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Technical Paper

The Conical Catalytic Converter-Potential for Improvement of Catalytic Effectiveness

The development of the S-designed metallic catalytic converter and the flexibility of its production paved the way for the first conical converter with continuous cell enlargement. This type of conical converter, installed upstream from a standard catalytic conversion system exerts a positive influence on flow distribution and converter efficiency, both during the cold start and under operating conditions. The study results outlined in the following text demonstrate the potential for increased catalytic effectiveness, taking the example of the close-coupled application.
Technical Paper

SCR and SCRi® as After-treatment Systems for Low CO2 and Low NOx Vehicles

On one hand, latest worldwide emissions legislation developments aim to reduce NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions of all diesel engines, while on the other hand lower fuel consumption diesel engines are still required for lower fleet average CO₂ emissions. As a consequence of the chosen CO₂ optimized combustion mode, the raw NOx emission increases and as such Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology will be the future choice for high efficiency NOx aftertreatment. This paper deals with SCR technology and its derivative SCRi® technology, when diesel particle reduction is required, especially for heavy-duty applications. Alongside the developed metal catalyst technologies, a complete SCR reducing agent dosing system is presented. Emission results gained with the SCR or SCRi® technologies on European commercial engines illustrate the potential of these technologies for conversion of NOx and PM emissions.
Technical Paper

Recycling Technology for Metallic Substrates: A Closed Cycle

Emissions during the useage phase of vehicles are of increasing interest in environmental protection, and consequently, there is considerable interest in exhaust systems. The automotive exhaust system including the catalytic converter is, because of the precious metals in the catalyst, of particular interest for the recycling of automotive parts. The paper will describe the recycling technology of ceramic and metal catalyst substrates. The process will be analyzed in detail with the example of metal supports. As a result the complete life cycle and the recycling efficiency are presented.
Technical Paper

Particulate Trap Technology for Light Duty Vehicles with a New Regeneration Strategy

A particulate trap with combined regeneration has been developed for use in light duty vehicles with diesel engines. This new system was tested first on an engine test rig. On-road vehicle tests are going on since August 1998. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the feasibility of this system. With this system trap regeneration has to be ensured under worst case conditions (exhaust gas temperature<400° C). To meet this requirement electrical heating in combination with a fuel-borne catalyst is applied. Different filter materials such as cordierite wall flow and silicon carbide monoliths were tested on the engine test rig. The paper reports on results from the engine test rig as well as from on-road vehicle testing. An overview about pre-heating and regeneration examples are given and energy balances are presented.
Technical Paper

PM Metalit® - A Continuously Regenerating Partial Flow Particulate Filter - Concept and Experience with Korean Retrofit Programme

Emission legislations for the light / medium and heavy duty vehicles are becoming more and more stringent worldwide. Tightening of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) limits further from Euro III to Euro IV levels has provoked the need of either controlling NOx from the engine measures and use PM control after-treatment devices such as Partial Flow Filters, or, controlling PM from the engine measures and use NOx control devices such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems. Manufacturers have adopted different strategies, depending upon the suitability, cost factors, infrastructure development and ease of maintenance of these systems. PM Metalit®, is a partial flow filter, which captures particulates coming out of the exhaust and re-generates on a continuous basis with the help of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in the exhaust.
Technical Paper

Optimisation Development of Advanced Exhaust Gas After-treatment Systems for Automotive Applications

Future emission legislation can be met through substantial improvement in the effectiveness of the exhaust gas after-treatment system, the engine and the engine management system. For the catalytic converter, differentiation is necessary between the cold start behavior and the effectiveness at operating temperature. To be catalytically effective, a converter must be heated by the exhaust gas up to its light-off temperature. The major influential parameter for the light-off still is the supply of heat from the exhaust gas. Modification of the cold start calibration of engine control such as spark retard or increased idle speed can increase the temperature level of the exhaust gas. One further possibility is represented by a reduction of the critical mass ahead of the catalyst (exhaust manifold and pipe). Nevertheless the best measure to obtain optimal cold start effectiveness still seems to be locating the converter close to the engine.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Underbody Metal SCR Systems with Active Thermal Management: Experience Update

The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the main after-treatment solution for high efficient diesel engines under development to cope with future lower fuel consumption and NOx emissions requirements (EU6+ legislation). Exhaust gas temperatures are decreasing too, leading to new after-treatment system developments in a close coupled position. Nevertheless before all vehicle architectures allow it, SCR systems are and will still be installed in underbody position. The current paper deals with an underbody metal SCR after-treatment systems, which is capable of active thermal management, and an ultra-compact SCR dosing system. These technologies are described and emission results obtained on several application examples (from passenger cars to light duty commercial vehicles) are presented and discussed in conjunction with an effective active thermal management of the SCR function.
Technical Paper

Innovative Metallic Substrate Technology to Meet Future Emission Limits

Exhaust after-treatment systems will have to become increasingly efficient in order to comply with the strict emission limits that will apply in the European Union and worldwide in future. Moreover, space constraints, weight and low pressure drop are just some of the issues that have to be addressed by an EU III-compliant catalytic system. The development of metallic substrates over the past few years has shown that turbulent-like substrates increase specific catalytic efficiency. This has made it possible to enhance overall performance for a specific catalytic volume or reduce the volume while keeping catalytic efficiency constant. This paper focuses on the emission efficiency of standard, TS and PE metallic substrates. A simulation tool and flow bench measurements were used to develop a test matrix with catalyst similar pressure drop in order to examine different cell densities, substrate lengths and coating technologies.
Technical Paper

Electrically Heated Catalytic Converter (EHC) in the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 Switch-Tronic

The production of the BMW ALPINA B12 5.7 with Switch-Tronic transmission provides the markets of Europe and Japan with an exclusive, luxury-orientated, high performance limited series limousine. This is the first vehicle worldwide to be fitted with the progressive exhaust gas aftertreatment technology known as the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC), in which the effectiveness of the power utilized is increased significantly by an alternating heating process for both catalytic converters. Only since this achievement has the implementation of the EHC been viable without extensive modification to the battery and alternator. With this exhaust gas aftertreatment concept, the emissions of this high performance vehicle will fall to less than half the maximum permissible for compliance with 1996 emission standards.
Technical Paper

Development of an Integrated NOx and PM Reduction Aftertreatment System: SCRi™ for Advanced Diesel Engines

Diesel engine emission regulations throughout the world have progressed over the last 20 years. In the U.S. the most stringent medium/heavy duty standard will be implemented for on highway vehicles starting in 2010. Although changes to engine design will improve engine out emissions, in order to meet both PM and NOx regulations, combination systems including PM and NOx aftertreatment, are planned to be utilized. In order to achieve the required regulations, a new substrate technology has been developed using advanced “turbulent” flow characteristics, and it has been combined with a novel approach to reduce system complexity: the “SCRi™” or “SCR integrated” system. Such a system uses a continuously operating PM-Metalit with advanced “turbulent” SCR-catalysts in a unique configuration. The reduction of both PM and NOx also has to be seen in context with its effect on CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Design Techniques to Improve the Performances of Metal Supported Flow-Through Particulate Traps: an Experimental and Numerical Approach

Soot filtration represents a major problem for the complete exploiting of Diesel engines characteristics in terms of global efficiency and CO2 emissions. Even though the engines development in the last years let the engine performances improve, exhaust gas after treatment is still required to respect the foreseen limits for soot and NOx emissions. A flow-through particle trap has been presented with a great potential in soot removal without major penalties in terms of exhaust back pressure. The device performance is strictly connected to channel geometry. This paper deals with that relation by means of an experimental-numerical approach.
Technical Paper

Combination of Different Regeneration Methods for Diesel Particulate Traps

A particulate trap with additive supported regeneration is a very effective way of reducing soot emissions of diesel exhaust gas. Particulate traps presently available on the market clearly show that the regeneration process is the most important detail in particulate trap technology. In this specific case of particulate traps, active rare earth oxides are added into the fuel to produce an initial and almost continuous regeneration without external burners, resistance heating, etc., as is well known from other systems. It should not be forgotten that an externally initiated regeneration will always produce a temperature peak inside the soot collecting filter media which may destroy them. Such damage can be avoided by catalytically supported regeneration of particulate traps. In the presence of an active catalyst, an inorganic cerium compound, regeneration temperature will decrease from 550 to 600 deg. C normally to about 350 to 400 deg. C.
Technical Paper

Benefits of LS-Design™, a Structured Metal Foil for Two and Three Wheelers Catalyst Substrates, to Minimize Catalyst Volumes, PGM Loads and the Route Towards Low NOx Emissions

More efficient and durable catalytic converters for the two- and three-wheeler industry in developing countries are required at an affordable cost to reduce vehicle emissions, to maintain them at a low level and therefore to participate in a cleaner and healthier environment. This particularly is true nowadays, because the demand and prices of Platinum Group Metal (PGM) for catalyst are continuously increasing due to i) the worldwide progressive implementation of motorcycles emission legislations similar to Euro 3 Stage requiring catalysts, ii) the need for non-road diesel vehicles to be equipped now with catalyst systems, and iii) the constant increase of the worldwide automobile market. A new generation of metallic substrates with structured foils for catalytic converters is proven to be capable of improving conversion behavior, even with smaller catalyst size.
Technical Paper

Application of New Diesel Aftertreatment Strategies on a Production 1.9 L Common-Rail Turbocharged Engine

1 An experimental study has been carried out on a production vehicle by means of roller-bench emission tests in order to optimize alternative aftertreatment systems. To this aim different comparisons between the production exhaust system and new strategies are discussed in the present paper with aid of both modal emission data and bag tailpipe figures. The present work shows the application of a alternative solution that complies with future emission legislation with regard both to HC, CO, NOx and PM without any major engine power output or fuel consumption penalty.
Technical Paper

Application Guideline to Define Catalyst Layout for Maximum Catalytic Efficiency

The influence of physical parameters of the catalyst's substrate such as thermal mass, hydraulic diameter and geometric surface area on catalyst's efficiency is well known as published in numerous works. This paper will show interactions of these parameters and will provide a guideline on how to design the optimum system for a specific application, taking into account system's back pressure and system costs. Based on engine test bench results that show the influence of the physical parameters, the results for the optimized design regarding emission tests and maximum conversion rate at higher loads will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Advanced Performance of Metallic Converter Systems Demonstrated on a Production V8 Engine

It has been shown within the catalyst industry that the emission performance with higher cell density technology and therefore with higher specific geometric area is improved. The focus of this study was to compare the overall performance of high cell density catalysts, up to 1600cpsi, using a MY 2001 production vehicle with a 4.7ltr.V8 engine. The substrates were configured to be on the edge of the design capability. The goal was to develop cost optimized systems with similar emission and back pressure performance, which meet physical and production requirements. This paper will present the results of a preliminary computer simulation study and the final emission testing of a production vehicle. For the pre-evaluation a numerical simulation model was used to compare the light-off performance of different substrate designs in the cold start portion of the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

Achieving BS-IV Emission Targets for Diesel Small Commercial Vehicle (SCV) with Close Coupled Advanced EnviCat® DOC and Coated PM Metalit® After - Treatment System

Small Commercial Vehicle (SCV) is an emerging Commercial Vehicle (CV) segment both in India and throughout the world. Vehicles in this segment have diesel engine of capacity less than 1 l and GVW of less than 3.5 t. Normally for the CV, engines are tested on engine dynamometer for emission test, but SCV are tested on chassis dynamometer as they are classified as N1.1 class vehicles. Hence SCV have to follow same emission regulations as diesel passenger cars. The main challenge is to meet BS-IV NOx and PM emission target together with high torque optimization along with required durability targets. This paper addresses this challenge and reports the work carried out on an Indian SCV with 0.7 l naturally aspirated indirect injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

A Mixed Numerical-Experimental Analysis Procedure for Non-Blocking Metal Supported Soot Trap Design

Metal based Diesel Particulate Filters (PM-TRAPs) could represent a short time solution to face with particulate (and NOx) emissions with a small influence on CO2 emission. In fact, the operation principle of the PM-TRAP, based on fluid dynamical behavior of exhaust flow in “ad hoc” shaped geometries, allows to separate the particle content of exhaust-gases but needs to be carefully assessed to optimize filter performances. In this paper a mixed numerical and experimental procedure has been developed; it allows to finely tune the design parameters which can be used to achieve pre-defined targets in terms of particulate matter and fuel consumption. By adopting the previously declared procedure, a PM-TRAP “optimal” geometry has been chosen. Its performance has been verified with respect to experimental data. Results are encouraging and suggest further development of the system.
Technical Paper

A Computational and Experimental Analysis for Optimization of Cell Shape in High Performance Catalytic Converters

The effects of the internal geometry of catalytic converter channels on flow characteristics; exhaust backpressure and overall conversion efficiency have been investigated by means of both numerical simulations and experimental investigations. The numerical work has been carried out by means of a micro scale numerical tool specifically tailored for flow characteristics within converter channels. The results are discussed with aid of flow distribution patterns within the single cell and backpressure figures along the catalyst channel. The results of the numerical investigation provide information about the most efficient channel shapes. An experimental validation of the simulated results has been carried out with a production 3.6 liter, 6-cylinder engine on a dynamic test bench. Both modal and bag emission data have been measured during the FTP-Cycle.