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Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Journal Article

Towards an Optimum Aftertreatment System Architecture

Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Heat Treat Process and Alloy on the Surface Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Carburized Alloy Steel

Gas carburized and quenched low alloy steels typically produce surface microstructures which contain martensite, retained austenite and often NMTP's (non-martensitic transformation products). The NMTP's are caused by a reduction of surface hardenability in the carburizing process from loss of alloying elements to oxidation. Gas carburized low alloy steels such as SAE 8620 with NMTP's on the surface have been shown to have inferior bending fatigue properties when compared to more highly alloyed steels which do not form NMTP's, such as SAE 4615M. One method of minimizing the formation of oxides and eliminating NMTP formation during carburizing and quenching is to use plasma carburizing instead of conventional gas carburizing. In this study the microstructures and bending fatigue performance of plasma carburized SAE 8620 and SAE 4615M is compared to the same alloys conventionally gas carburized and quenched.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Control System Development in Tomorrow's Vehicles: Technology Leadership Brief

The tremendous growth of complexity in automotive control system electronics in the past 30 years has driven the industry to employ ever more advanced development techniques, ranging from formally managing functional architecture to employing more sophisticated functional safety development processes. The industry now finds itself facing emerging trends that will include more vehicle electrification, connectivity, personalization, and automation. Contextual and location awareness will also play larger roles. In light of these trends, vehicle control development processes will need to continue to evolve. This paper will explore some of the challenges that automakers will face as they move to incorporate these new technologies.
Technical Paper

Software Architecture for a Driver Information System

This paper describes the software architecture for the Driver Information System available in the 1985 Lincoln Continental Mark VII. This CRT-based system consists of a redefineable touch screen and designated feature keys. An overview is provided describing some of the system features, including a discussion relating to the ergonomic considerations which were given to the product's overall design. Definition of, and interaction between, major components is discussed, including details pertaining to the input conditioning, multiple CPU communication, screen prioritization, and interrupt handling.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Measurements of Diesel Vehicle Exhaust Particulate Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy and Total Light Extinction

There is a clearly demonstrated need to develop “real-time” methods for the measurement of diesel vehicle particulate emissions. Optical techniques provide One alternative for such methodology because of the rapid data acquisition times involved and the relatively simple sampling methods that can be used. This report describes two different approaches to this problem. The first, the spectrophone, measures light absorption by the diluted exhaust plume using photoacoustic spectroscopy, and the second, the long pathlength smokemeter, determines total light extinction across the diluted exhaust plume. For the measurement of total mass emissions, both techniques show estimated errors of ±15% for specific vehicles, while for a multi-vehicle diesel fleet the estimated errors are ±20% and ±30% for the long pathlength smokemeter and the spectrophone, respectively.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Applications for Rapid Prototyping, Fabrication and Tooling in Motorsports

Rapid Prototyping, Fabrication and Tooling is a process that blends a series of technologies (machines, tools, and methods) capable of generating physical objects directly from a CAD database. The process dramatically reduces the time spent during product development by allowing for fast visualization, verification, iteration, optimization, and fabrication of parts and tools. Many new techniques of tooling have been and are being developed by using rapid fabricated parts. These are having a dramatic impact on both timing and costs throughout the automotive industry. One area that these methods can be utilized to their full potential is motorsports. Of particular interest is the growing use of bridge tooling to provide first article through production intent parts that promote cost effective changes.
Technical Paper

Powerplant NVH Benchmarking

Getting Powerplant NVH Benchmarking right is a key first step in knowing where your design stands relative to its competition and what needs to be improved in order to achieve or maintain NVH leadership. It is through benchmarking that you can define industry trends, who gets it right, who doesn't, and why. A good benchmarking database also lets you estimate the improvements or deterioration due to engine architecture changes or design features. This paper describes a methodology used for selecting, measuring, and comparing powerplant NVH attributes.
Technical Paper

Optical Methods Aid for Visualization of Convective Heat Flow Patterns

The use of Shadowgraph and Schlieren optical systems is a simple method to determine flow patterns of heated air external to the vehicle at idle. In particular, the method can be used to visualize natural convective air flow patterns at the underbody to aid in heat shielding design. Moreover, air recirculation patterns around the front end of the vehicle can be visualized without the use of smoke. The optical equipment is described and recommendations proposed for setting up the equipment. A video tape of some results is also presented.
Technical Paper

Nondestructive Evaluation of Spot Weld Integrity/Quality: Method Comparison

This paper benchmarks some methods of nondestructive testing for zero and high mileage spot weld quality/integrity and degradation evaluation (pin holes, voids, cracks, fatigue, corrosion, etc.). The methods include X-ray radiography, ultrasonic imaging, ultrasonic pulse/ echo, pulsed infrared or thermography, and laser/TV holographic interferometry imaging. The advantages and limitations of each method are provided with descriptive principles and real test examples. It is found that X-ray radiography combined with ultrasonic echo technique is the most favorable one considering time and cost for the current zero and high mileage spot weld evaluation.

Neck Injury

This book draws upon a variety of the author's experiences during more than 25 years in automotive safety. It gives an introduction to plain film radiographs (x-rays), computed tomograms (CTs), and magnetic resonance images (MRIs) such that vehicle safety professionals can use these techniques to help piece together the puzzle and provide a better understanding of the relationship between vehicle crash scenarios and occupant injury. For those with a primarily vehicle background, Neck Injury provides an overview of how x-rays, CTs, and MRIs may be used as a source of information to help analyze vehicle crashes and the associated injuries. For those with a clinical background, the book provides insight into how injuries relate to the vehicle crash. Chapters cover: Anatomy Imaging Injuries and Injury Mechanisms
Technical Paper

NVH Design and Development of the Duratec35 Engine from Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company has developed a new 3.5L V6 engine. The engine, called the Duratec35, represents a new architecture for Ford Motor Co. that will eventually power one in five Ford vehicles. The goals of the engine design were high output, fuel efficient, low emissions, and excellent NVH. This paper will describe the NVH process for the development of the engine, the NVH features included in the design, and the final results relative to the benchmarks.
Technical Paper

Modeling of DISI Engine Sprays with Comparison to Experimental In-Cylinder Spray Images

In modeling of engine fuel-air mixing, it is desired to be able to predict fuel spray atomization under different injection and ambient conditions. In this work, a previously developed sheet atomization model was studied for this purpose. For sprays from a pressure-swirl injector, it is assumed in the model that the fuel flows out the injector forming a conical liquid film (sheet), and the sprays are formed due to the disintegration of the sheet. Modified formulations are proposed to estimate sheet parameters including sheet thickness and velocity at the nozzle exit. It was found that the fuel flow rate of a swirl injector satisfied the correlation well. Computations of correlation well. Computations of the sprays injected in an engine with a side-mounted injector were performed for conditions that duplicated a set of experiments performed in an optical engine. The computed results were compared with the spray images obtained from the optical engine using elastic (Mie) scattering.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Aeroacoustically Induced Door Glass Vibrations Using a Laser Vibrometer

Work has been performed to study side glass vibrations of a typical automobile using a scanning laser vibrometer. The objective of this work was to achieve better understanding of the source and path mechanisms for aeroacoustically generated wind noise. As a tool for measuring aeroacoustically generated vibrations, the laser vibrometer presents many advantages over traditional methods. These advantages, discussed in this paper, include rapid setup, full field imaging, high spacial resolution, non-contact operation, and wide dynamic and frequency ranges.
Technical Paper

Making the Case for a Next Generation Automotive Electrical System

Introduction of an array of new electrical and electronic features into future vehicles is generating vehicle electrical power requirements that exceed the capabilities of today's 14 volt electrical systems. In the near term (5 to 10 years), the existing 14V system will be marginally capable of supporting the expected additional loads with escalating costs for the associated charging system. However, significant increases in vehicle functional content are expected as future requirements to meet longer-term (beyond 10 years) needs in the areas of emission control, fuel economy, safety, and passenger comfort. A higher voltage electrical system will be required to meet these future requirements. This paper explores the functional needs that will mandate a higher voltage system and the benefits derivable from its implementation.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Laser Ride Height Measurement/Calibration System

The Laser Ride Height Measurement and Calibration System measures and calibrates the ride height of a vehicle equipped with electronic suspension. The existing process of setting ride height is labor intensive and imprecise leading to vehicles that lean, have improper attitude, and suffer from alignment drift and pull. The proposed Machine and Process will impart the correct appearance and ride height to every vehicle which undergoes this test. A similar process can be used to measure the ride height of vehicles equipped with passive springs.
Technical Paper

Laser Obstacle Detector and Warning System

A rear obstacle detector and warning unit was designed to detect the presence of an object in the rear blind spot behind a vehicle and warn the operator if the possibility of backing over the object exists. A semiconductor infrared laser and a semiconductor detector, mounted on a vehicle behind the rear axle with a unique optical lens system proved capable of detecting small objects up to 10 ft directly behind the vehicle. The unit performance verified the ability to design an obstacle detection system with a sharply defined field of view using infrared technology.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cavitation in a Vertical Multi-Hole Injector

An enlarged transparent model of a six-hole vertical diesel injector has been used to allow visualization of the flow at Reynolds and cavitation numbers matching those of real size injectors operating under normal Diesel engine conditions. The visualization system comprised a CCD camera, high-magnification lenses and a spark light source which allowed high-resolution images to be obtained. The flow conditions examined in terms of flow rates and pressures covered the range from low to full load of the real size injector while the needle lift position corresponded to that of full lift of the first- and second- stage in two-stage injectors. In addition, different values of needle eccentricity were tested in order to examine its effect on the cavitation structures within the injection holes.
Technical Paper

In-Vehicle Ambient Condition Sensing Based on Wireless Internet Access

Increasing electronics content, growing computing power, and proliferation of opportunities for information connectivity (through improved sensors, GPS, road and traffic information systems, wireless internet access, vehicle-to-vehicle communication, etc.) are technology trends which can significantly transform and impact future automotive vehicle's control and diagnostic strategies. One aspect of the increasing vehicle connectivity is access to ambient and road condition information, such as ambient temperature, ambient pressure, humidity, % cloudiness, visibility, cloud ceiling, precipitation, rain droplet size, wind speed, and wind direction based on wireless internet access. The paper discusses the potential opportunities made available through wireless communication between the vehicle and the internet.