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Technical Paper

Weight and Friction Optimized Cranktrain Design Supported by Coupled CAE Tools

Due to the contradiction of the market demands and legal issues OEMs are forced to invest in finding concepts that assure high fuel economy, low exhaust emissions and high specific power at the same time. Since mechanical losses may amount up to 10 % of the fuel energy, a key to realise such customer/government specific demands is the improvement of the mechanical performance of the engines, which comprises mainly friction decrease and lightweight design of the engine parts. In order to achieve the mentioned objectives, it has to be checked carefully for each component whether the design potentials are utilized. Many experimental studies show that there is still room for optimization of the cranktrain parts, especially for the crankshaft. A total exploitation of the crankshaft potentials is only possible with advanced calculation approaches that ensure the component layout within design limits.
Technical Paper

Type Analysis of EGR-Strategies for Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) by Using Numerical Simulations and Optical Measurements

The main assignment of Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) operation range expansion is to reduce the burn rate or combustion noise at high load and to minimize misfire at low load. The potential of two principal EGR strategies is well known to initiate CAI in a wide range of operation map by using a variable train system: the Exhaust Port Recirculation (EPR) for higher part load and the Combustion Chamber Recirculation (CCR - also called Negative Valve Overlap) for lower part load. However the detailed comparison of the ignition phenomena with each EGR strategy has not been fully studied yet. In this paper, EPR and CCR were compared with same operational condition (engine speed and load). For the analysis, flame luminescence and Raman scattering method for optical measurement and STAR-CD (CD-adapco) for numerical simulation are used.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Cranktrain Design on Powertrain NVH

In the last few years the requirement to optimize powertrain noise and vibration has increased significantly. This was caused by the demand to fulfill the vehicle's exterior noise legislative limits in Europe, and by increased customer awareness for high ride comfort. Much effort concentrated on the engine and the powertrain as prime sources of noise and vibration in a vehicle. The cranktrain with its moving components is a significant source of noise and vibration excitation within the engine. This paper describes results of investigations to evaluate various design alternatives in respect to NVH. The influences of crankshaft material, of balancing rate and of secondary shaking forces are discussed, with the aim to evaluate these various design options.
Technical Paper

Strategies to Improve SI-Engine Performance by Means of Variable Intake Lift, Timing and Duration

This paper reports the results of theoretical and experimental investigations in the field of variable intake - valve control of spark-ignition engines. Different degrees of freedom for a variable intake profile such as variable intake opening and closing events, variable valve lift, as well as the deactivation of one of the intake valves per cylinder of a multi-valve engine are considered and evaluated concerning their potential to reduce pumping losses, to support mixture formation, and to improve combustion. The investigations show that additional efforts are necessary to convert the potential of minimized pumping losses due to unthrottled SI-engine load control into reduced fuel consumption and good driveability. Increased gas velocities during intake for low engine speed and load and adjusted residual-gas fractions according to the different operating conditions prove to be very efficient parameters to improve engine performance under unthrottled conditions.
Technical Paper

Simulation of the Piston and Piston Ring Dynamic

All reciprocating engines from the first Diesel engine to turbocharged formula 1 engines require a sealing of the combustion chamber. This sealing is realized by the compression rings. Today a set of two compression rings and one oil control ring is standard, the large variety of available solution demonstrate the continuous effort and attention paid to an optimized system performance since the first engine was started. The complexity of the interactions with the mechanical, thermal, thermodynamic, tribologic, dynamic behavior of the piston still requires mechanical testing of the various components before release to series production. This procedure can be shortened by use of simulation models reflecting the real behavior in detail to select the most promising combinations of components and characteristics.
Technical Paper

Simulation Method for Geartrain NVH Assessment and Optimization

Geartrain-related noise has become a more dominant noise concern mainly due to the increasing demand for high-pressure injection systems. Engine geartrain noise is mainly caused by torque fluctuations of the crankshaft and the injection system, both leading to tooth impacts between the gears of the geartrain. Gear impacts can generate dominant NVH problems due to the high frequency content of the gear impact forces, although their amplitudes are much lower than those of the combustion forces. If the natural frequencies of the surrounding structure are met, an intensive radiation of the surrounding structure is caused. FEV has developed a simulation method for the analysis of geartrain dynamics aimed at identifying and optimizing potential noise sources. This simulation method is an essential tool for the development process of a technical product. It realizes a minimum effort to set up the model at reduced calculation time.
Technical Paper

Primary Noise Reduction Measures on IDI Diesel Engines

The IDI diesel engine still offers a substantial development potential. One major advantage is its low fuel consumption and, hence, its low CO2 emission compared to gasoline engines. The disadvantage of its higher noise emission, however, requires particular attention in the development stage. By means of modern signal analysing and signal processing methods in combination with computer simulation methods new tools for the development of low noise Diesel engines are available. The noise emission of IDI diesel engines has on average been reduced by about 5 to 8 dBA within the last 15 years. This trend will continue further despite the introduction of more and more light weight design components. Today's IDI diesel engine is mainly dominated by high noise levels in the frequency range about 1600 to 2000 Hz. In-depth measurements show that this is generally caused by a high combustion excitation (Helmholtz-resonance) and, in addition, structure weaknesses of the crankcase.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Process Induced Vehicle Interior Noise

At the present time, combustion process effects on vehicle interior noise can be evaluated only when vehicle and engine are physically available. This Paper deals with a new method for the prediction of combustion process induced vehicle interior noise. The method can be applied already in early combustion system development and allows a time and cost efficient calibration optimization of engine and vehicle. After establishing appropriate transfer weighting functions (engine) and structure transfer functions (vehicle), audible vehicle interior noise is generated based on appropriate cylinder pressure analysis. Combustion process effects on interior noise can be judged subjectively as well as objectively. Thus, combustion process development at the thermodynamic test bench is effectively supported to achieve an optimal compromise with respect to fuel consumption, exhaust emission and interior noise quality.
Technical Paper

Potential Soot and CO Reduction for HSDI Diesel Combustion Systems

The current direction for Diesel combustion system development is towards homogenization, in order to reduce particulate and NOx emissions. However, a strong increase of carbon monoxide emissions (CO) is frequently noted in combination with enhanced homogenization. Therefore, the current investigation focuses on a detailed analysis of the particulate - CO trade-off using a laser-optical and multidimensional CFD investigation of the combustion process of a swirl HSDI system. The CFD methodology involves reduced kinetics for soot formation and oxidation and a three-step CO model. These models are validated by a detailed comparison to optical measurements of flow, spray penetration and the spatial distribution of soot, temperature and oxygen concentration. The results obtained show that high concentrations of CO occur as an intermediate combustion reaction product. Subsequently, CO and soot are oxidized in large areas of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Plain Bearings in High Performance Engines - Simulation Tools for Advanced Investigations and Layouts

The loads on the plain bearings of modern combustion engines increase continuously. Reasons for this development are increasing engine speeds on gasoline engines, growing cylinder peak pressures at diesel engines and both combined with the steady trend toward light weight concepts. The still significantly increasing power output of modern engines has to be combined with actions reducing the engine friction losses, as for example smaller bearing dimensions or lower engine oil viscosities. At the same time the comfort, lifetime and engine service interval targets are aggravating boundary conditions. This development leads to the point, where former approaches toward plain bearing layout reach their systematic limitations - a first indication are bearing failures, which occur even though all conventional layout criteria's are fulfilled. Further effects need to be considered to simulate the behavior of the plain bearing under the boundary conditions of a fired combustion engine.
Technical Paper

PIFFO - Piston Friction Force Measurements During Engine Operation

Fuel consumption of a modern combustion engine is significantly influenced by the mechanical friction losses. Particularly in typical city driving, the reduction of the engine friction losses offers a remarkable potential in emission and fuel consumption reduction. The analysis of the engine friction distribution of modern engines shows that the piston group has a high share at total engine friction. This offers a high potential to optimize piston group friction. The paper presents results of recent research and development work in the field of the tribological system piston/piston ring/cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

Methods to Analyze Non-Regulated Emissions from Diesel Engines

Passenger cars with diesel engines have better fuel economy than cars with gasoline engines. Also diesel engines typically have lower HC and CO emissions than all but the very best, state-of-the-art gasoline engines. On the other hand, diesel NOx and particulate emissions are higher, but recent developments have significantly reduced diesel particulate emissions. While the regulated emissions from both engines are well known, there are relatively few data on the non-regulated emissions for modern diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Lubrication and Ventilation System of Modern Engines - Measurements, Calculations and Analysis

The main function of an engine's lubrication system is to supply the different engine components with sufficient oil under all operating conditions. The demand of modern engines regarding the necessary oil pressure and flow of the individual components is influenced by the engine speeds and the accelerations due to the vehicle driving conditions. In addition to that, the lubrication system effects the following topics: The drive power of the oil pump which is influenced by the oil pump capacity, the oil pressure and mechanical losses of the oil pump. The oil mass which is supplied to the engine oil consumers and flows back via the oil return system to the crankcase and the oil pan. In the crankcase ventilation system, oil and gas have to be separated. The oil aeration due to the oil mass in the crankcase and the moving parts. The ventilation losses in the crankcase which are influenced by the axial ventilation areas and the moved oil mass.
Technical Paper

Lean-Combustion Spark-Ignition Engine Exhaust Aftertreatment Using Non Thermal Plasma

Dielectric barrier discharges offer the advantage to excite molecules to reaction processes on a low temperature level in an O2 containing exhaust gas of gasoline or diesel engines. With the aim of a flexible coaxial reactor and a compact and efficient generator the influence of geometric and electric parameters on the reduction of exhaust gas components was determined. Geometric parameters studied were gap width, length, contour of the reactor. Electric parameters were: voltage curve, voltage height, frequency and electric power. Using the advantage of low temperature reactions it was possible to reduce the HC emission of a gasoline engine by about 35% within an electric power of 1000 W.
Technical Paper

Intelligent Alcohol Fuel Sensor

For the use in flexible fuel vehicles able to operate with mixtures of alcohol fuels and gasoline, an intelligent alcohol sensor has been developed. Based on the measurement of the dielectric constant, this sensor overcomes the problems with optical measuring principles; these problems are due to sensitivity to different contents of aromatics. To increase the accuracy, a microprocessor evaluates the input signals (dielectric constant and other parameters). Thus, a compensation of misdetection due to impurities can also be achieved. The output characteristic of the sensor can be chosen freely; the output voltage can correspond to the alcohol content as well as to the required correction factor for the injection time.
Technical Paper

Effect of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter on Non-Regulated Emissions and Particle Size Distribution

The reduction of particulate emissions from diesel engines is one of the most challenging problems associated with exhaust pollution control, second only to the control of NOx from any “lean burn” application. Particulate emissions can be controlled by adjustments to the combustion parameters of a diesel engine but these measures normally result in increased emissions of oxides of nitrogen. Diesel particulate filters (DPFs) hold out the prospect of substantially reducing regulated particulate emissions and the task of actually removing the particles from the exhaust gas has been solved by the development of effective filtration materials. The question of the reliable regeneration of these filters in situ, however, remains a difficult hurdle. Many of the solutions proposed to date suffer from high engineering complexity and/or high energy demand. In addition some have special disadvantages under certain operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Diesel Additive Technology Effects on Injector Hole Erosion/Corrosion, Injector Fouling and Particulate Traps

Fuel additives can contribute to maintaining the performance of diesel engines in a variety of ways. This holds true for current and future engine technology. Fouling of indirect injection engines (IDI) has been studied at length. Fouling of direct injection engines (Dl) is less known and less well understood. Problems associated with Dl fouling and a proposed mechanism for it are discussed. Additive effectiveness in preventing injector fouling is confirmed. Injector hole corrosion/erosion, as experienced in the Cummins N14 engine, can be avoided by the appropriate additive chemistry. Particulate traps can also benefit from ashless additive technology aimed at increasing the time between regeneration steps, hence improving effective trap life.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Combustion Noise Optimization

Combustion noise plays a considerable role in the acoustic tuning of gasoline and diesel engines. Even though noise levels of modern diesel engines reach extremely low values, they are still higher than those of conventional gasoline engines. On the other hand, new combustion procedures designed to improve fuel consumption lead to elevated combustion noise excitations as in case of today's direct injecting gasoline engines whose vibration excitation and airborne noise emissions are slightly increased during stratified operation. The partly conflicting development goals resulting from this can only be realized by integrating the NVH specialists' expertise into every development step from concept to SOP.
Technical Paper

Comparison Studies on the Method of Characteristics and Finite Difference Methods for One-Dimensional Gas Flow through IC Engine Manifold

A comparison study on the commonly used solution schemes of one-dimensional gas flow in IC engine manifolds, i.e. the method of characteristics and the finite difference schemes, was conducted in this paper. The study was based on computer simulations of the flow in a typical pipe-volume configuration under both steady and unsteady boundary conditions. The simulation results indicate that all the solution schemes offered fairly good accuracy in parallel pipes under steady flow conditions. However, under unsteady flow conditions, especially in tapered pipes commonly used in IC engine manifolds, all the existing solution schemes encountered difficulties. These included such aspects as the mass and energy conservation, non-physical overshoot, solution stability and physical process distortion. The solution schemes were compared based on the case calculations and the related problems are specified.
Technical Paper

Borderline Design of Crankshafts Based on Hybrid Simulation Technology

This paper introduces different modeling approaches of crankshafts, compares the refinement levels and discusses the difference between the results of the crankshaft durability calculation methodologies. A V6 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the refinement levels depending on the deviation between the signals such as main bearing forces and deflection angle. Although a good correlation is observed between the results in low speed range, the deviation is evident through the mid to high speed ranges. The deviation amplitude differs depending on the signal being observed and model being used. An inline 4 crankshaft is considered for the comparison of the durability results. The analysis results show that the durability potential is underestimated with a classical crankshaft calculation approach which leads to a limitation of maximum speed of 5500 rpm.