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Journal Article

Very High Cycle Fatigue of Cast Aluminum Alloys under Variable Humidity Levels

2015-04-14
2015-01-0556
Ultrasonic fatigue tests (testing frequency around 20 kHz) have been conducted on four different cast aluminum alloys each with a distinct composition, heat treatment, and microstructure. Tests were performed in dry air, laboratory air and submerged in water. For some alloys, the ultrasonic fatigue lives were dramatically affected by the environment humidity. The effects of different factors like material composition, yield strength, secondary dendrite arm spacing and porosity were investigated; it was concluded that the material strength may be the key factor influencing the environmental humidity effect in ultrasonic fatigue testing. Further investigation on the effect of chemical composition, especially copper content, is needed.
Technical Paper

Study the Relationship between CP Specimen Width and the Stress Intensity Factor Value around Nugget

2015-04-14
2015-01-0553
SIF value around weld nugget changes when specimen width is different. To investigate the influence of specimen width on SIF value around weld nugget of coach peel specimen (CP), a finite element model was established in this paper. In this model, a contour integral crack was used, and the area around the nugget was treated as crack tip. Results indicated that when specimen width was below 50mm, SIF decreased rapidly with the increase of specimen width. When specimen width was larger than 50mm, SIF almost remained constant with the variation of specimen width. To further study the influences of nugget diameter and sheet thickness on the Width-SIF curves, CP specimens with different nugget diameters (5mm, 6mm and 7mm) and sheet thicknesses (1.2mm, 1.6mm and 2.0mm) were established in ABAQUS. Simulation results of all CP specimens showed a similar relationship between specimen width and SIF.
Technical Paper

Sheet Forming with Pulsating Blankholder Modeling and Experiments

1999-09-28
1999-01-3157
Robust processing window and subsequent quality of part are major concerns during sheet metal stamping. The sheet restraining force is a key parameter controlling metal flow, thus influencing formability and quality of the resulting part. Recent advances in press and die building provided capability of altering the restraining force (RF) during a stamping stroke via pulsating blankholder force (PBF). An outcome of this technology would be an increase in the maximum drawing depth resulting from a decrease in the average blankholder force. In this study, laboratory and numerical experiments were performed in an effort to better understand the effect of various PBF trajectories on stamping performance. A working numerical model using explicit code was successfully developed for time effective simulation of drawn cups with pulsating binder force. Preliminary results of this ongoing project are presented. The pulsating force trajectory was found to have a beneficial effect on drawability.
Journal Article

Regenerative Braking Control Enhancement for the Power Split Hybrid Architecture with the Utilization of Hardware-in-the-loop Simulations

2013-04-08
2013-01-1466
This study presents the utilization of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) approach for regenerative braking (regen) control enhancement efforts for the power split hybrid vehicle architecture. The HIL stand used in this study includes a production brake control module along with the hydraulic brake system, constituted of an accelerator/brake pedal assembly, electric vacuum booster and pump, brake hydraulic circuit and four brake calipers. This work presents the validation of this HIL simulator with real vehicle data, during mild and heavy braking. Then by using the HIL approach, regen control is enhanced, specifically for two cases. The first case is the jerk in deceleration caused by the brake booster delay, during transitions from regen to friction braking. As an example, the case where the regen is ramped out at a low speed threshold, and the hydraulic braking ramped in, can be considered.
Technical Paper

Recent Developments in Penetration Resistance of Windshield Glass

1965-02-01
650474
A twofold improvement in penetration resistance of laminated safety glass for use in vehicle windshields has been achieved. A new test procedure has been established which will provide better correlation of test conditions to accident conditions than present tests do. Present windshield material and the new safety glazings are compared.
Technical Paper

Predicted Paths of Soot Particles in the Cylinders of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0148
Soot formation and distribution inside the cylinder of a light-duty direct injection diesel engine, have been predicted using Kiva-3v CFD software. Pathlines of soot particles traced from specific in-cylinder locations and crank angle instants have been explored using the results for cylinder charge motion predicted by the Kiva-3v code. Pathlines are determined assuming soot particles are massless and follow charge motion. Coagulation and agglomeration have not been taken into account. High rates of soot formation dominate during and just after the injection. Oxidation becomes dominant after the injection has terminated and throughout the power stroke. Computed soot pathlines show that soot particles formed just below the fuel spray axis during the early injection period are more likely to travel to the cylinder wall boundary layer. Soot particles above the fuel spray have lesser tendency to be conveyed to the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of Sliding Chutes for Metal Stamping Production

1980-02-01
800493
Identification of the noise generating mechanisms of gravity action and vibrator stimulated sliding chutes has resulted in the development of practical and effective noise abatement treatments for both. In the case of gravity action chutes the application of foam-backed thin and narrow spring steel plates on the chute surface achieves the desired effect with noise reduction of 14 to 25 dB(A). With vibrator stimulated chutes progressive steps were taken to attenuate source noise, chute radiation noise and the non-productive component of the force vector from the vibrator, resulting in noise reduction of 25 to 30 dB(A).
Technical Paper

Noise Abatement of In-Plant Trailers

1980-02-01
800494
In-plant trailers constitute a large portion of material handling system in manufacturing plants of the automotive industry. The trailers are among the most intensive noise sources, with radiated noise reaching 110 dBA (Leq). High dynamic loads are also generated on the floor and in the trailer structure. These dynamic loads lead to maintenance problems and inflated inventory of the trailers. Principal mechanisms responsible for generating noise and dynamic loads are identified and treatments to reduce noise and dynamic loads have been developed and investigated on standard trailers. Test results show: for an empty trailer, application of the proposed nonlinear suspension reduces noise 16–18 dBA (Leq) and dynamic load 10 times; for a trailer with an empty rack, application of the proposed nonlinear rack cushion leads to 3–5 dBA (Leq) noise reduction in addition to 8–10 dBA (Leq) reduction due to the suspension.
Technical Paper

Metal Stamping Presses Noise Investigation and Abatement

1980-02-01
800495
Noise generating mechanisms connected with steel-blanking operation has been identified and their engineering treatments developed and tested. Use of rubber-metal laminates proved to be successful for cushioning impacts in kinematic pairs and joints. Use of plastic for the stripper plate construction was recommended. The “die stiffener” concept was developed to reduce main noise peak associated with punch breakthrough. Screening of the die cavity by a transparent curtain of overlapping PVC strips was shown to be effective. A pulse load simulator with adjustable load rate and amplitude has been developed to facilitate testing of presses.
Technical Paper

Measure of Forming Limit Strain on the Aluminum Sheets Passed Through Draw-Bead by Digital Image Correlation

2015-04-14
2015-01-0598
Accurate determination of the forming limit strain of aluminum sheet metal is an important topic which has not been fully solved by industry. Also, the effects of draw beads (enhanced forming limit behaviors), normally reported on steel sheet metals, on aluminum sheet metal is not fully understood. This paper introduces an experimental study on draw bead effects on aluminum sheet metals by measuring the forming limit strain zero (FLD0) of the sheet metal. Two kinds of aluminum, AL 6016-T4 and AL 5754-0, are used. Virgin material, 40% draw bead material and 60% draw bead material conditions are tested for each kind of aluminum. Marciniak punch tests were performed to create a plane strain condition. A dual camera Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was used to record and measure the deformation distribution history during the punch test. The on-set necking timing is determined directly from surface shape change. The FLD0 of each test situation is reported in this article.
Journal Article

HC Traps for Gasoline and Ethanol Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1297
In-line hydrocarbon (HC) traps are not widely used to reduce HC emissions due to their limited durability, high platinum group metal (PGM) concentrations, complicated processing, and insufficient hydrocarbon (HC) retention temperatures required for efficient conversion by the three-way catalyst component. New trapping materials and system architectures were developed utilizing an engine dynamometer test equipped with dual Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers for tracking the adsorption and desorption of various HC species during the light-off period. Parallel laboratory reactor studies were conducted which show that the new HC trap formulations extend the traditional adsorption processes (i.e., based on physic-sorption and/or adsorption at acid sites) to chemical reaction mechanisms resulting in oligomerized, dehydro-cyclization, and partial coke formation.
Technical Paper

Establishing Localized Fire Test Methods and Progressing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0251
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 11 years. In the past couple of years, significant attention has been directed toward a revision to the standard for vehicular hydrogen systems, SAE J2579(1). In addition to streamlining test methodologies for verification of Compressed Hydrogen Storage Systems (CHSSs) as discussed last year,(2) the working group has been considering the effect of vehicle fires, with the major focus on a small or localized fire that could damage the container in the CHSS and allow a burst before the Pressure Relief Device (PRD) can activate and safely vent the compressed hydrogen stored from the container.
Journal Article

Development of a Standard Spin Loss Test Procedure for FWD-Based Power Transfer Units

2013-04-08
2013-01-0361
As vehicle fuel economy continues to grow in importance, the ability to accurately measure the level of efficiency on all driveline components is required. A standardized test procedure enables manufacturers and suppliers to measure component losses consistently and provides data to make comparisons. In addition, the procedure offers a reliable process to assess enablers for efficiency improvements. Previous published studies have outlined the development of a comprehensive test procedure to measure transfer case speed-dependent parasitic losses at key speed, load, and environmental conditions. This paper will take the same basic approach for the Power Transfer Units (PTUs) used on Front Wheel Drive (FWD) based All Wheel Drive (AWD) vehicles. Factors included in the assessment include single and multi-stage PTUs, fluid levels, break-in process, and temperature effects.
Technical Paper

Development of a Canning Method for Catalytic Converters using Ultra Thin Wall Substrates

2004-03-08
2004-01-0144
There are benefits of using ultra thin wall (UTW) substrates (i.e., 900/2, 400/4, etc) in lowering cost and emission level. However, the more fragile mechanical characteristics of the UTW present a challenge to design and manufacture of robust catalytic converters. This paper describes a method of canning trial, where a combined Design of Experiment / Monte-Carlo analysis method was used, to develop and validate a canning method for ultra thin wall substrates. Canning trials were conducted in two stages-- Prototype Canning Trial and Production Canning Trial. In Prototype Canning Trial, the root cause of substrate failure was identified and a model for predicting substrate failure was established. Key factors affecting scrap rate and gap capability were identified and predictions were performed on scrap rate and gap capability with the allowed variations in the key factors. The results provided guidelines in designing production line and process control.
Journal Article

Development of Corrosion Testing Protocols for Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium-Intensive Subassemblies

2013-04-08
2013-01-0978
Corrosion tendency is one of the major inhibitors for increased use of magnesium alloys in automotive structural applications. Moreover, systematic or standardized methods for evaluation of both general and galvanic corrosion of magnesium alloys, either as individual components or eventually as entire subassemblies, remains elusive, and receives little attention from professional and standardization bodies. This work reports outcomes from an effort underway within the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership - ‘USAMP’ (Chrysler, Ford and GM) directed toward enabling technologies and knowledge base for the design and fabrication of magnesium-intensive subassemblies intended for automotive “front end” applications. In particular, subassemblies consisting of three different grades of magnesium (die cast, sheet and extrusion) and receiving a typical corrosion protective coating were subjected to cyclic corrosion tests as employed by each OEM in the consortium.
Technical Paper

Developing the AC17 Efficiency Test for Mobile Air Conditioners

2013-04-08
2013-01-0569
Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have collaborated over the past two years to develop an efficiency test for mobile air conditioner (MAC) systems. Because the effect of efficiency differences between different MAC systems and different technologies is relatively small compared to overall vehicle fuel consumption, quantifying these differences has been challenging. The objective of this program was to develop a single dynamic test procedure that is capable of discerning small efficiency differences, and is generally representative of mobile air conditioner usage in the United States. The test was designed to be conducted in existing test facilities, using existing equipment, and within a sufficiently short time to fit standard test facility scheduling. Representative ambient climate conditions for the U.S. were chosen, as well as other test parameters, and a solar load was included.
Technical Paper

Comparative Assessment of Elastio-Viscoplastic Models for Thermal Stress Analysis of Automotive Powertrain Component

2015-04-14
2015-01-0533
In this paper, thermal stress analysis for powertrain component is carried out using two in-house developed elasto-viscoplastic models (i.e. Chaboche model and Sehitoglu model) that are implemented into ABAQUS via its user subroutine UMAT. The model parameters are obtained from isothermal cyclic tests performed on standard samples under various combinations of strain rates and temperatures. Models' validity is verified by comparing to independent non-isothermal tests conducted on similar samples. Both models are applied to the numerical analysis of exhaust manifold subject to temperature cycling as a result of vehicle operation. Due to complexity, only four thermal cycles of heating-up and cooling-down are simulated. Results using the two material models are compared in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. It is found that the implemented Chaboche model is generally more computationally efficient than Sehitoglu model, though they are almost identical in regard to accuracy.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Effects on Burn Rates in a High Swirl Spark Ignition Engine

1983-02-01
830335
Experimental measurements of burn rates have been carried out in a single cylinder homogeneous charge engine. Three different combustion chambers were investigated (75 % and 60 % squish bowl-in-piston chambers and a disk chamber) using a cylinder head with a swirl producing intake port and near central spark location. Data were obtained with each combustion chamber as a function of spark timing, EGR, and load at 1500 RPM. The combustion rate is strongly influenced by chamber shape. The 10-90 % burn durations of the 75 % and 60 % squish chambers are respectively about 40 % and 60 % that of the disk chamber. Chamber configuration had less effect on 0-10 % burn duration. The disk had about 25 % longer 0-10 % burn time than the bowl-in-piston chambers. Modifications to the GESIM model enabled good overall agreement between predictions and experimental data, a rather severe test of the model because the coupling of fluid mechanics, combustion and chamber geometry must be properly modeled.
Technical Paper

Automotive Electrical System in the New Millennium

1999-11-15
1999-01-3747
The automotive industry is investigating the change of electrical system voltage in a vehicle from the present 14 volt (12V battery) to 42 volt (36V battery) to integrate new electrical and electronic features. These new features require more amperes, thicker wires, large power devices, and eventually higher cost. The existing 14V system is very difficult to sustain so much content because of constraints of performance, efficiency, cost, packaging space, and manufacture-ability. This paper discusses foreseeable needs moving to a higher voltage, and reasons of 42V selection. It explores benefits and drawbacks when the voltage is changed from 14V to 42V in the areas of wire harness, power electronics, smart switching, power supply, etc. Finally, two typical 42/14V dual voltage architectures are presented for a likely 42V transition scenario.
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