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Technical Paper

Validation of Advanced Combustion Models Applied to Two-Stage Combustion in a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0714
Two advanced combustion models have been validated with the KIVA-3V Release 2 code in the context of two-stage combustion in a heavy duty diesel engine. The first model uses CHEMKIN to directly integrate chemistry in each computational cell. The second model accounts for flame propagation with the G-equation, and CHEMKIN predicts autoignition and handles chemistry ahead of and behind the flame front. A Damköhler number criterion was used in flame containing cells to characterize the local mixing status and determine whether heat release and species change should be a result of flame propagation or volumetric heat release. The purpose of this criterion is to make use of physical and chemical time scales to determine the most appropriate chemistry model, depending on the mixture composition and thermodynamic properties of the gas in each computational cell.
Technical Paper

Use of a Pressure Reactive Piston to Control Diesel PCCI Operation - A Modeling Study

2006-04-03
2006-01-0921
The heavy-duty diesel engine industry is required to meet stringent emission standards. There is also the demand for more fuel efficient engines by the customer. In a previous study on an engine with variable intake valve closure timing, the authors found that an early single injection and accompanying premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion provides advantages in emissions and fuel economy; however, unacceptably high peak pressures and rates of pressure-rise impose a severe operating constraint. The use of a Pressure Reactive Piston assembly (PRP) as a means to limit peak pressures is explored in the present work. The concept is applied to a heavy-duty diesel engine and genetic algorithms (GA) are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to provide an optimized set of operating variables.
Technical Paper

Transient High-Pressure Hydrogen Jet Measurements

2006-04-03
2006-01-0652
Schlieren visualization was performed to investigate hydrogen injection into a quiescent chamber. The injection pressures investigated were 52 and 104 bar, and the chamber density ranged from 1.15 to 12.8 kg/m3, giving rise to underexpanded jets for all conditions. The expansion waves outside the nozzle were clearly visible with hydrogen, and the effect was confirmed with studies of nitrogen injected into a nitrogen environment. The distance between the expansion wave fronts was found to scale directly with the ratio of the exit pressure to the chamber pressure. The jet tip penetration rate was measured and was found to increase with injection pressure, and decrease with chamber density as expected. A mass- and momentum-preserving scheme was developed to relate the underexpanded jet to a subsonic jet of larger diameter.
Technical Paper

The Use of Variable Geometry Sprays With Low Pressure Injection for Optimization of Diesel HCCI Engine Combustion

2005-04-11
2005-01-0148
A numerical study of the effects of injection parameters and operating conditions for diesel-fuel HCCI operation is presented with consideration of Variable Geometry Sprays (VGS). Methods of mixture preparation are explored that overcome one of the major problems in HCCI engine operation with diesel fuel and conventional direct injection systems, i.e., fuel loss due to wall impingement and the resulting unburned fuel. Low pressure injection of hollow cone sprays into the cylinder of a production engine with the spray cone angle changing during the injection period were simulated using the multi-dimensional KIVA-3V CFD code with detailed chemistry. Variation of the starting and ending spray angles, injection timing, initial cylinder pressure and temperature, swirl intensity, and compression ratio were explored. As a simplified case of VGS, two-pulse, hollow-cone sprays were also simulated.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Physical Input Parameter Uncertainties on Multidimensional Model Predictions of Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

2000-03-06
2000-01-1178
Multidimensional models require physical inputs about the engine operating conditions. This paper explores the effects of unavoidable experimental uncertainties in the specification of important parameters such as the start of injection, duration of injection, amount of fuel injected per cycle, gas temperature at IVC, and the spray nozzle hole diameter. The study was conducted for a Caterpillar 3401 heavy-duty diesel engine for which extensive experimental data is available. The engine operating conditions include operation at high and low loads, with single and double injections. The computations were performed using a modified version of the KIVA3V code. Initially the model was calibrated to give very good agreement with experimental data in terms of trends and also to a lesser degree in absolute values, over a range of operating conditions and injection timings.
Technical Paper

Study of Diesel Engine Size-Scaling Relationships Based on Turbulence and Chemistry Scales

2008-04-14
2008-01-0955
Engine design is a time consuming process in which many costly experimental tests are usually conducted. With increasing prediction ability of engine simulation tools, engine design aided by CFD software is being given more attention by both industry and academia. It is also of much interest to be able to use design information gained from an existing engine design of one size in the design of engines of other sizes to reduce design time and costs. Therefore it is important to study size-scaling relationships for engines over wide range of operating conditions. This paper presents CFD studies conducted for two production diesel engines - a light-duty GM-Fiat engine (0.5L displacement) and a heavy-duty Caterpillar engine (2.5L displacement). Previously developed scaling arguments, including an equal spray penetration scaling model and an extended, equal flame lift-off length scaling model were employed to explore the parametric scaling connections between the two engines.
Technical Paper

Steady-State Thermal Flows in an Air-Cooled, Four-Stroke Spark-Ignition Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-0282
Measurements of the instantaneous heat flux at three positions on the cylinder head surface, and the steady-state cylinder head temperatures at four positions on the cylinder head have been obtained. Engine tests were performed for a range of air-fuel ratios including regimes rich of stoichiometric, stoichiometric, and lean of stoichiometric. In addition, ignition timing was advanced in increments from 22° BTDC to 40° BTDC. All tests were run with the throttle either fixed in the wide open position, or fixed in a position that produced 75% of the maximum power with the standard ignition timing and an air-fuel ratio of 13.5. This was done to ensure that changes in air mass flow rate were not influencing the results. In addition, all tests were performed with a fuel mixture preparation being provided by system designed to deliver a homogeneous premixed charge to the inlet port. This was done to ensure that mixture preparation issues were not confounding the results.
Technical Paper

Split-Spray Piston Geometry Optimized for HSDI Diesel Engine Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-0348
A combustion chamber geometry design optimization study has been performed on a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) automotive diesel engine at a part-load medium-speed operating condition using both modeling and experiments. A model-based optimization was performed using the KIVA-GA code. This work utilized a newly developed 6-parameter automated grid generation technique that allowed a vast number of piston geometries to be considered during the optimization. Other salient parameters were included that are known to have an interaction with the chamber geometry. They included the start of injection (SOI) timing, swirl ratio (SR), exhaust gas recirculation percentage (EGR), injection pressure, and the compression ratio (CR). The measure of design fitness used included NOx, soot, unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and CO emissions, as well as the fuel consumption. Subsequently, an experimental parametric study was performed using the piston geometry found by the numerical optimization.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Engine Emissions and Fuel Consumption Using Genetic Algorithms and Multi-Dimensional Spray and Combustion Modeling

2000-06-19
2000-01-1890
A computational optimization study is performed for a heavy-duty direct-injection diesel engine using the recently developed KIVA-GA computer code. KIVA-GA performs full cycle engine simulations within the framework of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) global optimization code. Design fitness is determined using a one-dimensional gas -dynamics code for calculation of the gas exchange process, and a three-dimensional CFD code based on KIVA-3V for spray, combustion and emissions formation. The performance of the present Genetic Algorithm is demonstrated using a test problem with a multi-modal analytic function in which the optimum is known a priori. The KIVA-GA methodology is next used to simultaneously investigate the effects of six engine input parameters on emissions and performance for a high speed, medium load operating point for which baseline experimental validation data is available.
Technical Paper

Residual Gas Measurements in a Utility Engine

2004-09-27
2004-32-0029
The residual gas fraction was measured in an air-cooled single-cylinder utility engine by directly sampling the trapped cylinder charge during a programmed misfire. Tests were performed for a range of fuel mixture preparation systems, cam timings, ignition timings, engine speeds and engine loads. The residual fraction was found to be relatively insensitive to the fuel mixture preparation system, but was, to a moderate degree, sensitive to the ignition timing. The residual fraction was found to be strongly affected by the amount of valve overlap and engine speed. The effects of engine speed and ignition timing were, in part, due to the in-cylinder conditions at EVO, with lower temperatures favoring higher residual fractions. The data were compared to existing literature models, all of which were found to be lacking.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization of Diesel Engines with Variable Intake Valve Timing Via Genetic Algorithms

2005-04-11
2005-01-0374
The strategy of variable Intake Valve Closure (IVC) timing, as a means to improve performance and emission characteristics, has gained much acceptance in gasoline engines; yet, it has not been explored extensively in diesel engines. In this study, genetic algorithms are used in conjunction with the multi-dimensional engine simulation code KIVA-3V to investigate the optimum operating variables for a typical heavy-duty diesel engine working with late IVC. The effects of start-of-injection timing, injection duration and exhaust gas recirculation were investigated along with the intake valve closure timing. The results show that appreciable reductions in NOx+HC (∼82%), soot (∼48%) and BSFC (∼7.4%) are possible through this strategy, as compared to a baseline diesel case of (NOx+HC) = 9.48g/kW-hr, soot = 0.17 g/kW-hr and BSFC = 204 g-f/kW-hr. The additional consideration of double injections helps to reduce the high rates of pressure rise observed in a single injection scheme.
Technical Paper

Parameters That Affect the Impact of Auxiliary Gas Injection in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0233
The authors used auxiliary gas injection (AGI) to increase in-cylinder mixing during the latter portion of combustion in a direct injection (DI) diesel engine in order to reduce soot emissions without affecting NOx. Experiments were conducted using various gas injection directions and compositions to explore the effect of these parameters. Simulations were employed to provide additional insight. AGI direction was found to have a profound impact on soot emissions. Researchers suggested that this was due to changes in the fuel spray-gas jet interaction with injection direction. Simulations supported this theory and suggested that the number of soot clouds affected by the gas jet may also be a factor. The oxygen content of the gas jet was also found to have an influence on emissions. Researchers found that, when the oxygen content of the gas jet was increased, soot emissions decreased. However, this was found to have a detrimental affect on NO.
Journal Article

Optimization of a HSDI Diesel Engine for Passenger Cars Using a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm and Multi-Dimensional Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-0715
A multi-objective genetic algorithm coupled with the KIVA3V release 2 code was used to optimize the piston bowl geometry, spray targeting, and swirl ratio levels of a high speed direct injected (HSDI) diesel engine for passenger cars. Three modes, which represent full-, mid-, and low-loads, were optimized separately. A non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA II) was used for the optimization. High throughput computing was conducted using the CONDOR software. An automated grid generator was used for efficient mesh generation with variable geometry parameters, including open and reentrant bowl designs. A series of new spray models featuring reduced mesh dependency were also integrated into the code. A characteristic-time combustion (CTC) model was used for the initial optimization for time savings. Model validation was performed by comparison with experiments for the baseline engine at full-, mid-, and low-load operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Study of Fuel/Air Mixture Preparation in a GDI Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3657
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the fuel/air mixing preparation in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine. A two-valve OHV engine with wedge combustion chamber is investigated since automobiles equipped with this type of engine are readily available in the U.S. market. Modifying and retrofitting these engines for GDI operation could become a viable scenario for some engine manufactures. A pressure-swirl injector and wide spacing injection layout are adapted to enhance mixture preparation. The primary interest is on preparing the mixture with adequate equivalence ratio at the spark plug under a wide range of engine operating conditions. Two different engine operating conditions are investigated with respect to engine speed and load. A modified version of the KIVA-3V multi-dimensional CFD code is used. The modified code includes the Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization (LISA) model to simulate the development of the hollow cone spray.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Under HCCI-Like Conditions With High EGR Levels

2003-03-03
2003-01-1087
This study considers combustion processes in a heavy-duty diesel engine at various low emissions operating conditions. The start-of-injection timings varied from -20 to 5 ATDC while the EGR levels varied from 6% to 44%. At certain conditions, HCCI-like combustion characteristics were observed under which low emissions could be achieved. The numerical model used is an improved version of KIVA-3V that can simulate spray breakup and mixture autoignition over a wide range of conditions. The ignition and combustion processes were simulated using both detailed and standard (simplified) chemistry models. Model results show that engine combustion and emissions can be predicted reasonably well under the current conditions. The trends of NOx and soot emissions with respect to the injection timings and EGR levels were well captured. However, it was found that the model over-predicted the NOx emissions in certain early injection cases.
Technical Paper

Neural Cylinder Model and Its Transient Results

2003-10-27
2003-01-3232
A cylinder model was developed using artificial neural networks (ANN). The cylinder model utilized the trained ANN models to predict engine parameters including cylinder pressures, cylinder temperatures, cylinder wall heat transfer, NOx and soot emissions. The ANN models were trained to approximate CFD simulation results of an engine. The ANN cylinder model was then applied to predict engine performance and emissions over the standard heavy-duty FTP transient cycle. The engine responses varying over the engine speed and torque range were simulated in the course of the transient test cycle. It was demonstrated that the ANN cylinder model is capable of simulating the characteristics of the engine operating under transient conditions reasonably well.
Technical Paper

Multidimensional Modeling of the Effects of Radiation and Soot Deposition in Heavy-duty Diesel Engines

2003-03-03
2003-01-0560
A radiation model based on the Discrete Ordinates Method (DOM) was incorporated into the KIVA3v multidimensional code to study the effects of soot and radiation on diesel engine performance at high load. A thermophoretic soot deposition model was implemented to predict soot concentrations in the near-wall region, which was found to affect radiative heat flux levels. Realistic, non-uniform combustion chamber wall surface temperature distributions were predicted using a finite-element-based heat conduction model for the engine metal components that was coupled with KIVA3v in an iterative scheme. The more accurate combustion chamber wall temperatures enhanced the accuracy of both the radiation and soot deposition models as well as the convective heat transfer model. For a basline case, (1500 rev/min, 100% load) it was found that radiation can account for as much as 30% of the total wall heat loss and that soot deposition in each cycle is less than 3% of the total in-cylinder soot.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Injector Nozzle Geometry on Diesel Sprays

1999-03-01
1999-01-0912
A phenomenological nozzle flow model has been developed and implemented in both the FIRE and KIVA-II codes to simulate the effects of the nozzle geometry on fuel injection and spray processes. The model takes account of the nozzle passage inlet configuration, flow losses and cavitation, the injection pressure and combustion chamber conditions and provides initial conditions for multidimensional spray modeling. The discharge coefficient of the injector, the effective injection velocity and the initial drop or injected liquid ‘blob’ sizes are calculated dynamically during the entire injection event. The model was coupled with the wave breakup model to simulate experiments of non-vaporizing sprays under diesel conditions. Good agreement was obtained in liquid penetration, spray angle and drop size (Sauter Mean Diameter). The integrated model was also used to model combustion in a Cummins single-cylinder optical engine with good agreement.
Journal Article

Modeling the Effects of In-Cylinder Flows on HSDI Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0649
In the present work the three-dimensional KIVA CFD code was used to simulate the combustion process in a HSDI diesel engine. State-of-the-art models, including the KH-RT spray breakup model, the RNG k-ε turbulence model, and a n-heptane reduced chemistry including reduced GRI NOx mechanism were used. The performances of two combustion models, KIVA-CHEMKIN and GAMUT (KIVA-CHEMKIN-G), coupled with 2-step and multi-step phenomenological soot models were compared. The numerical results were compared with available experimental data obtained from an optically accessible HSDI engine and good agreement was obtained. To assess the effects of the in-cylinder flow field on combustion and emissions, off-centered swirl flows were also considered. In these studies, the swirl center was initialized at different positions in the chamber for different cases to simulate the effects of different intake flow arrangements.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Geometry Generated Turbulence on HCCI Engine Combustion

2003-03-03
2003-01-1088
The present study uses a numerical model to investigate the effects of flow turbulence on premixed iso-octane HCCI engine combustion. Different levels of in-cylinder turbulence are generated by using different piston geometries, namely a disc-shape versus a square-shape bowl. The numerical model is based on the KIVA code which is modified to use CHEMKIN as the chemistry solver. A detailed reaction mechanism is used to simulate the fuel chemistry. It is found that turbulence has significant effects on HCCI combustion. In the current engine setup, the main effect of turbulence is to affect the wall heat transfer, and hence to change the mixture temperature which, in turn, influences the ignition timing and combustion duration. The model also predicts that the combustion duration in the square bowl case is longer than that in the disc piston case which agrees with the measurements.
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