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Technical Paper

Turbocharging of Downsized Gasoline DI Engines with 2 and 3 Cylinders

Turbocharged DISI engines with four cylinders have established in the market and provide a performance comparable to larger six-cylinder engines in the smaller compartment of a four-cylinder engine. In the Japanese market, also turbo gasoline engines with 500 - 660 cm₃ displacement have a long tradition in Kei-Cars. However, those engines show a lower specific performance as would be required for propelling typical small or compact vehicles in Europe. Recently, two-cylinder turbo engines have come to market, which are found attractive with respect to sound, package, and also enable low vehicle fuel consumption in NEDC test. The paper presents a turbocharger layout study on 2- and 3-cylinder engines. It discusses the influence of cylinder displacement volume on the sizing of turbines and compressors, and how specific flow phenomena in the turbine can be captured in the simulation model.
Technical Paper

Synergies of Variable Valve Actuation and Direct Injection

The main goal in the development of new automobile SI engines is to significantly reduce fuel consumption. To this end both, variable valve actuation and direct gasoline injection, are being pursued as new engine concepts. Both approaches appear to offer approximately the same potential to reduce fuel consumption. The development so far is creating the impression of two competing technical concepts with no obvious way to combine them [1]. The two engine concepts, however, can be combined, although it is often objected that their combination would only yield marginal additional potential. That is true to the extent that the advantages of dethrottling offered by both of the concepts can only be counted once in terms of overall potential. But there is a number of additional effects to be taken into account. This Paper represents an analysis of the individual potential of the two approaches as well as an estimation of their combined potential.
Technical Paper

Specific Durability Testing with FEV Master Program

During the past years, there has been an increasing tendency to seriously question and break up old and ingrained structures in combustion engine testing. The reason for this is the continuously increasing number of engine and vehicle variants and a variety of applications resulting from it, which significantly push up development costs and times when carrying out the classical testing patterns. The following article by FEV Motorentechnik GmbH introduces a comprehensive test methodology for purposeful endurance testing of modern drive units (in particular from the fields of passenger cars and commercial vehicles). The procedure and the testing philosophy are explained in detail, illustrated by a concrete development example.
Technical Paper

Sound Quality and Engine Performance Development Utilizing Air-to-Air Simulation and Interior Noise Synthesis

The sound quality and performance of an automotive engine are both significantly influenced by the “air-to-air” system, i.e., the intake system, the exhaust system, and the engine gas dynamics. Only a full systems approach can result in an optimized air-to-air system, which fulfills engine performance requirements, overall sound pressure level targets for airborne vehicle noise, as well as sound quality demands. This paper describes an approach, which considers the intake system, engine, and exhaust system within one CAE model that can be utilized for engine performance calculations as well as acoustic simulations. Examples comparing simulated and measured sound are discussed. Finally, the simulated sound (e.g., at the tailpipe of the exhaust system) is combined with an interior noise simulation technique to evaluate its influence inside the vehicle's interior.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Endurance and Thermo Cycle Testing for Highly Loaded HSDI Diesel Cylinder Heads

Due to today's demands to reduce cost and product time to market, engineering procedures are increasingly using more sophisticated simulation techniques, instead of validation testing. Early implementation of CAE methods yield higher quality products, even with first prototypes, reducing the design iterations required to reach production quality. The strategy is to conduct specific evaluations of a realistic representation of the product while focusing on the key boundary conditions necessary to extract fatigue effects. Discussed in this paper are adequate CAE methods for early identification, evaluation and removal of conceptual and local structural weaknesses. Possible solutions gained from a computational optimization process are discussed for highly loaded HSDI diesel cylinder heads as a representative example.
Journal Article

Quantitative Fuel-Air-Mixing Measurements in Diesel-Like Sprays Emanating from Convergent and Divergent Multi-Layer Nozzles

It is the objective of this work to characterize mixture formation in the sprays emanating from Multi-Layer (ML) nozzles under approximately engine-like conditions by quantitative, spatially, and temporally resolved fuel-air ratio and temperature measurements. ML nozzles are cluster nozzles which have more than one circle of orifices. They were introduced previously, in order to overcome the limitations of conventional nozzles. In particular, the ML design yields the potential of variable spray interaction, so that mixture formation could be controlled according to the operating condition. In general, it was also a primary aim of the cluster-nozzle concepts to combine the enhanced atomization and pre-mixing of small nozzle holes with the longer spray penetration lengths of large holes. The applied diagnostic, which is based on 1d spontaneous Raman scattering, yields the quantitative stoichiometric ratio and the temperature in the vapor phase.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Hydrodynamic Bearing Behaviour for Pre-layout of Cranktrain Dimensions

Calculating the bearing reliability and behavior is one of the primary tasks which have to be performed to define the main dimensions of the cranktrain of an internal combustion engine. Since the bearing results are essential for the pre-layout of the cranktrain, the conclusion on the bearing safety should be met as early as possible. Therefore detailed simulations like T-EHD or EHD analysis may not be applied to define the dimensions in such an early development phase. In the frame of this study a prediction methodology, based on a HD bearing approach, for bearing reliability of inline-4 crankshafts of passenger cars is proposed. In this way not only the design phase is shortened but also achieving the optimal solution is simplified. Moreover the requirement of a CAD model is eliminated for the preliminary design phase. The influencing parameters on the bearing behavior are first selected and divided into two groups: geometry and loading.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Combustion Delay and -Duration of Homogeneous Charge Gasoline Engines based on In-Cylinder Flow Simulation

In this paper a new approach is presented to evaluate the combustion behaviour of homogeneous gasoline engines by predicting burn delay and -duration in a way which can be obtained under the time constraints of the development process. This is accomplished by means of pure in-cylinder flow simulations without a classical combustion model. The burn delay model is based on the local distribution of the turbulent flow near the spark plug. It features also a methodology to compare different designs regarding combustion stability. The correlation for burn duration uses a turbulent characteristic number that is obtained from the turbulent flow in the combustion chamber together with a model for the turbulent burning velocity. The results show good agreement with the combustion process of the analyzed engines.
Technical Paper

Potential of the Spray-guided Combustion System in Combination with Turbocharging

Based on the TurboDISI engine presented earlier [1], [2], a new Spray Guided Turbo (SGT) concept with enhanced engine performance was developed. The turbocharged engine was modified towards utilizing a spray-guided combustion system with a central piezo injector location. Higher specific power and torque levels were achieved by applying specific design and cooling solutions. The engine was developed utilizing a state-of-the-art newly developed charge motion design (CMD) process in combination with single cylinder investigations. The engine control unit has a modular basis and is realized using rapid prototyping hardware. Additional fuel consumption potentials can be achieved with high load EGR, use of alternative fuels and a hybrid powertrain. The CO2 targets of the EU (120 g/km by 2012 in the NEDC) can be obtained with a mid-size vehicle applying the technologies presented within this paper.
Journal Article

Performance Assessment of a Multi-Functional Reactor Under Conventional and Advanced Combustion Diesel Engine Exhaust Conditions

Current progress in the development of diesel engines substantially contributes to the reduction of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will not succeed to eliminate the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) in the future. In the past we have introduced a Multi-Functional Reactor (MFR) prototype, suitable for the abatement of the gaseous and PM emissions of the Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) engine operation. In this work the performance of MFR prototypes under both conventional and advanced combustion engine operating conditions is presented. The effect of the MFR on the fuel penalty associated to the filter regeneration is assessed via simulation. Special focus is placed on presenting the performance assessment in combination with the existing differences in the morphology and reactivity of the soot particles between the different modes of diesel engine operation (conventional and advanced). The effect of aging on the MFR performance is also presented.
Technical Paper

Optimized Layout of Gasoline Engines for Hybrid Powertrains

Due to the complex powertrain layout in hybrid vehicles, different configurations concerning internal combustion engine, electric motor and transmission can be combined - as is demonstrated by currently produced hybrid vehicles ([1], [2]). At the Institute for Combustion Engines (VKA) at RWTH Aachen University a combination of simulation, Design of Experiments (DoE) and numerical optimization methods was used to optimize the combustion engine, the powertrain configuration and the operation strategy in hybrid powertrains. A parametric description allows a variation of the main hybrid parameters. Parallel as well as power-split hybrid powertrain configurations were optimized with regard to minimum fuel consumption in the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Besides the definition of the optimum configuration for engine, powertrain and operation strategy this approach offers the possibility to predict the fuel consumption for any modifications of the hybrid powertrains.
Technical Paper

Opposed Piston Opposed Cylinder (opoc™) 450 hp Engine: Performance Development by CAE Simulations and Testing

The new opoc™ diesel engine concept was presented at the SAE 2005 World Congress [1]. Exceptional power density of >1hp/lb and >40% efficiency have been predicted for the 2-stroke opoc™ diesel engine concept. Intensive CAE simulations have been performed during the concept and design phase in order to define the baseline scavenging and combustion parameters, such as port timing, turbocharger configuration and fuel injection nozzle design. Under a DARPA contract, first prototype engines have been built and have undergone a validation testing program. The main goal of the first testing phase was to demonstrate the power output capability of the new engine concept. In close relationship and interaction of testing and CAE simulation, the uniflow scavenging process and parameters of the special diesel direct side injection have been optimized. This paper discusses the latest results of the opoc engine development.
Technical Paper

Oil Aeration in Combustion Engines - Analysis and Optimization

Like all technical fluids, lubricants are able to solve gases. While solved gas is a neutral part of the lubricant, dissolved gas has an influence especially on the compressibility behavior. The effects of oil aeration on engine drive causes malfunctions of several components. A successful optimization of the oil circulation concerning the oil aeration presupposes a safe and reproducible measuring procedure. The FEV has developed a measurement apparatus according to the principle of the volume measurement which allows a simple but efficient oil aeration measurement.
Technical Paper

Modern Gear Train Simulation Process for the Virtual Engine and Transmission Development

Current simulation tools for the investigation of the dynamic system response as well as for the component stresses on the basis of multi-body and finite-element techniques are integral part of today's powertrain development efforts. These tools are typical used for the analysis and optimization of shafts, clutches, chain/belt drives, bearings, levers, brackets, housings and many other components. An exception is made by gears which today are still frequently investigated by the help of semi-empirical methods based on DIN, ISO, AGMA and the specific knowledge base of well experienced developers. The main difficulty is that the gears are rolling off via large contact surfaces with complex nonlinear mechanical contact properties. Within the scope of research work FEV developed a new method for the analysis and optimization of gear drives based on comercial multi-body and finite-element software platforms.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Exhaust Valve Opening in a Camless Engine

Electromechanical valve trains in camless engines enable virtually fully variable valve timing that offers large potential for both part load fuel economy and high low end torque. Based upon the principle of a spring-mass-oscillator, the actuator stores the energy to open and close the valves in springs. However, the motion of the valves and the electromechanical actuation suffers from parasitic losses, such as friction and ohmic resistance. Besides eddy current losses, gas forces obviously play a further important role in the control of exhaust valve opening especially at high engine speeds and loads. Based on engine test bench data, computational simulations (3D CFD, gas exchange process and electromechanical system) are carried out to analyze the effects of exhaust valve gas forces on the dynamic motion of valve and actuator. The modeling approach and results of this investigation are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Testing - Still Necessary!

Over the last decades, the use of computers has become an integral part of the engine development process. Computer-based tools are increasingly used in the design process, and especially the layout of the various subsystems is conducted by means of simulation models. Computer-aided engineering plays a central role e.g. in the design of the combustion process as well as with regards to work performed in the area of engine mechanics, where CFD, FEM, and MBS are applied. As a parallel trend, it can be observed that various engine performance characteristics such as e.g. the specific power output and the power-to-weight ratio have undergone an enormous increase, a trend which to some extent counteracts the increase in safety against malfunction and failure. As yet, due to the constant need for further optimization, mechanical testing and verification processes have not become redundant, and it is assumed that they will remain indispensable for the foreseeable future.
Technical Paper

Low fuel consumption and low emissions~Electromechanical valve train in vehicle operation

The electromechanical valve train (EMV) technology allows for a reduction in fuel consumption while operating under a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio and preserves the ability to use conventional exhaust gas aftertreatment technology with a 3-way catalyst. Compared with an engine with a camshaft-driven valve train, the variable valve timing concept makes possible an additional optimization of cold start, warm-up and transient operation. In contrast with the conventionally throttled engine, optimized control of load and in-cylinder gas movement can be used for each individual cylinder and engine cycle. A load control strategy using a "Late Intake Valve Open" (LIO) provides a reduction in start-up HC emissions of approximately 60%. Due to reduced wall-wetting, the LIO control strategy improves the transition from start to idle.
Technical Paper

Low Emission Concept for SULEV

Today, SULEV legislation represents the most stringent emission standard for vehicles with combustion engines, and it will be introduced starting by Model Year 2003. In order to meet such standards, even higher effort is required for the development of the exhaust gas emission concept of SI engines. Beyond a facelift of the combustion system, exhaust gas aftertreatment, and the engine management system, new approaches are striven for. The principle keys are well known: low HC feed gas, high thermal load for quick light-off, exhaust system with low heat capacity and highly effective exhaust gas aftertreatment.
Technical Paper

LOTUS: A Co-operation for Low Temperature Urea-Based Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx

The European research co-operation Lotus is presented. The main objectives of the project were i) to show the potential for a urea-based SCR system to comply with the EU standard of years 2005 and 2008 for heavy-duty Diesel engines for different driving conditions with optimal fuel consumption, ii) to reach 95 % conversion of NOx at steady state at full load on a Euro III engine, iii) to reach 75 % NOx reduction for exhaust temperatures between 200-300°C, and 85 % average NOx reduction between 200-500°C. The energy content of the consumed urea should not exceed 1.0 %, calculated as specific fuel consumption. These targets were met in May 2003 and the Lotus SCR system fulfilled the Euro V NOx legislative objectives for year 2008.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Predictive Models for Application in Engine Cold-Start Behavior

The modern engine development process is characterized by shorter development cycles and a reduced number of prototypes. However, simultaneously exhaust after-treatment and emission testing is becoming increasingly more sophisticated. It is expected that predictive simulation tools that encompass the entire powertrain can potentially improve the efficiency of the calibration process. The testing of an ECU using a HiL system requires a real-time model. Additionally, if the initial parameters of the ECU are to be defined and tested, the model has to be more accurate than is typical for ECU functional testing. It is possible to enhance the generalization capability of the simulation, with neuronal network sub-models embedded into the architecture of a physical model, while still maintaining real-time execution. This paper emphasizes the experimental investigation and physical modeling of the port fuel injected SI engine.