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Technical Paper

λDSF: Dynamic Skip Fire with Homogeneous Lean Burn for Improved Fuel Consumption, Emissions and Drivability

2018-04-03
2018-01-0891
Dynamic skip fire (DSF) has shown significant fuel economy improvement potential via reduction of pumping losses that generally affect throttled spark-ignition (SI) engines. In DSF operation, individual cylinders are fired on-demand near peak efficiency to satisfy driver torque demand. For vehicles with a downsized-boosted 4-cylinder engine, DSF can reduce fuel consumption by 8% in the WLTC (Class 3) drive cycle. The relatively low cost of cylinder deactivation hardware further improves the production value of DSF. Lean burn strategies in gasoline engines have also demonstrated significant fuel efficiency gains resulting from reduced pumping losses and improved thermodynamic characteristics, such as higher specific heat ratio and lower heat losses. Fuel-air mixture stratification is generally required to achieve stable combustion at low loads.
Journal Article

Validation of a 1D Compressor Model for Performance Prediction

2013-09-08
2013-24-0120
In the present paper, a recently developed centrifugal compressor model is briefly summarized. It provides a refined geometrical schematization of the device, especially of the impeller, starting from a reduced set of linear and angular dimensions. A geometrical module reproduces the 3D geometry of the impeller and furnishes the data employed to solve the 1D flow equations inside the rotating and stationary ducts constituting the complete device. The 1D compressor model allows to predict the performance maps (pressure ratio and efficiency) with good accuracy, once the tuning of a number of parameters is realized to characterize various flow losses and heat exchange. To overcome the limitations related to the model tuning, unknown parameters are selected with reference to 5 different devices employing an optimization procedure (modeFRONTIER™).
Technical Paper

Tuning and Validation of DPF for India Market

2017-01-10
2017-26-0135
In a move to curb vehicular pollution, Indian Government decided to bring forward the date for BSVI standards into effect from April 2020 while skipping the intermediate BSV stage. The plan to implement BSVI norms, which initially was scheduled for 2024 according to the National Auto Fuel Policy dated April 27, 2015, has now been slotted for April 2020. For particulate mass (PM) emissions to be brought down to the BS VI level (4.5mg/km), diesel passenger cars need to be fitted with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove soot from the exhaust gas of the diesel engine. DPF must be cleaned/regenerated from time to time else, it will block up. Optimized DPF calibration is the key for various challenges linked with its use as one of the effective PM reduction technology.
Journal Article

Thermal Shock Protection for Diesel Particulate Filters

2011-12-15
2011-01-2429
During a thermal regeneration of a Diesel particulate filter (DPF) the temperature inside the DPF may raise above critical thresholds in an uncontrolled way (thermal shock). Especially driving conditions with a comparable low exhaust gas mass flow and high oxygen content like idle speed may create a thermal shock. This paper presents a concept for an ECU software structure to prevent the DPF from reaching improper temperatures and the methodology in order to calibrate this ECU structure. The concept deals in general with a closed-loop control of the exhaust gas air-fuel-ratio during the critical engine operation phases. Those critical operation phases are identified at the engine test bench during “Drop-to-Idle” and “Drop-to-Overrun” experiments. The experiments show that those phases are critical having on the one hand a low exhaust gas mass flow and on the other hand a high oxygen percentage in the exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Tailored Design and Layout for Loss Minimization or Cost-Effective Commonality of Parts - A Contradictory Conflict

2015-01-14
2015-26-0019
In order to minimize the development and production costs in the automotive industry, despite steadily increasing variety of models and applications offered by the OEMs, the pressure on standardization of components and production processes is increasing continuously. As a direct consequence, modular engine families are already established with high degrees of common parts and kits as well as standardized interfaces for all vehicle platforms by most manufacturers these days. At the same time, the world adopted and announced massive legal demands concerning the reduction of CO2 emissions for the entire vehicle fleet. In addition to the optimization of the combustion process, the exhaust gas aftertreatment and thermal management, the use of improved and more resilient materials for higher reduction of mechanical friction leads to a significant amount of the realized lowering in fuel consumption respective CO2 emissions.
Technical Paper

Super Ultra-Low NOX Emissions under Extended RDE Conditions - Evaluation of Light-Off Strategies of Advanced Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Systems

2019-04-02
2019-01-0742
Super ultra-low NOX emission engine concepts are essential to comply with future emission legislations. To meet the future emission standards, application of advanced diesel exhaust aftertreatment systems (EATS), such as Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), Lean NOX Trap (LNT), Selective Catalytic Reduction coatings on Soot Filters (SCRF) and underfloor SCR, is required. Effective customized thermal management strategies are essential to ensure fast light-off of the EATS after engine cold start, and to avoid significant cooldown during part load operation. The authors describes the investigation of different exhaust gas heating measures, such as intake throttling, late fuel injection, exhaust throttling, advanced exhaust cam phasing, retarded intake cam phasing, cylinder deactivation, full turbine bypass, electric catalyst heating and electrically heated intake manifold strategies.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Variable Compressor Pre Swirl Devices in Consideration of Different Sealing Concepts

2013-04-08
2013-01-0934
For turbocharged engines high specific power and torque output as well as a fast transient response are mandatory. This conflict of aims can be solved by different charging systems, for example 2-stage charging or variable turbine geometry. At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University another alternative, the variable compressor pre swirl, was investigated for solving this conflict of aims. Based on theoretical fundamentals the potentials of a variable compressor pre swirl for transient response, low end torque, specific power output and fuel consumption were presented. These theoretical potentials were explored on turbocharger -, engine - and vehicle test bench. An extended compressor map with partial higher compressor efficiency of up to 2% was detected. The outcome of this is an increase of up to 6% in low end torque, found on engine test bench. This effect could also be validated in 1D simulation.
Technical Paper

Potential of Advanced, Combined Aftertreatment Systems for Light-Duty Diesel Engines to Meet Upcoming EU and US Emission Regulation

2013-09-08
2013-24-0163
The modern DI-diesel engine represents a valuable platform to achieve worldwide tightened CO2 standards while meeting future strengthened emission regulations in the EU and the US. Due to the simultaneous, partially contrary legal demands, new integrated and combined systems are required to allow best overall performance within the upcoming legal frames concerning pollutant emission reduction and minimization of CO2 output. As extended emission relevant areas in the engine map have to be respected in view of RDE and PEMS scenarios in EU, but also facing the LEVIII standards in the US, comprehensive and synchronized technical solutions have to be engineered. Based on furthermore optimized combustion systems with improved combustion efficiency, meaning also lowered exhaust gas temperatures, especially refined and tailored emission control systems are demanded.
Journal Article

Optimization of Exhaust After-Treatment System (EATS) to BS 6 Emission Level for a Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) Using Existing BS 4 Engine Results and 1-D Simulation Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0119
The emission legislations are becoming increasingly strict all over the world and India too has taken a big leap in this direction by signaling the migration from Bharat Stage 4 (BS 4) to BS 6 in the year 2020. This decision by the Indian government has provided the Indian automotive industry a new challenge to find the most optimal solution for this migration, with the existing BS 4 engines available in their portfolio. Indian market for the LCV segment is highly competitive and cost sensitive where the overall vehicle operation cost (vehicle cost + fluid consumption cost) is the most critical factor. The engine and after-treatment technology for BS 6 emission levels should consider the factors of minimizing the additional hardware cost as well as improving the fuel efficiency. Often both of which are inversely proportional. The presented study involves the optimization of after treatment component size, layout and various systems for NOx and PM reduction.
Journal Article

Optimization of Electrified Powertrains for City Cars

2012-06-01
2011-01-2451
Sustainable and energy-efficient consumption is a main concern in contemporary society. Driven by more stringent international requirements, automobile manufacturers have shifted the focus of development into new technologies such as Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs). These powertrains offer significant improvements in the efficiency of the propulsion system compared to conventional vehicles, but they also lead to higher complexities in the design process and in the control strategy. In order to obtain an optimum powertrain configuration, each component has to be laid out considering the best powertrain efficiency. With such a perspective, a simulation study was performed for the purpose of minimizing well-to-wheel CO2 emissions of a city car through electrification. Three different innovative systems, a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SHEV), a Mixed Hybrid Electric Vehicle (MHEV) and a Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) were compared to a conventional one.
Journal Article

Next-Generation Low-Voltage Power Nets Impacts of Advanced Stop/Start and Sailing Functionalities

2017-03-28
2017-01-0896
The range of tasks in automotive electrical system development has clearly grown and now includes goals such as achieving efficiency requirements and complying with continuously reducing CO2 limits. Improvements in the vehicle electrical system, hereinafter referred to as the power net, are mandatory to face the challenges of increasing electrical energy consumption, new comfort and assistance functions, and further electrification. Novel power net topologies with dual batteries and dual voltages promise a significant increase in efficiency with moderate technological and financial effort. Depending on the vehicle segment, either an extension of established 12 V micro-hybrid technologies or 48 V mild hybridization is possible. Both technologies have the potential to reduce fuel consumption by implementing advanced stop/start and sailing functionalities.
Technical Paper

NVH Target Cascading from Customer Interface to Vehicle Subsystems

2013-05-13
2013-01-1980
The definition of vehicle and powertrain level targets is one of the first tasks toward establishing where a vehicle will reside with respect to the current or future state of industry. Though development of sound quality metrics is ongoing to better correlate objective data with subjective assessments, target setting at the vehicle level is relatively straightforward. However, realization of these targets depends on effective cascading to system and component levels. Often, component level targets are derived based on experience from earlier development programs, or based on selected characteristics observed during component level benchmarking. An approach is presented here to complement current strategies for component level target definition. This approach involves a systematic concept for definition of component NVH targets based on desired vehicle level performance and a consequent target break down.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Insulated Exhaust Manifolds and Turbine Housings in Modern Diesel Engines for Emissions and Fuel Consumption Reduction

2016-04-05
2016-01-1003
Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines has led to a reduction in exhaust gas temperatures. The simultaneous tightening of exhaust emission limits requires ever more complex emission control methods, including aftertreatment whose efficiency is crucially dependent upon the exhaust gas temperature. Double-walled (also called air-gap) exhaust manifold and turbine housing modules made from sheet metal have been used in gasoline engines since 2009. They offer the potential in modern Diesel engines to reduce both the emissions of pollutants and fuel consumption. They also offer advantages in terms of component weight and surface temperatures in comparison to cast iron components. A detailed analysis was conducted to investigate the potential advantages of insulated exhaust systems for modern diesel engines equipped with DOC and SCR coated DPF (SDPF).
Technical Paper

Internal and External Measures for Catalyst Light-Off Support

2015-09-06
2015-24-2501
Within a project of the Research Association for Combustion Engines e.V., different measures for rising the temperature of exhaust gas aftertreatment components of both a passenger car and an industrial/commercial vehicle engine were investigated on a test bench as well as in simulation. With the passenger car diesel engine and different catalyst configurations, the potential of internal and external heating measures was evaluated. The configuration consisting of a NOx storage catalyst (NSC) and a diesel particulate filter (DPF) illustrates the potential of an electrically heated NSC. The exhaust aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and a DPF shows in simulation how variable valve timing in combination with electric heated DOC can be used to increase the exhaust gas temperature and thus fulfill the EU6 emission limits.
Technical Paper

In-Use Compliance Opportunity for Diesel Powertrains

2018-04-03
2018-01-0877
In-use compliance under LEV III emission standards, GHG, and fuel economy targets beyond 2025 poses a great opportunity for all ICE-based propulsion systems, especially for light-duty diesel powertrain and aftertreatment enhancement. Though diesel powertrains feature excellent fuel-efficiency, robust and complete emissions controls covering any possible operational profiles and duty cycles has always been a challenge. Significant dependency on aftertreatment calibration and configuration has become a norm. With the onset of hybridization and downsizing, small steps of improvement in system stability have shown a promising avenue for enhancing fuel economy while continuously improving emissions robustness. In this paper, a study of current key technologies and associated emissions robustness will be discussed followed by engine and aftertreatment performance target derivations for LEV III compliant powertrains.
Journal Article

Impact of Biomass-Derived Fuels on Soot Oxidation and DPF Regeneration Behavior

2013-04-08
2013-01-1551
To comply with the new regulations on particulate matter emissions, the manufacturers of light-duty as well as heavy-duty vehicles more commonly use diesel particulate filters (DPF). The regeneration of DPF depends to a significant extent on the properties of the soot stored. Within the Cluster of Excellence "Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass (TMFB)" at RWTH Aachen University, the Institute for Combustion Engines carried out a detailed investigation program to explore the potential of future biofuel candidates for optimized combustion systems. The experiments for particulate measurements and analysis were conducted on a EURO 6-compliant High Efficiency Diesel Combustion System (HECS) with petroleum-based diesel fuel as reference and a today's commercial biofuel (i.e., FAME) as well as a potential future biomass-derived fuel candidate (i.e., 2-MTHF/DBE). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) was used in this study to evaluate the oxidative reactivity of the soot.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 1.8L Down-Speeding Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Miller Cycle

2018-09-10
2018-01-1712
Upcoming China 4th stage of fuel consumption regulation and China 6a emission legislation require improvement of many existing engines. This paper summarizes an upgrade of combustion system and mechanical layout for a four-cylinder engine family. Based on an existing production process for a naturally aspirated 2.0-liter gasoline engine, a 1.8-liter down-speeded and turbocharged gasoline engine is derived. Starting development by analysis of engine base geometry, a layout for a Miller-Cycle gas exchange with early closing of intake valves is chosen. Requirements on turbocharger configuration are investigated with one-dimensional gas exchange simulation and combustion process will be analyzed by means of 3D-CFD simulation. Challenging boundary conditions of a very moderate long-stroke layout with a stroke/bore-ratio of only 1.037 in combination with a cost efficient port fuel injection system and fixed valve lift profiles are considered.
Technical Paper

Development of Combustion System for a 1-Liter Advanced Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection 3-Cylinder Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2243
In recent years, more attention has been focused on environment pollution and energy source issues. As a result, increasingly stringent fuel consumption and emission legislations have been implemented all over the world. For automakers, enhancing engine’s efficiency as a must contributes to lower vehicle fuel consumption. To reach this goal, Geely auto started the development of a 3-cylinder 1.0L turbocharged direct injection (TGDI) gasoline engine to achieve a challenging fuel economy target while maintaining fun-to-drive and NVH performance. Demanding development targets for performance (specific torque 205Nm/L and specific power 100kW/L) and excellent part-load BSFC were defined, which lead to a major challenge for the design of the combustion system. Considering air/fuel mixture, fuel wall impingement and even future potential for lean burn combustion, a symmetrical layout and a central position for the injector with 200bar injection pressure was determined.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Journal Article

Cylinder Pressure Based Fuel Path Control for Non-Conventional Combustion Modes

2015-09-06
2015-24-2508
Model-based control strategies along with an adapted calibration process become more important in the overall vehicle development process. The main drivers for this development trend are increasing numbers of vehicle variants and more complex engine hardware, which is required to fulfill the more and more stringent emission legislation and fuel consumption norms. Upcoming fundamental changes in the homologation process with EU 6c, covering an extended range of different operational and ambient conditions, are suspected to intensify this trend. One main reason for the increased calibration effort is the use of various complex aftertreatment technologies amongst different vehicle applications, requiring numerous combustion modes. The different combustion modes range from heating strategies for active Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration or early SCR light-off and rich combustion modes to purge the NOx storage catalyst (NSC) up to partially premixed combustion modes.
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