive goals: the driveability in terms of the pedal-to-wheel response is greatly improved; and a large leap towards optimal fuel economy can be made. These goals were achieved by cruising the vehicle at extremely low engine speeds, enabled by the large ratiocoverage of the CVT. The flywheel acts as a 'peakshaver' during engine speed transients: it delivers power during (semi-) pedal kickdown and absorbs the engine's kinetic energy at pedal back-out.
Technical Paper

Oxygenated Fuel Composition Impact on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

2007-07-23
2007-01-2018
This paper reports on a study of a large number of blends of a low-sulfur EN-590 type diesel fuel respectively of a Swedish Class 1 fuel and of a synthetic diesel with different types of oxygenates. Oxygen mass fraction of the blends varied between 0 and 15 %. For comparison, the fuel matrix was extended with non-oxygenated blends including a diesel/water emulsion. Tests were performed on a modern multi-cylinder HD DAF engine equipped with cooled EGR for enabling NOx-levels between 2.0 and 3.5 g/kWh on EN-590 diesel fuel. Additional tests were done on a Volvo Euro-2 type HD engine with very low PM emission. Finally, for some blends, combustion progress and soot illumination was registered when tested on a single cylinder research engine with optical access. The results confirm the importance of oxygen mass fraction of the fuel blend, but at the same time illustrate the effect of chemical structure: some oxygenates are twice as effective in reducing PM as other well-known oxygenates.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Operating Conditions in the Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Regime

2009-09-13
2009-24-0048
Early Direct Injection Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (EDI PCCI) is a widely researched combustion concept, which promises soot and CO2 emission levels of a spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engine, respectively. Application of this concept to a conventional CI engine using a conventional CI fuel faces a number of challenges. First, EDI has the intrinsic risk of wall-wetting, i.e. collision of fuel against the combustion chamber periphery. Second, engine operation in the EDI regime is difficult to control as auto-ignition timing is largely decoupled from fuel injection timing. In dual-mode PCCI engines (i.e. conventional Dl at high loads) wall-wetting should be prevented by selecting appropriate (most favorable) operating conditions (EGR level, intake temperature, injection timing-strategy etc.) rather than by redesign of the engine (combustion chamber shape, injector replacement etc.).
Technical Paper

On-Board Plasma Assisted Fuel Reforming

2011-09-11
2011-24-0088
It is well known that the addition of gaseous fuels to the intake manifold of diesel engines can have significant benefits in terms of both reducing emissions of hazardous gases and soot and improving fuel economy. Particularly, the addition of LPG has been investigated in numerous studies. Drawbacks, however, of such dual fuel strategies can be found in storage complexity and end-user inconvenience. It is for this reason that on-board refining of a single fuel (for example, diesel) could be an interesting alternative. A second-generation fuel reformer has been engineered and successfully tested. The reformer can work with both gaseous and liquid fuels and by means of partial oxidation of a rich fuel-air mix, converts these into syngas: a mixture of H₂ and CO. The process occurs as partial oxidation takes place in an adiabatic ceramic reaction chamber. High efficiency is ensured by the high temperature inside the chamber due to heat release.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of PPCI Combustion at Low and High Charge Stratification Levels

2017-03-28
2017-01-0739
Partially premixed compression ignition combustion is one of the low temperature combustion techniques which is being actively investigated. This approach provides a significant reduction of both soot and NOx emissions. Comparing to the homogeneous charge compression ignition mode, PPCI combustion provides better control on ignition timing and noise reduction through air-fuel mixture stratification which lowers heat release rate compared to other advanced combustion modes. In this work, CFD simulations were conducted for a low and a high air-fuel mixture stratification cases on a light-duty optical engine operating in PPCI mode. Such conditions for PRF70 as fuel were experimentally achieved by injection timing and spray targeting at similar thermodynamic conditions.
Journal Article

Non-Linear Full-Car Modeling and Sky-Hook Control for a Direct-Drive Active Suspension System

2013-04-08
2013-01-0713
At Eindhoven University of Technology an active suspension system has been developed [1]. This system is superior to other active suspension in terms of bandwidth and power consumption. This active suspension system was tested on a quarter car setup and showed improvements of up to 48% in comfort [2]. In order to implement this suspension in a test vehicle with the same improvements, a non-linear full-car model is developed in this paper which is used to simulate and design various controllers. The non-linear model incorporates non-linear damping, bump stops, actuator saturation and actuator friction. To model the friction in the actuator a combination of Coulomb and viscous friction is used. To model the MacPherson suspension strut, two methods are described and compared. Also the implications of using acceleration sensors which are placed in line with the MacPherson strut are discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling of an Automotive Exhaust Gas Converter at Low Temperatures Aiming at Control Application

1999-10-25
1999-01-3623
The LEV/ULEV emission standards pose challenging problems on automotive exhaust gas treatment. This increases the need for good catalytic converter models, which can be applied for control. A dynamic converter model was made on the basis of first principles, accounting for the accumulation of mass in the bulk gas phase, in pores of the washcoat and on the catalytic surface, as well as for the energy accumulation in the gas and solid phase. The basis for the model is the elementary step kinetics of the individual global reactions. The main purpose of the model is to describe the low temperature behavior of the converter, when the majority of the emissions occur. The light-off process is analyzed in detail with different inputs. The biggest improvement occurs when secondary air is injected in front of the converter. The converter model is also coupled with a simple SI engine model to investigate the dynamic behavior of the whole system.
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