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Journal Article

Validation of Sled Tests for Far-Side Occupant Kinematics Using MADYMO

2010-04-12
2010-01-1160
Far-side occupants are not addressed in current government regulations around the world even though they account for up to 40% of occupant HARM in side impact crashes. Consequently, there are very few crash tests with far-side dummies available to researchers. Sled tests are frequently used to replicate the dynamic conditions of a full-scale crash test in a controlled setting. However, in far-side crashes the complexity of the occupant kinematics is increased by the longer duration of the motion and by the increased rotation of the vehicle. The successful duplication of occupant motion in these crashes confirms that a sled test is an effective, cost-efficient means of testing and developing far-side occupant restraints or injury countermeasures.
Technical Paper

Validation of High Dynamic Range Photography as a Tool to Accurately Represent Low-Illumination Scenes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0078
Previous research [1] described a procedure for creating prints from digital photographs that accurately represent critical features of visual scenes at low levels of illumination. In this procedure, observers adjust the brightness of a digital photographs captured using standard photography until it best matches the visible characteristics of the actual scene. However, standard digital photography cannot capture the full dynamic range of a scene's luminous intensities in many low-illumination settings. High dynamic range (HDR) photography has the potential to more accurately represent a viewer's perception under low illumination. Such a capability can be critical to representing nighttime roadway scenes, where HDR photography can enable the creation of more accurate photographic representations of bright visual stimuli (e.g., vehicle headlamps, street lighting) while also maintaining the integrity of the photograph's darker portions.
Technical Paper

Tractor-Semitrailer Driver and Sleeping Compartment Occupant Responses to Low-Speed Impacts

2012-04-16
2012-01-0566
Low-speed collisions between tractor-semitrailers and passenger vehicles may result in large areas of visible damage to the passenger vehicle, but often produce limited damage to the tractor-semitrailer. Despite this, such accidents may lead to assertions of serious injury to the tractor driver and/or sleeper compartment occupant. Research regarding the impact environment and resulting injury potential of the occupants during these types of impacts is limited. This research investigated driver and sleeper compartment occupant responses to relatively low-speed and low-acceleration impact events. Five crash tests involving impact between a tractor-semitrailer and a passenger car were conducted. The test vehicles were a van semitrailer pulled by a tractor and three identical mid-sized sedans. The occupants of the tractor included a human driver and an un-instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile-male anthropomorphic test device (ATD).
Journal Article

Timber Utility Pole Fracture Mechanics Due to Non-Deformable and Deformable Moving Barrier Impacts

2011-04-12
2011-01-0288
The energy dissipated by the fracture of wooden utility poles during vehicle impacts is not currently well documented, is dependent upon non-homogenous timber characteristics, and can therefore be difficult to quantify. While there is significant literature regarding the static and quasi-static properties of wood as a building material, there is a narrow body of literature regarding the viscoelastic properties of timber used for utility poles. Although some theoretical and small-scale testing research has been published, full-scale testing has not been conducted for the purpose of studying the vehicle-pole interaction during impacts. The parameters that define the severity of the impact include the acceleration profile, vehicle velocity change, and energy dissipation. Seven full-scale crash tests were conducted at Exponent's Arizona test facility utilizing both moving deformable and non-deformable barriers into new wooden utility poles.
Technical Paper

The Use of Stationary Object Radar Sensor Data from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) in Accident Reconstruction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1465
As a result of the development of Event Data Recorders (EDR) and the recent FMVSS regulation 49 CFR 563, today’s automobiles provide a limited subset of electronic data measurements of a vehicle’s state before and during a crash. Prior to this data, the only information available about the vehicle movements before or during a collision had come from physical evidence (e.g. tire marks), witnesses, aftermarket camera systems on vehicles, and ground-based cameras that were monitoring vehicle traffic or used for security surveillance. Today’s vehicles equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) have vehicle-based sensors that measure information about the environment around a vehicle including other vehicles, pedestrians, and fixed wayside objects.
Technical Paper

Steering Maneuver with Furrow-Tripped Rollovers of a Pickup and Passenger Car

2015-04-14
2015-01-1477
Extensive testing has been conducted to evaluate both the dynamic response of vehicle structures and occupant protection systems in rollover collisions though the use of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs). Rollover test methods that utilize a fixture to initiate the rollover event include the SAE2114 dolly, inverted drop tests, accelerating vehicle body buck on a decelerating sled, ramp-induced rollovers, and Controlled Rollover Impact System (CRIS) Tests. More recently, programmable steering controllers have been used with sedans, vans, pickup trucks, and SUVs to induce a rollover, primarily for studying the vehicle kinematics for accident reconstruction applications. The goal of this study was to create a prototypical rollover crash test for the study of vehicle dynamics and occupant injury risk where the rollover is initiated by a steering input over realistic terrain without the constraints of previously used test methods.
Technical Paper

Speeds of Child Cyclists

2019-04-02
2019-01-0419
Many published studies have characterized walking and running speeds of young children. However, there is a paucity of data on the cycling speeds of very young children (4 to 5 years old). The purpose of this study was to obtain an estimate of cycling speed for boys and girls both who are learning to ride bicycles (i.e., younger children who still ride with training wheels) and who have already learned to ride bicycles (i.e., slightly older children who no longer use training wheels). A sample of 32 child riders (17 boys, 15 girls; 17 four-year-olds who still ride with training wheels, 15 five-year-olds who do not) were asked to ride a short pre-defined distance at their usual speed when riding, and again at their highest speed. We found that while age and experience can differentiate riders, there were only small differences between boys’ and girls’ speeds in either age group.
Technical Paper

Seatback Strength and Occupant Response in Rear Impact Crash: Observations with Respect to Large Occupant Size and Position

2010-04-12
2010-01-1029
Seatback strength and injury potential in moderate to high-speed rear-end collisions were investigated in a series of 12 HYGE sled tests. The test methodology included the use of instrumented Hybrid-III anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). Four tests employed a 95th percentile male ATD ballasted to a total weight of 300 lbs and subjected to approximate 15 mph Delta-V impacts. The remaining tests employed an unmodified 50th percentile male ATD with impacts of approximately 25 mph Delta-V, and three ATD positions, including two "out of position" postures corresponding to leaning forward ("forward" position), and leaning forward and inboard ("radio" position). Seats from three different vehicles were tested, representing a range of strength values. Upper neck values for N were less than 1.0 in all cases. Lower neck N values sometimes exceeded 1.0 with the 50th percentile male ATD out of position, and these values did not trend with seatback strength.
Technical Paper

Regional Level Crash Induced Injury Metrics Implemented within THUMS v4.01

2016-04-05
2016-01-1489
Crash reconstructions using finite element (FE) vehicle and human body models (HBMs) allow researchers to investigate injury mechanisms, predict injury risk, and evaluate the effectiveness of injury mitigation systems, ultimately leading to a reduced risk of fatal and severe injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). To predict injuries, regional-level injury metrics were implemented into the Total Human Model for Safety (THUMS) full body HBM. THUMS was virtually instrumented with cross-sectional planes to measure forces and moments in the femurs, upper and lower tibias, ankles, pelvis (pubic symphysis, ilium, ischium, sacrum, ischial tuberosity, and inferior and superior pubic ramus), and the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and intervertebral discs. To measure accelerations, virtual accelerometers were implemented in the head, thoracic vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and pelvis. Three chest bands and an abdominal band were implemented to measure chest and abdominal deflection.
Journal Article

Quantification of Combustion Hazards of Thermal Runaway Failures in Lithium-Ion Batteries

2014-04-01
2014-01-1857
As lithium-ion cells and systems become larger and more ubiquitous in automotive applications, fire and explosion hazards that are rare or non-existent in smaller systems may exist in these larger systems. One potential hazard can occur when flammable gases emitted from a lithium-ion cell failure accumulate in or around automobiles and are ignited by electrical activity or by the cells themselves and result in a fire or explosion. In some instances, the safety aspects related to fires and explosions protection of electric vehicles and hybrid vehicles using these large energy storage battery packs are a significant challenge to address. This paper describes and characterizes the combustion and explosion hazards that can occur when a lithium ion battery pack fails and goes into thermal runaway in an enclosed space. Metrics such as gas composition, maximum overpressure, rate of pressure rise, and flammability limits are described.
Technical Paper

Passenger Vehicle Response and Damage Characteristics of Front and Rear Structures during Low- to Moderate-Speed Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0415
A significant number of vehicle-to-vehicle collisions involve front-to-rear impacts at low- to moderate-speeds. While a variety of studies have been conducted since the 1990s involving fore-aft collisions, those discussing the response of late model passenger vehicles during progressively more severe impacts are limited. In this study, four inline, front-rear tests were conducted using two midsize sedans of the same make, model, and year. An instrumented Hybrid III 50th percentile-male Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was located in the driver seat of each sedan and was restrained using the standard three-point seat belt system. Instrumentation on the vehicles included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells. For each test, the centerlines of the vehicles were aligned, and the striking vehicle impacted the stationary target vehicle at closing speeds of 4.6, 7.9, 13.5, and 20.9 mph (7.4, 12.7, 21.7, and 33.6 kph).
Technical Paper

Passenger Vehicle Dynamic Response and Characterization of Side Structure during Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impacts

2019-04-02
2019-01-0420
A significant portion of real-world passenger vehicle side impacts occur at lower speeds than testing conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) or the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Test data from low- to moderate-speed side impacts involving late-model passenger vehicles is limited, making the evaluation of vehicle impact response, occupant loading, and injury potential challenging. This study provides the results of low- to moderate-speed impact testing involving a late-model mid-size sedan. Two full-scale Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) side impact crash tests were conducted at speeds of 6.2 mph (10.0 kph) and 13.4 mph (21.6 kph). Instrumentation on the late-model sedan used for the test series included tri-axis accelerometers and seat belt load cells.
Journal Article

Normal Pedal Activation in Real World Situations

2011-04-12
2011-01-0551
This study reports pedal activation forces and typical acceleration and deceleration rates during everyday driving activities. Twenty subjects of varying ages, height and weight participated in the study. Each subject was asked to drive a four-door sedan along 2.3 miles of roadway in DuPage County, Illinois. Vehicle speed, acceleration, and position were measured using a global positioning system that was synchronized with force data collected from load cells rigidly mounted on the vehicle's accelerator and brake pedals. Pedal forces and vehicle behavior were measured during common driving tasks such as, shifting the transmission into reverse, backing out of a parking spot, and, making a right hand turn from a stop sign. Our data suggests that simple vehicle dynamic tasks produced in experimental settings may not reliably reproduce vehicle and occupant behavior.
Journal Article

Neck Loads in Playground Activities in a Pediatric Population

2012-04-16
2012-01-0560
Neck injury assessment reference values (IARVs) and tolerance values for children have been specified using animal data compared to the loading of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). However, there is a paucity of data regarding the neck loads generated during non-injurious situations for children. Six males and six females aged 8-11 years old were equipped with a validated head sensor package and upper neck loads and moments were calculated from measured head kinematics while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum forces were 686 N in compression, 177 N in tension, and 471 N in shear, the maximum moments were 18.2 N-m in flexion, 6.0 N-m in extension, 6.4 N-m in lateral bending, and 12.1 N-m in axial twist. Female subjects exhibited similar loads and moments to their male counterparts, but larger Nij values. The peak loads measured in this study are larger than or comparable to those undertaken with adult subjects participating in similar activities.
Technical Paper

Measurements of Non-Injurious Head Accelerations of Young Children

2014-04-01
2014-01-0493
Few studies have investigated pediatric head injury mechanics with subjects below the age of 8 years. This paper presents non-injurious head accelerations during various activities for young children (2 to 7 years old). Eight males and five females aged 2-7 years old were equipped with a head sensor package and head kinematics were measured while performing a series of playground-type activities. The maximum peak resultant accelerations were 29.5 G and 2745 rad/s2. The range of peak accelerations was 2.7 G to 29.5 G. The range of peak angular velocities was 4.2 rad/s to 22.4 rad/s. The range of peak angular accelerations was 174 rad/s2 to 2745 rad/s2. Mean peak resultant values across all participants and activities were 13.8 G (range 2.4 G to 13.8 G), 12.8 rad/s (range 4.0 rad/s to 12.8 rad/s), and 1375 rad/s2 (range 105 rad/s2 to 1375 rad/s2) for linear acceleration, angular velocity, and angular acceleration, respectively.
Technical Paper

Lug Nut Trace Analysis to Determine Velocity Ratio

2011-04-12
2011-01-0282
When two vehicles contact in a side swipe collision, if one of the vehicles has lug nuts that protrude outboard of the wheel, gouge marks may be left in the other vehicle's exterior. Hereafter the marked vehicle will be referred to as the car and the vehicle with the lug nuts will be called the truck. If the car is stationary, the marks will be in the form of a curtate trochoid and will reveal no information about the speed of the truck. If the car is not stationary, analysis of the shape of the traces left on the side of the car by the lug nuts of the rotating truck wheel can determine the velocity ratio of the car to that of the truck. If the speed of either vehicle is known or can be determined using other information or accident reconstruction techniques, lug nut mark analysis will enable determination of the other vehicle's speed.
Technical Paper

Head and Neck Loading Conditions over a Decade of IIHS Rear Impact Seat Testing

2019-04-02
2019-01-1227
Rear-end impacts are the most common crash scenario in the United States. Although automated vehicle (AV) technologies, such as frontal crash warning (FCW) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), are mitigating and preventing rear-end impacts, the technology is only gradually being introduced and currently has only limited effectiveness. Accordingly, there is a need to evaluate the current state of passive safety technologies, including the performance of seatbacks and head restraints. The objective of this study was to examine trends in head and neck loading during rear impact testing in new vehicle models over the prior decade. Data from 601 simulated rear impact sled tests (model years 2004 to 2018) conducted as a part of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Vehicle Seat/Head Restraint Evaluation Protocol were obtained.
Journal Article

Full-scale Fire Tests of Electric Drive Vehicle Batteries

2015-04-14
2015-01-1383
Fires involving cars, trucks, and other highway vehicles are a common concern for emergency responders. In 2013 alone, there were approximately 188,000 highway vehicle fires. Fire Service personnel are accustomed to responding to conventional vehicle (i.e., internal combustion engine [ICE]) fires, and generally receive training on the hazards associated with those vehicles and their subsystems. However, in light of the recent proliferation of electric drive vehicles (EDVs), a key question for emergency responders is, “what is different with EDVs and what tactical adjustments are required when responding to EDV fires?” The overall goal of this research program was to develop the technical basis for best practices for emergency response procedures for EDV battery incidents, with consideration for suppression methods and agents, personal protective equipment (PPE), and clean-up/overhaul operations.
Journal Article

Full-Scale Burn Test of a 2001 Full-Size Pickup Truck

2013-04-08
2013-01-0214
Temperature measurements during a full-scale burn test of a 2001 full-size pickup truck showed that the fire progressed in distinct stages in both the engine and passenger compartments. Although the fire started in the engine compartment and had a relatively long growth period, when a localized area reached about 700°C, a distinct transition occurred where the rate of fire spread increased, leading to full involvement of all engine compartment combustibles. As the engine compartment became fully involved, a hot gas layer then accumulated at the ceiling of the passenger compartment, producing a strong vertical temperature gradient. When the temperature at the ceiling reached about 600°C, another distinct transition occurred where the rate of fire spread increased, leading to full involvement of the passenger compartment. The highest temperature during the test occurred within the engine compartment in an area that had the greatest fuel load, and not the area of origin.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Occupant Kinematics in Low- to Moderate-Speed Frontal and Rear-End Motor Vehicle Collisions

2019-04-02
2019-01-1226
Low- to moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions are a common crash type and are sometimes associated with injury complaints. Understanding occupant motion (kinematics) in response to low- and moderate-speed motor vehicle collisions is important for evaluating occupant interactions with interior vehicle structures, including the restraint systems, with the ultimate goal of assessing injury potential. Furthermore, quantitative occupant kinematic data from full-scale crash testing of late-model passenger vehicles is limited for collisions at low- to moderate-speeds. The current study reports kinematic data from full-scale frontal and rear-end crash tests of late-model, mid-size sedans with delta-Vs ranging from 6.0 to 19.0 kph (3.7 to 11.8 mph) and 5.6 to 19.5 kph (3.5 to 12.1 mph), respectively. For each test vehicle, the motion of a Hybrid III 50th-percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) restrained in the driver seat was recorded using high-speed onboard video.
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