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Technical Paper

Wave Propagation in Catalytic Converters: A Preliminary Investigation

The present study investigates the wave propagation and attenuation in catalytic converters. The relationships for wave propagation in a catalytic monolith are derived first and then coupled to the wave propagation in tapered ducts. Analytical predictions are compared with experimental results to validate the theory.
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Underhood Thermal Management by Controlling Air Flow

A series of tests were conducted to determine the potential for reducing vehicle underhood temperatures by either 1) diverting the radiator fan air flow from the engine compartment or 2) by forced air cooling of the exhaust manifold in conjunction with shielding it or 3) by a combination of the two methods. The test vehicle was a Ford F-250 Light Truck with a 7.5L V-8 engine. The vehicle was tested in a dynamometer cell equipped with cell blowers to simulate road speed conditions. It was found that diverting the outlet air from the radiator will reduce underhood component temperatures when the vehicle is in motion and also at normal idle. However, if the vehicle is to be used for power takeoff applications requiring a “kicked” idle, then forced cooling of the exhaust manifolds is also required to maintain reduced underhood temperatures. A combination of these two techniques maximized the reduction of underhood temperatures for all operating conditions tested.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Isentropic Pressure Observer Model

Exhaust pressures (P3) are hard parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature in the exhaust system makes the implementation of an exhaust pressure sensor in a vehicle control system a costly endeavor. The contention with measured P3 is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. A turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper. The model uses 4 main components; an open loop P3 orifice flow model, a model of isentropic expansion across the turbine, a turbine and pipe heat transfer models and an integrator with the deviation in the downstream turbine outlet parameter.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurement of Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions During Cold Start of a Spark-Ignited Engine

Speciated HC emissions from the exhaust system of a production engine without an active catalyst have been obtained with 3 sec time resolution during a 70°F cold start using two control strategies. For the conventional cold start, the emissions were initially enriched in light fuel alkanes and depleted in heavy aromatic species. The light alkanes fell rapidly while the lower vapor pressure aromatics increased over a period of 50 sec. These results indicate early retention of low vapor pressure fuel components in the intake manifold and exhaust system. Loss of higher molecular weight HC species does occur in the exhaust system as shown by experiments in which the exhaust system was preheated to 100° C. The atmospheric reactivity of the exhaust HC emissions for photochemical smog formation increases as the engine warms.
Technical Paper

TiAl-Based Alloys for Exhaust Valve Applications

The recent development of TiAl-based alloys by the aerospace community has provided an excellent material alternative for hot components in automotive engines. The low density combined with an elevated temperature strength similar to that of Ni-base superalloys make TiAl-based alloys very attractive for exhaust valve applications. Lighter weight valvetrain components improve performance and permit the use of lower valve spring loads which reduce noise and friction and enhance fuel economy. However, difficult fabricability and a perception that TiAl alloys are high cost, low volume aerospace materials must be overcome in order to permit consideration for use in high-volume automotive applications. This paper provides a comparison of properties for several exhaust valve alternative materials. The density of TiAl alloys is lower than Ti alloys with creep and fatigue properties equivalent to IN-751, a current high performance exhaust valve material.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Test Site on Exterior Vehicle Noise Measurements

As the compliance with noise legislation became more difficult, Ford exhaust system development engineers increasingly encountered variances not only from vehicle-to-vehicle, but on the same vehicle tested in different locations. As a result, a series of tests were conducted to establish the correlation among various sites for vehicle exterior noise measurements. The purpose of this paper is to present the results and the method developed to achieve the correlation in terms of the following: 1. Ford and site equipment differences 2. Driver differences 3. Differences between site physical qualities Seven sites were evaluated in the program where seven vehicles were used with a good spread in exterior noise levels. A representative correlation plot is also presented which can be used to predict the expected noise level of any vehicle at any one of these test sites knowing the level obtained at the Ford site.
Journal Article

The Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions from a Euro4 Diesel Vehicle

New European emissions legislation (Euro5) specifies a limit for Particle Number (PN) emissions and therefore drives measurement of PN during vehicle development and homologation. Concurrently, the use of biofuel is increasing in the marketplace, and Euro5 specifies that reference fuel must contain a bio-derived portion. Work was carried out to test the effect of fuels containing different levels of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) on particle number, size, mass and composition. Measurements were conducted with a Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) to time-resolve sub-micron particles (5-1000nm), and a Horiba Solid Particle Counting System (SPCS) providing PN data from a Euro5-compliant measurement system. To ensure the findings are relevant to the modern automotive business, testing was carried out on a Euro4 compliant passenger car fitted with a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine and using standard homologation procedures.
Journal Article

The Effects of Sulfur Poisoning and Desulfation Temperature on the NOx Conversion of LNT+SCR Systems for Diesel Applications

A laboratory study was performed to assess the effects of sulfur poisoning and desulfation temperature on the NO conversion of a LNT+(Cu/SCR) in-situ system. Four LNT+(Cu/SCR) systems were aged for 4.5 hours without sulfur at 600, 700, 750, and 800°C using A/F ratio modulations to represent 23K miles of desulfations at different temperatures. NO conversion tests were performed on the LNT alone and on the LNT+SCR system using a 60 s lean/5 s rich cycle. The catalysts were then sulfur-poisoned at 400°C and desulfated four times and re-evaluated on the 60/5 tests. This test sequence was repeated 3 more times to represent 100K miles of desulfations. After simulating 23K miles of desulfations, the Cu-based SCR catalysts improved the NO conversion of the LNT at low temperatures (e.g., 300°C), although the benefit decreased as the desulfation temperature increased from 600°C to 800°C.
Technical Paper

The Effect of a Preload on the Decoupling Efficiency of Exhaust Flexible Coupling Devices

The variation in the decoupling effect of exhaust flexible couplings under a vertical preload caused by changes in the direction of the exhaust pipe routing was investigated. Both self-supporting and underbody flexible couplings were tested. The results indicate that, in general, a preload decreases the decoupling efficiency of both types of flexible couplings. In addition, the results indicate that the efficiency of the flexible coupling is effected by the following three conditions: the direction of preload with respect to gravity, the location of the preload relative to the coupling, and the stiffness of the various components of the flexible coupling.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Vehicle Exhaust System Components on Flow Losses and Noise in Firing Spark-Ignition Engines

Sound attenuation and flow loss reduction are often two competing demands in vehicle breathing systems. The present study considers a full vehicle exhaust system and investigates both the sound attenuation and the flow performance of production configurations including the catalyst, the resonator, and the muffler. Dynamometer experiments have been conducted with a firing Ford 3.0L, V-6 engine at wide-open throttle with speeds ranging from 1000 to 5000 rpm. Measurements including the flow rates, the temperatures and the absolute dynamic pressures of the hot exhaust gases at key locations (upstream and downstream of every component) with fast-response, water-cooled piezo-resistive pressure transducers facilitate the calculation of acoustic performance of each component, as well as the determination of flow losses caused by these elements and their influence on the engine performance.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Valve Overlap on Idle Operation: Comparison of Model and Experiment

Validation of the Ford General Engine SIMulation program (GESIM) with measured firing data from a modified single cylinder Ricardo HYDRA research engine is described. GESIM predictions for peak cylinder pressure and burn duration are compared to test results at idle operating conditions over a wide range of valve overlap. The calibration of GESIM was determined using data from only one representative world-wide operating point and left unchanged for the remainder of the study. Valve overlap was varied by as much as 36° from its base setting. In most cases, agreement between model and data was within the accuracy of the measurements. A cycle simulation computer model provides the researcher with an invaluable tool for acquiring insight into the thermodynamic and fluid mechanical processes occurring in the cylinder of an internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

The Development of Advanced Urea-SCR Systems for Tier 2 Bin 5 and Beyond Diesel Vehicles

An advanced diesel aftertreatment system utilizing Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with urea for lean nitrogen oxides (NOx) control was tested on a 2.7L V6 Land Rover vehicle to demonstrate the capability of achieving Tier 2 Bin 5 and lower emission standards for light-duty trucks. SCR washcoat was applied to a diesel particulate filter (DPF) to perform NOx and particulate reduction simultaneously. Advanced SCR systems employed both traditional SCR catalysts and SCR-coated filters (SCRF) to improve the NOx reduction efficiency. The engine-out NOx level was adjusted by modifying the EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) calibration. Cold start NOx performance was improved by SCR warm-up strategy and urea over injection. This study showed the advanced SCR system could tolerate higher NH₃ storage in the SCR catalyst, resulting in overall higher NOx conversion on the FTP-75 test cycle.
Technical Paper

Suppression of Sulfide Emission During Lean Nox Trap Desulfation

Lean NOx traps are being extensively examined (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12) because they can be efficiently used to reduce the NOx emissions from port fuel injected and direct fuel injected spark ignited gasoline engines. A lean NOx trap (LNT) stores NOx during lean A/F engine operation. However, its storage capacity is limited and the LNT must be regenerated periodically by subjecting the LNT to momentary rich A/F operation for several seconds. The regeneration process releases the NOx that is chemically bonded to the washcoat and subsequently reduces it to N2 and O2. Fuel that contains a non-zero amount of sulfur will contaminate an LNT by significantly reducing its NOx storage capacity. Therefore, except for the case of a zero level of sulfur in the fuel, the LNT must be desulfated on a periodic basis. The desulfation process requires that the temperature of the LNT be raised to a temperature of about 650°C for several minutes.
Technical Paper

Some Phenomena Which Control Sulfuric Acid Emission from Automotive Catalysts

With the use of a simulated exhaust system, the sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide emission from a monolith noble-metal oxidation catalyst (Engelhard IIB) is measured. It was found that the storage rate of sulfur onto an initially sulfur-free catalyst decreases to a few percent of the sulfur rejection rate within 3-4 h. The amount of sulfur on the catalyst when the catalyst is in equilibrium with 20 ppm sulfur in the gas phase varies between 0.3 weight percent of the catalyst at about 400°C to 0.1 weight percent at 600°C. The sulfur can readily desorb from the catalyst if the gas phase sulfur content is lowered or if the catalyst temperature is increased. It was found that the conversion of sulfur dioxide to sulfuric acid reaches thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures of 400-500°C and space velocities of 30,000 h-1. These conditions correspond approximately to a small V8 engine at 20 mph cruise.
Technical Paper

Some Concepts of DISI Engine for High Fuel Efficiency and Low Emissions

Stratified-charge DISI engines have been launched in the market by Mitsubishi, Toyota, and Nissan. This paper discusses the current production stratified-charge DISI systems and some alternative systems, including the system using air-forced fuel injection and a proposed system that uses a swirl flow in the piston bowl with a special shape to separate the fuel-rich mixture layer from the wall surface. New DISI concepts are proposed to overcome some drawbacks of current bowl-in-piston type stratified-charge DISI systems. Charge stratification can be realized by using a soft spray with proper spray penetration, droplet size, and cone angle, as shown by CFD simulation results. The drawbacks of fuel wall wetting, soot limited load with charge stratification, large surface to volume ratio, etc., of the bowl-in-piston type system can be minimized.
Technical Paper

Response of Aluminum Alloys to Temperature Exposures Observed in Automotive Service

This report presents results of experiments to determine the effect of elevated temperature exposures on the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy materials. The two alloys studied, 5754 and 6111, are of the types which would be used in a stamped automobile structure and exterior panels. Yield strength, tensile strength, and total elongation are reported for a variety of test conditions. The material temperature exposures simulated a broad range of conditions which might be experienced during manufacturing operations such as adhesive curing and vehicle paint bake cycles. In addition, tests were conducted at temperatures to resemble in-service under-hood and under body (near the exhaust system) conditions. Materials were prestrained various amounts prior to temperature exposure to simulate metal forming processes. Results show that both materials react to temperature and aging times differently.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Development of the 1996 Ford Flexible Fuel Taurus

Two flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) using dielectric alcohol sensors have been designed and developed for mass production. One FFV will operate on gasoline or methanol up to 85% (M85). The second FFV will operate on gasoline or ethanol up to 85% (E85). Significant modification of a conventional dedicated gasoline engine was necessary in order to avoid major problems in the areas of preignition, engine wear and material compatibility. Operation on alcohol fuels provides for improved torque and horsepower over gasoline. Feedgas emission levels with alcohol fuels are lower than those with gasoline. However, this advantage is diminished at the tailpipe due to the long catalytic converter light-off times that result from the lower combustion temperatures which characterize alcohol fuels. Meeting evaporative emission regulations provided a challenge due to the high levels of vapor generated by low alcohol percentage fuel blends.
Technical Paper

Power Steering Noise Characterization and Evaluation

Each more the consumer uses the vehicle noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) attributes to define the vehicle model when purchasing a car, so the sound quality development is very important to guarantee the automaker success in a competitive market. Several vehicle components contribute to the consumer sound quality perception, as engine, gearbox and exhaust systems. So those components improvement is necessary in order to enrich the sound perception. In this article will be developed a case study that evaluates the contribution and the characteristics of the irradiated noise from the power steering system, which was classified as moan, whine and hiss noise, defines objectively each phenomena and evaluate the proposed systems.
Technical Paper

Particle Number Emissions from a Range of European Vehicles

In light of forthcoming particle number legislation for light-duty passenger vehicles, time-resolved Particle Mass (PM) and Particle Number (PN) emissions over the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC) are reported for four current vehicle technologies; modern diesel, with and without a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF), Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) gasoline and multi-point Port Fuel Injection (PFI) gasoline. The PN and PM emissions were ordered (highest to lowest) according to: Non-DPF diesel ≻ DISI ≻ PFI ~ DPF diesel. Both the non-DPF diesel and DISI vehicles emitted PN and PM continuously over the NEDC. This is in contrast with both the DPF diesel and PFI vehicles which emitted nearly all their PN and PM during the first 200 seconds. The PFI result is thought to be a consequence of cold-start mixture preparation whilst several possible explanations are offered for the DPF diesel trend.