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Technical Paper

“Next Generation” Means for Detecting Squeaks and Rattles in Instrument Panels

Engineers doing squeak and rattle testing of instrument panels (IP's) have successfully used large electrodynamic vibration systems to identify sources of squeaks and rattles (S&R's). Their successes led to demands to test more IP's, i.e., to increase throughput of IP's to reflect the many design, material, and/or manufacturing process changes that occur, and to do so at any stage of the development, production, or QA process. What is needed is a radically different and portable way to find S&R's in a fraction of the time and at lower capital cost without compromising S&R detection results.
Technical Paper

Windshield Wiper Linkage Analysis

The Kinematic Analysis Methods Computer Program that has been used by Ford Motor Co. to evaluate mechanisms for the past four years has been modified to generate performance curves for windshield wiper linkages directly using a Calcomp Plotter. Problems such as stalling, “jerky” operation, and excessive phase lag between wipers can be detected early in the design stages by careful evaluation of the curves.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Wind Noise Analysis Using a SEA Model with Measured Source Levels

A series of tests have been performed on a production vehicle to determine the characteristics of the external turbulent flow field in wind tunnel and road conditions. Empirical formulas are developed to use the measured data as source levels for a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of the vehicle structural and acoustical responses. Exterior turbulent flow and acoustical subsystems are used to receive power from the source excitations. This allows for both the magnitudes and wavelengths of the exterior excitations to be taken into account - a necessary condition for consistently accurate results. Comparisons of measured and calculated interior sound levels show good correlation.
Journal Article

Vehicle Sideslip Angle EKF Estimator based on Nonlinear Vehicle Dynamics Model and Stochastic Tire Forces Modeling

This paper presents the extended Kalman filter-based sideslip angle estimator design using a nonlinear 5DoF single-track vehicle dynamics model with stochastic modeling of tire forces. Lumped front and rear tire forces have been modeled as first-order random walk state variables. The proposed estimator is primarily designed for vehicle sideslip angle estimation; however it can also be used for estimation of tire forces and cornering stiffness. This estimator design does not rely on linearization of the tire force characteristics, it is robust against the variations of the tire parameters, and does not require the information on coefficient of friction. The estimator performance has been first analyzed by means of computer simulations using the 10DoF two-track vehicle dynamics model and underlying magic formula tire model, and then experimentally validated by using data sets recorded on a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Fingerprint Process

The dynamic characteristics of a vehicle are an important part of the driver's experience. Ford Motor Company is actively pursuing a leadership role in this arena. To achieve this goal, all the necessary information to complete the vehicle dynamics picture of a vehicle must be gathered in an efficient and well-organized manner. A process was developed to fingerprint a vehicle so that this information could drive vehicle tuning, new Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models, correlate existing CAE models, support problem resolution and conduct target setting. This paper will discuss a Vehicle Dynamics Fingerprint Process in detail and explain the steps involved.
Technical Paper

Vapor and Liquid Composition Differences Resulting from Fuel Evaporation

Liquid fuels and the fuel vapors in equilibrium with them typically differ in composition. These differences impact automotive fuel systems in several ways. Large compositional differences between liquid and vapor phases affect the composition of species taken up within the evaporative emission control canister, since the canister typically operates far from saturation and doesn't reach equilibrium with the fuel tank. Here we discuss how these differences may be used to diagnose the mode of emission from a sealed container, e.g., a fuel tank. Liquid or vapor leaks lead to particular compositions (reported here) that depend on the fuel components but are independent of the container material. Permeation leads to emissions whose composition depends on the container material. If information on the relative permeation rates of the different fuel components is available, the results given here provide a tool to decide whether leakage or permeation is the dominant mode of emission.
Technical Paper

User's View of Process Control Computer Systems Management

A survey of industrial control computer applications presently operational in this user's facilities revealed an approximate 50/50 division between those that were internally and externally implemented. Problems encountered in the planning, launching, and follow-up phase of system installation were found to be common to both internal and external system implementations and are categorized and evaluated as being inherent and environmental in nature. In an effort to avoid anticipated problems characteristic of a computerized installation, proper staffing as an inhouse project team is essential. During the process of developing inhouse talent, three plateaus of system implementation maturity are attained. These plateaus range from complete dependency upon outside assistance to “do it yourself” inhouse implementation. Flow charts are developed to depict typical decision paths leading to a plateau of system implementation most appropriate for the particular user “turnkey dilemma.”
Technical Paper

Use of FCRASH in a Door Openability Simulation

During frontal and rear end type collisions, very large forces will be imparted to the passenger compartment by the collapse of either front or rear structures. NCAP tests conducted by NHTSA involve, among other things, a door openability test after barrier impact. This means that the plastic/irreversible deformations of door openings should be kept to a minimum. Thus, the structural members constituting the door opening must operate during frontal and rear impact near the elastic limit of the material. Increasing the size of a structural member, provided the packaging considerations permit it, may prove to be counter productive, since it may lead to premature local buckling and possible collapse of the member. With the current trend towards lighter vehicles, recourse to heavier gages is also counterproductive and therefore a determination of an optimum compartment structure may require a number of design iterations. In this article, FEA is used to simulate front side door behavior.
Technical Paper

Use of E-Mail in Global Virtual Team: a Field Research

In nowadays market, highlighted by global products, companies are pushed to sell products that comply with legal and customer requirements in different countries and, not unusually, different continents. In order to achieve such challenge, and pressed to reduce project and production costs, companies are spreading design centers around the world, based on regional expertise. These excellence centers must work together to benefit from synergies and local skills from different regions. Such projects are staffed by Virtual Team (BINDER, 2007), whose members barely face each other. This means teams will work frequently with people they have never met, who live on different time zones and have different cultures. As a consequence, communication is done basically through computer-based media, mainly based on emailing, and must be even clearer and more direct than with the people who work on the next desk.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Mechanical Behavior of Threaded Fasteners in Thermoplastic Bosses Under Load

Because it is common to attach plastic parts to other plastic, metal, or ceramic assemblies with mechanical fasteners that are often stronger and stiffer than the plastic with which they are mated, it is important to be able to predict the retention of the fastener in the polymeric component. The ability to predict this information allows engineers to more accurately estimate length of part service life. A study was initiated to understand the behavior of threaded fasteners in bosses molded from engineering thermoplastic resins. The study examined fastening dynamics during and after insertion of the fastener and the effects of friction on the subsequent performance of the resin. Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures over a range of torques and loads using several fixtures that were specially designed for the study. Materials evaluated include modified-polyphenylene ether (M-PPE), polyetherimide (PEI), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), and polycarbonate (PC).
Technical Paper

Understanding Vehicle Roll Using Mechanism Simulation Software

Suspension roll centers are currently used to establish vehicle handling characteristics such as under-steer and feel. Roll centers were developed to help understand vehicle designs on paper. Computers and mechanism simulation software allows vehicle models to be built and analyzed. Analyzing forces and moments may be a better technique as opposed to modeling suspension roll centers. A proposed method is to look directly at forces applied to the vehicle body and moments resulting from the applied forces. This force-moment method includes the effects of load transfer and tread change, which are not accounted for by geometric roll centers.
Technical Paper

USCAR U.S. Field Trial for Automotive Polymers Recycling: Interim Findings

In 1998, the United States Field Trial was chartered by the United States Council for Automotive Research/Vehicle Recycling Partnership with the objective of evaluating the feasibility of collecting and recycling automotive polymers from domestic end-of-life Vehicles (ELVs). Although ELVs are among the most widely recycled consumer products, 15-25% of their total mass must nevertheless be disposed of with no material recovery; the majority of this remainder is polymeric. Concerns regarding vehicle abandonment risks and disposal practices have resulted in the legislated treatment of ELVs in Western Europe, and in the emergence of attendant material recycling schemes. These schemes support quantitatively optimized material collection, but do not appear to be sustainable under the free-market economic conditions prevalent in North America.
Technical Paper

Two Piece Composite Truck Cab

This report is a comprehensive investigation into the use of resin transfer molded glass fiber reinforced plastics in a structural application. A pickup truck cab structure is an ideal application for plastic composites. The cab is designed to fit a production Ranger pickup truck and uses carryover frame and front end structure. The cab concept consists primarily of two molded pieces. This design demonstrates extensive parts integration and allows for low-cost tooling, along with automated assembly.
Technical Paper

Trends on Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes

Present models and methods for simulations of sheet metal forming processes are reviewed in this paper. Because of rapid progress of computer hardware, complex computations, formerly impossible to perform due to high computational cost, are now feasible. Therefore, more realistic and computational intensive models are suggested for finite elements, materials, and frictional forces. Also, simulation methods suitable for sheet metal forming processes are recommended. Four numerical examples at the end of the paper are presented to support the recommendations.
Technical Paper

Transient Tire Properties

This paper identifies and analyzes steady-state and transient tire properties affecting vehicle directional response characteristics. The study is limited to the relationship between lateral force and slip angle. It shows fundamental differences between steady-state and transient properties. Tire transient properties are described by a force-slip angle loop with cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset as parameters. Cornering stiffness is presented as a variable that changes with speed and steer rate. An interrelationship between cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset resulting from the time lag between lateral force and slip angle is shown. Ramp steer techniques for measuring transient tire properties on a road trailer and on an external drum machine are described. A need for transient tire data for computer simulations of vehicle transient steer maneuvers is shown.
Journal Article

Towards an Optimum Aftertreatment System Architecture

Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reliability Prediction of Automotive Electronic Packaging

The paper briefly reviews the current and future needs for automotive electronic packaging technology and the related reliability issues. Reliability approaches based upon physics-of-failure are discussed, and an example is given to illustrate the importance of understanding the root cause of failure and the application of a state-of-the-art approach to life prediction of leadless solder joints under thermal cycling. An introduction is also given to the recent development of the CAIR (Computer Aided Interconnect Reliability) system developed at Ford for reliability prediction of solder interconnects in automotive electronic packaging. The system integrates a number of software modules using a user interface and allows for evaluation of critical design parameters within a short period of time. The system is intended to implement the “prevention mode” into the product design process to meet the increasing reliability demand and to reduce cost and cycle time.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Handling Model - A Symbolically Generated Vehicle Simulation Program Employing an Object-Oriented GUI

The Vehicle Handling Model (VHM) is representative of a new type of vehicle dynamics programs which can be easily used on a personal computer by vehicle development engineers. It consists of a simulation kernel which solves the vehicle equations of motion and a hypertext GUI which controls the model data input, execution, and post processing. The vehicle model has 5 DOF, including the vehicle lateral, vertical, yaw, pitch, and roll motions. The simulation also includes suspension compliance, a simple non-linear tire model, a wind gust model and a human driver model to provide realistic vehicle and steering inputs. The simulation program was generated by AUTOSIM which uses a high level description of the system to generate Fortran source code. The GUI allows an engineer to setup the model, run the analysis, and display the results with just a few clicks of the mouse.
Technical Paper

The Role of Weight Reducing Materials in Automotive Fuel Savings

A framework for considering trade-offs between increased costs for lightweight materials and the attendant fuel savings accruing from weight reduction is developed in this paper. Two quantitative estimates of lifetime fuel savings due to weight reduction of a vehicle are derived. For substitution on an ongoing vehicle, available data suggest savings of about 0.26 gallons for the vehicle lifetime per lb. of weight reduction. When long-term changes in vehicles follow lightweight material feasibility, a range of estimates must be quoted; viz: 0.55 to 1.07 gallons for the vehicle life per primary pound saved. Considerations of trading these fuel savings against higher costs highlights two crucial issues: (1) the percentage weight reduction achieved in the substitution and (2) fabrication cost penalties. These technical issues largely determine whether a given application saves over-all resources.
Technical Paper

The Relationship Between Catalyst Hydrocarbon Conversion Efficiency and Oxygen Storage Capacity

Measurements of oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and HC conversion efficiency for 17 catalysts were carried out in the laboratory. All catalysts with steady state HC efficiency below 90% were found to have roughly equivalent and very low capacities to store oxygen. However, catalyst oxygen storage capacity was seen to rise sharply with HC conversion efficiency in excess of 90 percent. These results parallel the trends which are observed between rear HEGO/EGO indexes for OBD-II catalyst monitoring and HC conversion efficiency. In addition, temperature programed reduction (TPR) was found to lend insight into the relationship between catalyst OSC and HC conversion efficiency by providing a qualitative understanding of the mechanisms by which OSC deteriorates. TPR profiles showed that most of the usable oxygen storage is derived from surface ceria which is interacted with precious metals.