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Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Objectified Drivability Evaluation and Classification of Passenger Vehicles in Automated Longitudinal Vehicle Drive Maneuvers with Engine Load Changes

To achieve global market and brand specific drivability characteristics as unique selling proposition for the increasing number of passenger car derivatives, an objectified evaluation approach for the drivability capabilities of the various cars is required. Thereto, it is necessary to evaluate the influence of different engine concepts in various complex and interlinked powertrain topologies during engine load change maneuvers based on physical criteria. Such an objectification approach enables frontloading of drivability related engineering tasks by the execution of drivability development and calibration work within vehicle subcomponent-specific closed-loop real-time co-simulation environments in early phases of a vehicle development program. So far, drivability functionalities could be developed and calibrated only towards the end of a vehicle development program, when test vehicles with a sufficient level of product maturity became available.
Journal Article

Improving Engine Efficiency and Emission Reduction Potential of HVO by Fuel-Specific Engine Calibration in Modern Passenger Car Diesel Applications

The optimization study presented herein is aimed to minimize the fuel consumption and engine-out emissions using commercially available EN15940 compatible HVO (Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil) fuel. The investigations were carried out on FEV’s 3rd generation HECS (High Efficiency Combustion System) multi-cylinder engine (1.6L, 4 Cylinder, Euro 6). Using a global DOE approach, the effects of calibration parameters on efficiency and emissions were obtained and analyzed. This was followed by a global optimization procedure to obtain a dedicated calibration for HVO. The study was aiming for efficiency improvement and it was found that at lower loads, higher fractions of low pressure EGR in combination with lower fuel injection pressures were favorable. At higher loads, a combustion center advancement, increase of injection pressure and reduced pilot injection quantities were possible without exceeding the noise and NOx levels of the baseline Diesel.
Journal Article

Fuel Cell System Development: A Strong Influence on FCEV Performance

In this article, the development challenges of a fuel cell system are explained using the example of the BREEZE! fuel cell range extender (FC-REX) applied in an FEV Liiona. The FEV Liiona is a battery electric vehicle based on a Fiat 500 developed by FEV. The BREEZE! system is the first applied 30 kW low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (LT PEM) fuel cell system in the subcompact vehicle class. Due to the highly integrated system approach and dry cathode operation, a compact design of the range extender module with a system power density of 0.45 kW/l can be achieved so that the vehicle interior including trunk remains completely usable. System development for fuel cells significantly influences performance, efficiency, package, durability, and required maintenance effort of a fuel cell electric powertrain. In order to ensure safe and reliable operation, the fuel cell system has to be supplied with sufficient amounts of air, hydrogen, and coolant flows.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Emission Conversion Performance of Gasoline Particulate Filters Over Lifetime

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) recently entered the market, and are already regarded a state-of-the-art solution for gasoline exhaust aftertreatment systems to enable EU6d-TEMP fulfilment and beyond. Especially for coated GPF applications, the prognosis of the emission conversion performance over lifetime poses an ambitious challenge, which significantly influences future catalyst diagnosis calibrations. The paper presents key-findings for the different GPF application variants. In the first part, experimental GPF ash loading results are presented. Ash accumulates as thin wall layers and short plugs, but does not penetrate into the wall. However, it suppresses deep bed filtration of soot, initially decreasing the soot-loaded backpressure. For the emission calibration, the non-linear backpressure development complicates the soot load monitoring, eventually leading to compromises between high safety against soot overloading and a low number of active regenerations.