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Technical Paper

The Use of Variable Geometry Sprays With Low Pressure Injection for Optimization of Diesel HCCI Engine Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0148
A numerical study of the effects of injection parameters and operating conditions for diesel-fuel HCCI operation is presented with consideration of Variable Geometry Sprays (VGS). Methods of mixture preparation are explored that overcome one of the major problems in HCCI engine operation with diesel fuel and conventional direct injection systems, i.e., fuel loss due to wall impingement and the resulting unburned fuel. Low pressure injection of hollow cone sprays into the cylinder of a production engine with the spray cone angle changing during the injection period were simulated using the multi-dimensional KIVA-3V CFD code with detailed chemistry. Variation of the starting and ending spray angles, injection timing, initial cylinder pressure and temperature, swirl intensity, and compression ratio were explored. As a simplified case of VGS, two-pulse, hollow-cone sprays were also simulated.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Thermal Flows in an Air-Cooled, Four-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0282
Measurements of the instantaneous heat flux at three positions on the cylinder head surface, and the steady-state cylinder head temperatures at four positions on the cylinder head have been obtained. Engine tests were performed for a range of air-fuel ratios including regimes rich of stoichiometric, stoichiometric, and lean of stoichiometric. In addition, ignition timing was advanced in increments from 22° BTDC to 40° BTDC. All tests were run with the throttle either fixed in the wide open position, or fixed in a position that produced 75% of the maximum power with the standard ignition timing and an air-fuel ratio of 13.5. This was done to ensure that changes in air mass flow rate were not influencing the results. In addition, all tests were performed with a fuel mixture preparation being provided by system designed to deliver a homogeneous premixed charge to the inlet port. This was done to ensure that mixture preparation issues were not confounding the results.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Measurements in a Utility Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0029
The residual gas fraction was measured in an air-cooled single-cylinder utility engine by directly sampling the trapped cylinder charge during a programmed misfire. Tests were performed for a range of fuel mixture preparation systems, cam timings, ignition timings, engine speeds and engine loads. The residual fraction was found to be relatively insensitive to the fuel mixture preparation system, but was, to a moderate degree, sensitive to the ignition timing. The residual fraction was found to be strongly affected by the amount of valve overlap and engine speed. The effects of engine speed and ignition timing were, in part, due to the in-cylinder conditions at EVO, with lower temperatures favoring higher residual fractions. The data were compared to existing literature models, all of which were found to be lacking.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Fuel/Air Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3657
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the fuel/air mixing preparation in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. A two-valve OHV engine with wedge combustion chamber is investigated since automobiles equipped with this type of engine are readily available in the U.S. market. Modifying and retrofitting these engines for GDI operation could become a viable scenario for some engine manufactures. A pressure-swirl injector and wide spacing injection layout are adapted to enhance mixture preparation. The primary interest is on preparing the mixture with adequate equivalence ratio at the spark plug under a wide range of engine operating conditions. Two different engine operating conditions are investigated with respect to engine speed and load. A modified version of the KIVA-3V multi-dimensional CFD code is used. The modified code includes the Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) model to simulate the development of the hollow cone spray.
Technical Paper

Neural Cylinder Model and Its Transient Results

2003-10-27
2003-01-3232
A cylinder model was developed using artificial neural networks (ANN). The cylinder model utilized the trained ANN models to predict engine parameters including cylinder pressures, cylinder temperatures, cylinder wall heat transfer, NOx and soot emissions. The ANN models were trained to approximate CFD simulation results of an engine. The ANN cylinder model was then applied to predict engine performance and emissions over the standard heavy-duty FTP transient cycle. The engine responses varying over the engine speed and torque range were simulated in the course of the transient test cycle. It was demonstrated that the ANN cylinder model is capable of simulating the characteristics of the engine operating under transient conditions reasonably well.
Technical Paper

Modeling of a Turbocharged DI Diesel Engine Using Artificial Neural Networks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2772
Artificial neural networks (ANN) have been recognized as universal approximators for nonlinear continuous functions and actively applied in engine research in recent years [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8]. This paper describes the methodology and results of using the ANN to model a turbocharged DI diesel engine. The engine was simulated using the CFD code (KIVA-ERC) over a wide range of operating conditions, and numerical simulation results were used to train the ANN. An efficient data collection methodology using the Design of Experiments (DOE) techniques was developed to select the most characteristic engine operating conditions and hence the most informative data to train the ANN. This approach minimizes the time and cost of collecting training data from either computational or experimental resources. The trained ANN was then used to predict engine parameters such as cylinder pressure, cylinder temperature, NOx and soot emissions, and cylinder heat transfer.
Technical Paper

Modeling Ignition and Combustion in Spark-ignition Engines Using a Level Set Method

2003-03-03
2003-01-0722
An improved discrete particle ignition kernel (DPIK) model and the G-equation combustion model have been developed and implemented in KIVA-3V. In the ignition model, the spark ignition kernel growth is tracked by Lagrangian markers and the spark discharge energy and flow turbulence effects on the ignition kernel growth are considered. The predicted ignition kernel size was compared with the available measurements and good agreement was obtained. Once the ignition kernel grows to a size where the turbulent flame is fully developed, the level set method (G-equation) is used to track the mean turbulent flame propagation. It is shown that, by ignoring the detailed turbulent flame brush structure, fine numerical resolution is not needed, thus making the models suitable for use in multidimensional modeling of SI engine combustion.
Technical Paper

MIXPC Turbocharging System for Diesel Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3390
A newly developed turbocharging system, named MIXPC, is proposed and the performance of the proposed system applied to diesel engines is evaluated. The aim of this proposed system is to reduce the scavenging interference between cylinders, and to lower the pumping loss in cylinders and the brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, exhaust manifolds of simplified design can be constructed with small dimensions, low weight and a single turbine entry. A simulation code based on a second-order FVM+TVD (finite volume method + total variation diminishing) is developed and used to simulate engines with MIXPC. By simulating a 16V280ZJG diesel engine using the MPC turbocharging system and MIXPC, it is found that not only the average scavenging coefficient of MIXPC is larger than that of MPC, but also cylinders of MIXPC have more homogeneous scavenging coefficients than that of MPC, and the pumping loss and BSFC of MIXPC are lower than those of MPC.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Combustion Optimization Using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0716
A multi-objective genetic algorithm methodology was applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine at three different operating conditions of interest. Separate optimizations were performed over various fuel injection nozzle parameters, piston bowl geometries and swirl ratios (SR). Different beginning of injection (BOI) timings were considered in all optimizations. The objective of the optimizations was to find the best possible fuel economy, NOx, and soot emissions tradeoffs. The input parameter ranges were determined using design of experiment methodology. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. For the optimization of piston bowl geometry, an automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters. The KIVA3V release 2 code with improved ERC sub-models was used. The characteristic time combustion (CTC) model was employed to improve computational efficiency.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation into the Effects of Direct Fuel Injection During the Negative Valve Overlap Period in an Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0219
A single cylinder Yamaha research engine was operated with gasoline HCCI combustion using negative valve overlap (NVO). The injection strategy for this study involved using fuel injected directly into the cylinder during the NVO period (pre-DI) along with a secondary injection either in the intake port (PI) or directly into the cylinder (DI). The effects of timing of the pre-DI injection along with the percent of fuel injected during the pre-DI injection were studied in two sets of experiments using secondary PI and DI injections in separate experiments. Results have shown that by varying the pre-DI timing and pre-DI percent the main HCCI combustion timing can be influenced as a result of varied heat release during the negative valve overlap period along with hypothesized varied degrees of reformation of the pre-DI injected fuel. In addition to varying the main combustion timing the ISFC, emissions and combustion stability are all influenced by changes in pre-DI timing and percent.
Technical Paper

Expanding the HCCI Operation With the Charge Stratification

2004-03-08
2004-01-1756
A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode at the rich and the lean limits of the homogeneous charge operating range. To achieve a variation of the degree of charge stratification, two GDI injectors were installed: one was used for generating a homogeneous mixture in the intake system, and the other was mounted directly into the side of the combustion chamber. At the lean limit of the operating range, stratification showed a tremendous improvement in IMEP and emissions. At the rich limit, however, the stratification was limited by the high-pressure rise rate and high CO and NOx emissions. In this experiment the location of the DI injector was in such a position that the operating range that could be investigated was limited due to liquid fuel impingement onto the piston and liner.
Technical Paper

Effects of Piston Crevice Flows and Lubricant Oil Vaporization on Diesel Engine Deposits

2006-04-03
2006-01-1149
The effect of piston ring pack crevice flow and lubricant oil vaporization on heavy-duty diesel engine deposits is investigated numerically using a multidimensional CFD code, KIVA3V, coupled with Chemkin II, and computational grids that resolve part of the crevice region appropriately. Improvements have been made to the code to be able to deal with the complex geometry of the ring pack, and sub-models for the crevice flow dynamics, lubricating oil vaporization and combustion, soot formation and deposition were also added to the code. Eight parametric cases were simulated under reacting conditions using detailed chemical kinetics to determine the effects of variations of lube-oil film thickness, distribution of the oil film thickness, number of injection pulses, and the main injection timing on engine soot deposition. The results show that crevice-borne hydrocarbon species play an important role in deposit formation on crevice surfaces.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ignition Timing and Air-Fuel Ratio on In-Cylinder Heat Flux and Temperatures in a Four-Stroke, Air Cooled, Homogeneous Charge Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0284
In-cylinder heat flux and temperature measurements were obtained in an air-cooled four-stroke utility engine for a range of air-fuel ratios. For these measurements, the magnitude of the integrated heat flux peaked at the stoichiometric air-fuel ratio, with an approximately linear decrease on either side of stoichiometric. Advancing the spark generally increased the magnitude of the integrated heat flux. Evaluation of the Brake Specific Integrated Heat Flux (BSIHF) mitigated these trends, and, the effects of changes in timing were eliminated for some operating conditions Examination of the BSIHF from the compression and expansion stroke showed behavior mimicking the full cycle BSIHF. However, the fraction of the total flux contributed by this portion of the cycle varied greatly from approximately 98% of the total to approximately 75% of the total.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Piston Position Measurements Using a Laser Range-Finding Technique

1990-02-01
900482
A nonintrusive diagnostic technique has been developed by which dynamic axial piston-position and tilt-angle measurements have been made in a single-cylinder research engine. A laser beam, introduced into the combustion chamber through an optical port in the cylinder head, was reflected by a polished surface on the piston crown. Motion of the reflected beam, carrying with it information on piston position and piston tilt, was monitored by a set of receiving optics. Piston motion was studied as a function of both engine speed and cylinder pressure (i.e., piston loading.) Measured axial piston-position was found to deviate from the theoretical position calculated from the measured crank-shaft position owing to the effects of tilt and piston loading. Furthermore, evidence of piston veer (tilt of the piston in a plane parallel to the axis of the wrist pin) was observed, which had an effect on the accuracy of the axial piston-position measurement.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Combustion Chamber Geometry Optimization Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2001-03-05
2001-01-0547
The recently developed KIVA-GA computer code was used in the current study to optimize the combustion chamber geometry of a heavy -duty diesel truck engine and a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small-bore diesel engine. KIVA-GA performs engine simulations within the framework of a genetic algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness was determined using a modified version of the KIVA-3V code, which calculates the spray, combustion, and emissions formation processes. The measure of design fitness includes NOx, unburned HC, and soot emissions, as well as fuel consumption. The simultaneous minimization of these factors was the ultimate goal. The KIVA-GA methodology was used to optimize the engine performance using nine input variables simultaneously. Three chamber geometry related variables were used along with six other variables, which were thought to have significant interaction with the chamber geometry.
Technical Paper

Cycle Simulation Diesel HCCI Modeling Studies and Control

2004-10-25
2004-01-2997
An integrated system based modeling approach has been developed to understand early Direct Injection (DI) Diesel Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) process. GT-Power, a commercial one-dimensional (1-D) engine cycle code has been coupled with an external cylinder model which incorporates sub-models for fuel injection, vaporization, detailed chemistry calculations (Chemkin), heat transfer, energy conservation and species conservation. In order to improve the modeling accuracy, a multi-zone model has been implemented to account for temperature and fuel stratifications in the cylinder charge. The predictions from the coupled simulation have been compared with experimental data from a single cylinder Caterpillar truck engine modified for Diesel HCCI operation. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effect of combustion timing on four major control parameters. Overall the results show good agreement of the trends between the experiments and model predictions.
Technical Paper

An Investigation Into the Effect of Fuel Composition on HCCI Combustion Characteristics

2002-10-21
2002-01-2830
A single cylinder CFR research engine has been run in HCCI combustion mode for a range of temperatures and fuel compositions. The data indicate that the best HCCI operation, as measured by a combination of successful combustion with low ISFC, occurs at or near the rich limit of operation. Analysis of the pressure and heat release histories indicated the presence, or absence, and impact of the fuel's NTC ignition behavior on establishing successful HCCI operation. The auto-ignition trends observed were in complete agreement with previous results found in the literature. Furthermore, analysis of the importance of the fuel's octane sensitivity, through assessment of an octane index, successfully explained the changes in the fuels auto-ignition tendency with changes in engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of Injector Behavior for HSDI Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0705
An experimental and numerical characterization has been conducted for high-pressure hydraulically actuated fuel injection systems. One single and one double-guided multi-hole Valve-Covered-Orifice (VCO) type injector was used with a Common Rail (CR) injection system, and two mini-sac injectors for Hydraulic electronic Unit Injection system (HEUI) were used with different orifice diameters. The purpose of the study was to explore the effects of the injection system and the operating conditions on the engine emissions for a direct injection small bore diesel engine. The diesel spray was injected into a pressurized chamber with optical access at ambient temperature. The gas density inside the chamber was representative of the density in a High Speed Direct Injection (HSDI) diesel engine at the time of injection. The experimental spray parameters included: injection pressure, injection duration, nozzle type, and nozzle diameter.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation into the Cool Flame Region in HCCI Combustion

2004-03-08
2004-01-0552
Multi-dimensional computational efforts using comprehensive and skeletal kinetics have been made to investigate the cool flame region in HCCI combustion. The work was done in parallel to an experimental study that showed the impact of the negative temperature coefficient and the cool flame on the start of combustion using different fuels, which is now the focus of the simulation work. Experiments in a single cylinder CFR research engine with n-butane and a primary reference fuel with an octane number of 70 (PRF 70) were modeled. A comparison of the pressure and heat release traces of the experimental and computational results shows the difficulties in predicting the heat release in the cool flame region. The behavior of the driving radicals for two-stage ignition is studied and is compared to the behavior for a single-ignition from the literature. Model results show that PRF 70 exhibits more pronounced cool flame heat release than n-butane.
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