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Technical Paper

The Effect of Cranktrain Design on Powertrain NVH

In the last few years the requirement to optimize powertrain noise and vibration has increased significantly. This was caused by the demand to fulfill the vehicle's exterior noise legislative limits in Europe, and by increased customer awareness for high ride comfort. Much effort concentrated on the engine and the powertrain as prime sources of noise and vibration in a vehicle. The cranktrain with its moving components is a significant source of noise and vibration excitation within the engine. This paper describes results of investigations to evaluate various design alternatives in respect to NVH. The influences of crankshaft material, of balancing rate and of secondary shaking forces are discussed, with the aim to evaluate these various design options.
Technical Paper

Sound Design Under the Aspects of Musical Harmonic Theory

Sound design of vehicle interior and exterior noise is becoming more and more important for the customer's impression of product quality. To accommodate for this, FEV has developed a sound design method that utilizes FEV VINS (Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation) to design series production relevant hardware modifications. Within a new internal research program, FEV's NVH specialists investigated the theory of musical harmonics and compared the results with engine acoustics in an effort to establish if and what mechanical acoustics can learn from musical harmonics. Looking at engine acoustics from the point of view of musical harmonic theory, the specific combination of half and integer engine orders in particular offers the possibility of creating harmonious noise content. Furthermore, we can estimate how the typical subjective evaluations derive from the integer and half engine orders that occur depending on the engine concept.
Technical Paper

Sound Character of Electric Vehicles

The electrification of vehicle propulsion has caused a significant change in many areas including the world of vehicle acoustics. Comments from the media currently range from “silently hums the future” to “electric car roars with V8 sound”. Decades of experience in designing brand-specific vehicle sound based on noise and vibration generated by combustion engines cannot be simply transferred to the upcoming vehicles driven purely by electric powertrains. Although electric vehicles are almost always considerably quieter than those powered by internal combustion engines, the interior noise is characterized by high-frequency noise components which can be subjectively perceived as annoying and unpleasant. Moreover, such disturbing noise is no longer masked by combustion engine noise. Fundamental questions regarding the sound design of electric vehicles have yet to be answered: it remains unclear what exactly the interior noise of an electric vehicle should sound like.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Process Induced Vehicle Interior Noise

At the present time, combustion process effects on vehicle interior noise can be evaluated only when vehicle and engine are physically available. This Paper deals with a new method for the prediction of combustion process induced vehicle interior noise. The method can be applied already in early combustion system development and allows a time and cost efficient calibration optimization of engine and vehicle. After establishing appropriate transfer weighting functions (engine) and structure transfer functions (vehicle), audible vehicle interior noise is generated based on appropriate cylinder pressure analysis. Combustion process effects on interior noise can be judged subjectively as well as objectively. Thus, combustion process development at the thermodynamic test bench is effectively supported to achieve an optimal compromise with respect to fuel consumption, exhaust emission and interior noise quality.
Technical Paper

Powertrain-related vehicle sound development

This paper reflects an efficient and comprehensive approach for vehicle sound optimization integrated into the entire development process. It shows the benefits of early consideration of typical vehicle NVH features and of intensive interaction of P/T and vehicle responsibilities. The process presented here considers the typical restriction that acoustically representative prototypes of engines and vehicles are not available simultaneously at the early development phase. For process optimization at this stage, a method for vehicle interior noise estimation is developed, which bases on measurements from the P/T test bench only, while the vehicle transfer behavior for airborne and structure-borne noise is assumed to be similar to a favorable existing vehicle. This method enables to start with the pre- optimization of the pure P/T and its components by focusing on such approaches which are mainly relevant for the vehicle interior noise.
Technical Paper

Plain Bearings in High Performance Engines - Simulation Tools for Advanced Investigations and Layouts

The loads on the plain bearings of modern combustion engines increase continuously. Reasons for this development are increasing engine speeds on gasoline engines, growing cylinder peak pressures at diesel engines and both combined with the steady trend toward light weight concepts. The still significantly increasing power output of modern engines has to be combined with actions reducing the engine friction losses, as for example smaller bearing dimensions or lower engine oil viscosities. At the same time the comfort, lifetime and engine service interval targets are aggravating boundary conditions. This development leads to the point, where former approaches toward plain bearing layout reach their systematic limitations - a first indication are bearing failures, which occur even though all conventional layout criteria's are fulfilled. Further effects need to be considered to simulate the behavior of the plain bearing under the boundary conditions of a fired combustion engine.
Technical Paper

PIFFO - Piston Friction Force Measurements During Engine Operation

Fuel consumption of a modern combustion engine is significantly influenced by the mechanical friction losses. Particularly in typical city driving, the reduction of the engine friction losses offers a remarkable potential in emission and fuel consumption reduction. The analysis of the engine friction distribution of modern engines shows that the piston group has a high share at total engine friction. This offers a high potential to optimize piston group friction. The paper presents results of recent research and development work in the field of the tribological system piston/piston ring/cylinder bore.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Diesel Powered Sedans with Special Emphasis on Diesel Clatter Noise and Powertrain Harshness

NVH refinement of passenger vehicles is crucial to customer acceptance of contemporary vehicles. This paper describes the vehicle NVH development process, with specific examples from a Diesel sedan application that was derived from gasoline engine-based vehicle architecture. Using an early prototype Diesel vehicle as a starting point, this paper examines the application of a Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) technique in the development process. Accordingly, structureborne and airborne noise shares are analyzed in the time-domain under both steady-state and transient test conditions. The results are used to drive countermeasure development to address structureborne and airborne noise refinement. Examples are provided to highlight the refinement process for “Diesel knocking” under idle as well as transient test conditions. Specifically, the application of VINS to understanding the influence of high frequency dynamic stiffness of hydro-mounts on Diesel clatter noise is examined.
Technical Paper

NVH Optimization of the 1.2L DIATA Engine

Within the PNGV program, very challenging targets in respect to vehicle fuel economy were set. These could not be met with today's gasoline engines and driveline concepts. One possible alternative approach is a hybrid vehicle with a small displacement engine that exceeds the fuel economy of conventional engines: the 1.2L DIATA (Direct-Injection-Aluminum-Throughbolt-Assembly) engine. Within the development of a CIDI engine the NVH aspects are of particular importance as the customer (i.e., driver) should not notice any negative difference to gasoline engines. Therefore, gasoline engine transparency in respect to NVH was one primary goal within the development process. This paper describes the implementation of NVH features into the engine design already in the initial concept design phases, and the consequent NVH optimization throughout the development phase.
Technical Paper

NVH Optimization of an In-Line 4-Cylinder Powertrain

The NVH optimization is a key issue for the development of future powertrains. This includes the radiated noise in terms of noise level and sound quality as well as the structure-borne noise excitation via the engine mounts. Experience shows that there are generally no single noise relevant components on modern powertrains which dominate the NVH behaviour. In contrast, a good NVH performance can only be achieved if the optimization process includes every single component and excitation. Only the combination of these optimized designs can lead to a first-class powertrain NVH. Within this paper the NVH optimization process of an existing 4-cylinder in-line spark-ignition powertrain is described. Examples for positive NVH designs are presented and their effect on the NVH behaviour are explained. Combining all positive NVH features into the engine resulted in a noise reduction of 3-5 dBA without any negative effect on fuel economy and performance.
Technical Paper

Interior Noise Simulation for Improved Vehicle Sound

In the recent past, interior noise quality has developed into a decisive aspect for the evaluation of overall vehicle quality. At most operating points, the dominating interior noise share is generated by the powertrain. Interior noise simulation is a new tool for upgrading interior noise. Based on measurements of air- and structure-borne noise excitations caused by the powertrain, the interior noise shares are determined by applying the properties of the transfer paths. By superimposing the individual interior noise shares, the overall interior noise can be predicted. Well before the engine is operated in the vehicle for the first time, annoying interior noise shares, their causes and their transfer paths can be identified by subjective and objective analysis. This enables the engineer to focus on vital optimization measures as to excitations occurring at the engine as well as to transfer paths in the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Driveline Boom Interior Noise Prediction Based on Multi Body Simulation

It is important to develop powertrain NVH characteristics with the goal of ultimately influencing/improving the in-vehicle NVH behavior since this is what matters to the end customer. One development tool called dB(VINS) based on a process called Vehicle Interior Noise Simulation (VINS) is used for determining interior vehicle noise based on powertrain level measurements (mount vibration and radiated noise) in combination with standardized vehicle transfer functions. Although this method is not intended to replace a complete transfer path analysis and does not take any vehicle specific sensitivity into account, it allows for powertrain-induced interior vehicle noise assessments without having an actual test vehicle available. Such a technique allows for vehicle centric powertrain NVH development right from an early vehicle development stage.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Combustion Noise Optimization

Combustion noise plays a considerable role in the acoustic tuning of gasoline and diesel engines. Even though noise levels of modern diesel engines reach extremely low values, they are still higher than those of conventional gasoline engines. On the other hand, new combustion procedures designed to improve fuel consumption lead to elevated combustion noise excitations as in case of today's direct injecting gasoline engines whose vibration excitation and airborne noise emissions are slightly increased during stratified operation. The partly conflicting development goals resulting from this can only be realized by integrating the NVH specialists' expertise into every development step from concept to SOP.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Powertrain Noise with Special Emphasis on Impulsive Noise

NVH refinement is an important aspect of the powertrain development process. Powertrain NVH refinement is influenced by overall sound levels as well as sound quality. The sound quality and hence the level of powertrain NVH refinement can be negatively affected by the presence of excessive impulsive noise. This paper describes a process used to develop an understanding of impulsive powertrain noise. The paper begins with an introductory discussion of various sources of impulsive noise in an automotive powertrain. Following this, the paper outlines a process for identifying the source of the impulsive powertrain noise using examples from case studies. The remainder of the paper focuses on certain examples of impulsive noise such as Diesel knocking noise, injector ticking, impulsive cranktrain noise, and gear rattle. For these examples, the development of key objective metrics, optimization measures, and improvement potential are examined.
Journal Article

Aspects of NVH Integration in Hybrid Vehicles

NVH refinement is an important aspect of the powertrain development and vehicle integration process. The depletion of fossil-based fuels and increase in price of gasoline have prompted most vehicle manufacturers to embrace propulsion technologies with varying degrees and types of hybridization. Many different hybrid vehicle systems are either on the market, or under development, even up to all-electric vehicles. Each hybrid vehicle configuration brings unique NVH challenges that result from a variety of sources. This paper begins with an introductory discussion of hybrid propulsion technologies and associated unique vehicle NVH challenges inherent in the operation of such hybrid vehicles. Following this, the paper outlines a two-dimensional landscape of typical customer vehicle maneuvers mapped against hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) operational modes.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Driveline Integration for Optimized Vehicle NVH Characteristics

Customer requirements for quiet and more comfortable vehicles have steadily increased. Requirements for lightweight vehicle designs and the need for more fuel efficient engines are often contradictory to the customer expectations for NVH refinement. The driveline can be a significant source of NVH issues in the vehicle. The increasing complexity of modern driveline systems as well as the existence of several variants in the driveline architecture (front wheel, rear wheel and four-wheel/all-wheel drive, automatic-, manual-, automatic-shifted manual transmission, etc.) can make the driveline integration task very challenging. Due to the multitude of driveline components and potential driveline excitations sources, several driveline-related noise and vibration problems within different frequency ranges have to be understood and controlled to ensure a well refined vehicle.
Technical Paper

Analytical Investigation of Crankshaft Dynamics as a Virtual Engine Module

A combined finite element method (FEM), multibody system simulation (MSS), and hydrodynamic (HD) bearing simulation technique can be applied to solve for engine crankshaft and cylinder block dynamics. The cylinder block and crankshaft are implemented in the MSS program as flexible FEM structures. The main bearing oil film reaction is described in the MSS program by a pre-calculated reaction force database. The results are displacements and deformations of the crank train parts and the main bearing reaction forces. Verification of the tool was carried out by comparison of main bearing cap accelerations to measured data.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Transient Noise Behavior of a Truck Diesel Engine

Based on NVH tests conducted on a heavy-duty turbocharged DI diesel engine, noise relevant differences between steady-state and transient operating condition were investigated. A vehicle drive-by test simulating the effects of vehicle mass and inertia was performed, followed by transient NVH measurements in a semi-anechoic test cell. Steady-state noise was exceeded by 5 dBA during transient operation due to broadband increase of noise excitation combined with structure resonance amplification. Transient noise results mainly from “harsher” combustion as a consequence of enlarged ignition delay indicated by significant increase in maximum cylinder pressure gradient. Variation of geartrain excitation and combustion excitation revealed that geartrain noise is of minor importance in this context.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Dynamic Interactions in Valve Train Systems of IC- Engines by Using a Simulation Model

In order to evaluate the dynamic behavior of IC-engines simulation models are being applied at an ever increasing rate. The simulation models used of until now, were calculation models for an individual valve train. These models were not capable of analysing the interactions of bending and torsional vibrations between individual valve trains of a complete camshaft. For this reason a calculation model has been developed which comprises the entire valve train from the drive gear of the camshaft to the last valve. The camshaft is represented by a combined bending and torsional vibration model with elastic bearings. Combining this model with a camshaft-drive-system simulation model, it is possible to record interactions between the individual valve trains of a complete cylinder head. Bending and torsional effects in the camshaft and effects resulting from the chain or belt forces are taken into consideration.
Technical Paper

A New Technique for Measuring the Deformation of Cylinder Bores During Engine Operation

The distortion of the cylinder liners of internal combustion engines has a significant affect on engine operation. It can affect the lubrication oil consumption, the blow-by, the wear behaviour and due to the friction, the fuel consumption. In order to achieve future requirements regarding exhaust emissions and fuel consumption, the requirements for low cylinder distortion engine blocks will play a significant role. Hence, a new technique to determine liner distortion during fired engine operation was developed.