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Technical Paper

Transient Modeling of 3-Way Catalytic Converters

1994-03-01
940934
The modeling of transient phenomena occurring inside an automotive 3-way catalytic converter poses a significant challenge to the emissions control engineer. Since the significant progress that has been observed with steady-state models cannot be directly exploited in this direction, it is necessary to develop a fully transient model and computer code incorporating dynamic behaviour of the three way catalytic converter in a relatively simple and effective way. The Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics (LAT), Aristotle University Thessaloniki, is cooperating with the Engine Direction of FIAT Research Center, in the development of a computer code fulfilling these objectives, within the framework of an EEC Brite EuRam cost shared project. The CRF and LAT modeling approaches, along with the underlying philosophy and experimental work, are presented in this paper.
Technical Paper

SCR System Optimization and Control Supported by Simulation Tools

2013-04-08
2013-01-1075
The successful design and especially the control of the SCR system is a challenging process that can be supported by the application of simulation tools. As a first step, we employ physico-chemically informed ‘off-line’ models that are calibrated with the help of targeted small- and full-scale tests. Despite their high level of sophistication, this SCR model is able to be integrated in a control-oriented simulation software platform and connected to other powertrain simulation blocks. The target is to use this simulation platform as a virtual environment for the development and optimization of SCR control strategies. The above process is demonstrated in the case of a passenger car SCR. The model is calibrated at both fresh and aged catalyst condition and validated using experimental data from the engine bench under a wide variety of operating conditions. Next, the calibrated model was coupled with embedded control models, developed for Euro 6 passenger car powertrains.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop of Particulate Filters and Correlation with the Deposited Soot for Heavy-Duty Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0151
Particulate filters are a widely used emission control device on heavy-duty diesel engines. The accumulation of particulate matter, mostly consisting of soot, inside the filter results in increased filter pressure-drop (backpressure). This increased backpressure has been used by the on-board control systems as trigger for regeneration procedures, which aim to actively oxidize the accumulated soot. However, it is known that passive soot oxidation during normal operation affects the correlation between backpressure and the deposited soot mass in filter. Therefore, the backpressure alone cannot be a reliable trigger for regeneration. In this work we highlight operating conditions with very poor correlation between backpressure and accumulated soot mass in filter and evaluate the possible root causes. Experiments with several heavy-duty diesel engines and particulate filters were conducted on engine test bench.
Technical Paper

Optimization Methodologies for DPF Substrate-catalyst Combinations

2009-04-20
2009-01-0291
As the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technology is nowadays established, research is currently focusing on meeting the emission and durability requirements by proper system design. This paper focuses on the optimum combination between the catalytic coating and substrate structural properties using experimental and simulation methodologies. The application of these methodologies will be illustrated for the case of SiC substrates coated with innovative sol-gel coatings. Coated samples are characterized versus their uncoated counterparts. Multi-dimensional DOC and DPF simulation models are used to study several effects parametrically and increase our understanding on the governing phenomena. The comparative analysis of DOC/DPF systems covers filtration – pressure drop characteristics, CO/HC/NO oxidation performance, effect of washcoat amount and catalyst dispersion on oxidation activity and finally passive regeneration performance.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Interactions Of Soot and SCR Reactions in Advanced DPF Technologies with Non-homogeneous Wall Structure

2012-04-16
2012-01-1298
The pressure for compact and efficient deNO systems has led to increased interest of incorporating SCR coatings in the DPF walls. This technology could be very attractive especially if high amounts of washcoat loadings could be impregnated in the DPF porous walls, which is only possible with high porosity filters. To counterbalance the filtration and backpressure drawbacks from such high porosity applications, the layered wall technology has already been proposed towards minimizing soot penetration in the wall and maximizing filtration efficiency. In order to deal with the understanding of the complex interactions in such advanced systems and assist their design optimization, this paper presents an advanced modeling framework and selected results from simulation studies trying to illustrate the governing phenomena affecting deNO performance and passive DPF regeneration in the above combined systems.
Technical Paper

Model-based optimization methods of combined DPF+SCR Systems

2007-09-16
2007-24-0098
The design of integrated exhaust lines that combine particulate and NOx emission control is a multidimensional optimization problem. The present paper demonstrates the use of an exhaust system simulation platform which is composed of well-established multidimensional mathematical models for the transient thermal and chemical phenomena in DOC, DPF and SCR systems as well as connecting pipe heat transfer effects. The analysis is focused on the European Driving Cycle conditions. Illustrative examples on complete driving cycle simulations with and without forced regeneration events are presented for alternative design approaches. The results illustrate the importance of DOC and DPF heat capacity effects and connecting pipe heat losses on the SCR performance. The possibility of combining DPF and SCR functionality on a single wall-flow substrate is studied.
Technical Paper

Model-based Optimization of Catalyst Zoning in Diesel Particulate Filters

2008-04-14
2008-01-0445
Catalyzed wall-flow particulate filters are increasingly applied in diesel exhaust after-treatment for multiple purposes, including low-temperature catalytic regeneration, CO and hydrocarbon conversion, as well as exothermic heat generation during forced regeneration. In order to optimize Precious Metals usage, it may be advantageous to apply the catalytic coating non-uniformly in the DPF, a technology referred to as “catalyst zoning”. In order to simulate the behavior of such a filter, one has to consider coupled transport-reaction modeling. In this work, a previously developed model is calibrated versus experimental data obtained with full-scale catalyzed filters on the engine dynamometer. In a next step, the model is validated under a variety of operating conditions using engine experiments with zoned filters. The performance of the zoned catalyst is analyzed by examining the transient temperature and species profiles in the inlet and outlet channels.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Intra-Layer Modeling of Soot Density and Permeability in Wall-flow Filters

2006-04-03
2006-01-0261
The objective of this study is to study the soot layer density and permeability in wall-flow diesel particulate filters. Knowledge of the soot morphology as function of the operating conditions is important for the design and on-board control of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs). The experimental set-up relies on a specially designed soot loading procedure on single-channel cordierite filters. The experimental conditions simulate real-world as close as possible regarding the filtration velocity, temperature and soot quality, since the sampling is done in real exhaust. By cutting, weighing and imaging the single channel filters it is possible to measure with accuracy the soot layer thickness as deposited under different operating conditions. Combined with pressure drop measurements and modeling, it is further possible to evaluate the soot layer permeability.
Journal Article

Implications of Engine Start-Stop on After-Treatment Operation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1243
It is commonly accepted that future powertrains will be based to a large extent on hybrid architectures, in order to optimize fuel efficiency and reduce CO₂ emissions. Hybrid operation is typically achieved with frequent engine start-and-stops during real-world as well as during the legislated driving cycles. The cooling of the exhaust system during engine stop may pose problems if the substrate temperature drops below the light-off temperature. Therefore, the design and thermal management of after-treatment systems for hybrid applications should consider the 3-dimensional heat transfer problem carefully. On the other hand, the after-treatment system calculation in the concept design phase is closely linked with engine calibration, taking into account the hybridization strategy. Therefore, there is a strong need to couple engine simulation with 3d aftertreatment predictions.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Analysis of Catalytic Converters during Cold Starts

2019-09-09
2019-24-0163
The transient heat transfer behavior of an automotive catalytic converter has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO oxidation, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters are the results of data in literature tuned by experiments. Simplified cases of constant flow rates and gas temperatures in the catalyst inflow have been chosen for a comprehensive analysis of the heat and mass transfer phenomena. The impact of inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates on the heat up characteristics as well as in the CO emissions have been quantified. A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinates are introduced.
Technical Paper

Filtration and Regeneration Performance of a Catalyzed Metal Foam Particulate Filter

2006-04-03
2006-01-1524
The objective of this study is to present a particulate filter concept, based on a new porous material: INCOFOAM® HighTemp, a Ni-based superalloy foam. The paper examines the filtration and pressure drop characteristics as well as the regeneration performance of different filter configurations, based on experimental data and modeling. A number of different foam structures with variable pore characteristics are studied. The experimental testing covers flow and pressure drop behavior with air and exhaust gas, filtration efficiency measurements as function of particle size and regeneration rate measurements. The testing starts from mini-scale reactors and proceeds to real exhaust testing on the engine bench as well as vehicle tests on the chassis dynamometer and on-road. In parallel, a previously developed mathematical model is applied to study and understand the filtration and pressure drop mechanisms in the case of clean and soot loaded filters.
Technical Paper

Experimental Evaluation of the Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Viscosity Lubricants

2009-06-15
2009-01-1803
Reducing fuel consumption and emissions from road transport is a key factor for tackling global warming, promoting energy security and sustaining a clean environment. Several technical measures have been proposed in this aspect amongst which the application of low viscosity engine lubricants. Low viscosity lubricants are considered to be an interesting option for reducing fuel consumption (and CO2 emissions) throughout the fleet in a relatively cost effective way. However limited data are available regarding their actual “real-world” performance with respect to CO2 and other pollutant emissions. This study attempts to address the issue and to provide experimental data regarding the benefit of low viscosity lubricants on fuel consumption and CO2 emissions over both the type-approval and more realistic driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of a Template Model and Simulation Approach for Quantifying the Effect of WLTP Introduction on Light Duty Vehicle CO2 Emissions and Fuel Consumption

2015-09-06
2015-24-2391
The paper describes the development of a modelling approach to simulate the effect of the new Worldwide harmonized Light duty Test Procedure (WLTP) on the certified CO2 emissions of light duty vehicles. The European fleet has been divided into a number of segments based on specific vehicle characteristics and technologies. Representative vehicles for each segment were selected. A test protocol has been developed in order to generate the necessary data for the validation of the vehicle simulation models. In order to minimize the sources of uncertainty and the effects of flexibilities, a reference “template model” was developed to be used in the study. Subsequently, vehicle models were developed using AVL Cruise simulation software based on the above mentioned template model. The various components and sub-modules of the models, as well as their input parameters, have been defined with the support of the respective OEMs.
Technical Paper

Design and Application of Catalyzed Metal Foam Particulate Filters

2006-10-16
2006-01-3284
This paper presents experimental and modeling results related to the application of a novel material as a diesel particulate filter substrate. The material, trademarked as INCOFOAM® HighTemp, is a Ni-based superalloy foam. The material can be produced in sheet form with a large range of microstructure parameters. Thanks to the mechanical properties of the sheets, they can be flexibly shaped in various forms. The foam can be washcoated with active catalytic material to promote regeneration. The experimental testing covers flow and pressure drop behavior with air and exhaust gas, filtration efficiency measurements as function of particle size and regeneration rate measurements. The testing starts from mini-scale reactors and proceeds to real exhaust testing on the engine bench as well as vehicle tests with legislated driving cycles. Special emphasis is given to the characterization of the foam as a catalyst substrate.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Peak Temperature Limitation in DPF Regeneration Supported by Validated Modeling

2007-04-16
2007-01-1127
One of the main challenges in developing cost-effective diesel particulate filters is to guarantee a thermally safe regeneration under all possible conditions on the road. Uncontrolled regenerations occur when the soot reaction rate is so high that the cooling effect of the incoming exhaust gas is insufficient to keep the temperature below the required limit for material integrity. These conditions occur when the engine switches to idle while the filter is already hot enough to initiate soot oxidation, typically following engine operation at high torque and speed or active filter regeneration. The purpose of this work is to investigate engine management techniques to reduce the reaction rate during typical failure mode regenerations. A purely experimental investigation faces many difficulties, especially regarding measurement accuracy, repeatability in filter soot loading, and repeatability in the regeneration protocol.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Engineering in the Development of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

1999-03-01
1999-01-0458
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) Methodologies are increasingly being applied to assist the design of SI-engine exhaust aftertreatment systems, in view of the stage III and IV emissions standards. Following this trend, the design of diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems is receiving more attention in view of the capabilities of recently developed mathematical models. The design of diesel exhaust systems must cope with three major aftertreatment categories: (i) diesel oxidation catalysts, (ii) diesel particulate filters and (iii) de-NOx catalytic converters. An integrated CAE methodology that could assist the design of all these classes of systems is described in this paper.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Engineering in the Design of Catalytically Assisted Trap Systems

1997-02-24
970472
The design of a diesel particulate trap system to fit a specific vehicular application requires significant expenditure, due to the high degree of interaction between the vehicle operation and trap behavior. The assistance of modeling in the design process is already well established. This paper presents the basic principles of a Computer Aided Engineering methodology aimed to assist the selection of the basic parameters of a Diesel Particulate Trap System by reducing the number of the necessary experimental tests. The computational modules currently supporting the CAE methodology are based on fundamental mathematical models, incorporating a small number of semi-empirical relations derived by experimental data on trap loading and catalytic regeneration, exhaust system heat transfer and trap backpressure effect on fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Assessment of Catalyst Ageing Cycles

1995-02-01
950934
In view of recent and future US and european regulations the design optimization of 3-way catalytic converters (3WCC) should also account for catalyst durability. The purpose of this paper is to extend the authors' approach for 3WCC modeling and evaluation in the direction of covering some aspects of ageing behavior. After a brief examination of the commonly accepted ageing mechanisms, a new methodology for the assessment of catalyst durability is formulated. This methodology takes into account the effect of thermal loading, high-temperature oxidation and poisoning of the catalyst. Based on the approach presented, along with the 3WCC and other related models and computer codes already in-use by the authors, a comparative assesment of engine bench ageing cycles may be computationally supported. Correlation of vehicle ageing cycles with engine bench cycles may also be accomplished as illustrated by a case study.
Technical Paper

Applications of Multi-layer Catalyst Modeling in deNOx and DPF Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0893
Due to the increasing pressure to develop small-size and low-cost after-treatment systems meeting the legislative demands it is desirable to integrate multiple functionalities and exploit any possible synergies. Typical examples include DPFs catalyzed with deNOx catalysts, as well as LNT-SCR combinations using layered coating technology. The present paper deals with the modeling challenges involved for the proper simulation of such advanced concepts. Key role in such advanced simulation attempts has the coupling between diffusion-reaction phenomena, which is captured through intra-layer modeling. All investigations in this paper deal with the application of possible combined LNT-SCR system configurations. The simulation results show that a dual bed LNT- passive SCR configuration offers substantial NOx emissions reductions compared to a single LNT catalyst and effectively controls secondary NH3 emissions produced during LNT regeneration phases.
Technical Paper

Analysis of TWC Characteristics in a Euro6 Gasoline Light Duty Vehicle

2019-09-09
2019-24-0162
A Euro6 gasoline light duty vehicle has been tested at the engine dynamometer and the emissions have been analyzed upstream and downstream the Three-Way-Catalyst (TWC) during a WLTC cycle. Catalyst simulations have been used for assessing the processes inside the catalytic converter using a reaction scheme based on 19 brutto reactions (direct oxidation and reduction, selective catalytic reductions with CO, C3H6 and H2, steam reforming, water-gas shift and bulk ceria as well as surface ceria reactions). The reactions have been parameterized in order to best approximate the measurements. Based on the reactions taken into account, the real vehicle emissions can be predicted with good accuracy. The simulations show that the cycle emissions comprise mainly the cold start contribution as well as discrete emission break-through events during transients. During cold start no reactions are evident in the catalyst before the temperature of the gas entering the catalyst reaches 270°C.
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