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Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Combustion Systems: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation

Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been investigated for many years but only recently have shown promise as a next generation gasoline engine technology. Much of this new enthusiasm is due to advances in the fuel injection system, which is now capable of producing a well-controlled spray with small droplets. A physical understanding of new combustion systems utilizing this technology is just beginning to occur. This analytical and experimental investigation with a research single-cylinder combustion system shows the benefits of in-cylinder gasoline injection versus injection of fuel into the intake port. Charge cooling with direct injection is shown to improve volumetric efficiency and reduce the mixture temperature at the time of ignition allowing operation with a higher compression ratio which improves the thermodynamic cycle efficiency.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Isentropic Pressure Observer Model

Exhaust pressures (P3) are hard parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature in the exhaust system makes the implementation of an exhaust pressure sensor in a vehicle control system a costly endeavor. The contention with measured P3 is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. A turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper. The model uses 4 main components; an open loop P3 orifice flow model, a model of isentropic expansion across the turbine, a turbine and pipe heat transfer models and an integrator with the deviation in the downstream turbine outlet parameter.
Journal Article

Transient Build-up and Effectiveness of Diesel Exhaust Gas Recirculation

Modern diesel engines employ a multitude of strategies for oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission abatement, with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) being one of the most effective technique. The need for a precise control on the intake charge dilution (as a result of EGR) is paramount since small fluctuations in the intake charge dilution at high EGR rates may cause larger than acceptable spikes in NOx/soot emissions or deterioration in the combustion efficiency, especially at low to mid-engine loads. The control problem becomes more pronounced during transient engine operation; currently the trend is to momentarily close the EGR valve during tip-in or tip-out events. Therefore, there is a need to understand the transient EGR behaviour and its impact on the intake charge development especially under unstable combustion regimes such as low temperature combustion.
Technical Paper

Transient A/F Estimation and Control Using a Neural Network

A new estimator for IC engine A/F ratio is described. A/F ratio is important for engine operation since it determines the quantities of engine emissions, such as HC, CO, NOx, the conversion efficiency of catalyst systems, and the engine combustion stability. The A/F ratio estimator described in this paper is based on a fundamental metric that relies on inducing and detecting crankshaft speed fluctuations caused by modulating the engine's fuel injection pulse widths. Fuel pulse width modulation varies the instantaneous combustion A/F ratio crankshaft velocity. Synchronous measurement of crankshaft velocity provides a metric that, when used with other engine state variables as inputs to a conventional neural network, can accurately estimate A/F ratio. The estimator provides A/F information when a physical sensor is not available.
Technical Paper

The Pulse Flame Combustor Revisited

The pulse flame combustor was adapted by researchers at Ford Motor Company in the early 1970s in order to produce exhaust gas simulating the combustion products of the internal combustion engine for the evaluation of automotive catalysts. Over the years, the pulse flame combustor has found application in a wide variety of research oriented tasks associated with automotive catalysts and emissions. More recent research and development efforts which have resulted due to elevated demands toward lower vehicle emission levels have prompted continuing refinements of the apparatus and effected innovative approaches to the study of emerging automotive catalyst and emission control issues with the pulse flame combustor. This report provides an overview of the operation and design evolution of the pulse flame combustor. In addition, recent applications of this laboratory device for studying automotive catalysts, alternative fuels, and other automotive emission control topics are reviewed.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Technical Paper

The New Ford 6.7L V-8 Turbocharged Diesel Engine

A new diesel engine, called the 6.7L Power Stroke® V-8 Turbocharged Diesel, and code named "Scorpion" has been designed and developed by Ford Motor Company for the full-size pickup truck and light commercial vehicle markets. It incorporates the latest design technology to meet 2010 model year emission regulations for both chassis and dynamometer-based certifications, and is compatible with up to B20 biodiesel fuel. The engine is an entirely new 90 degree V-8 design featuring inboard exhaust, piezo common rail fuel injection, a new dual compressor wheel turbocharger, and dual loop cooling systems. The 6.7L is Ford's first diesel engine designed for the North American pickup and light commercial truck market.
Technical Paper

The New 1.0l Supercharger Zetec RoCam Engine

The current Brazilian tax legislation promotes vehicles, powered by engines with up to 1.0l displacement. In order to offer the customer an engine with the maximum tax advantage, a supercharged derivative of the Ford 1.0l Zetec RoCam engine was developed. The market specific boundary conditions in South America require powertrains with immediate response especially at low engine speeds. This can be achieved by a supercharged engine concept. The paper discusses the required engine modifications for the supercharger application. The combustion system was changed to benefit from the higher volumetric efficiency, including the optimisation of the intake, exhaust and bypass control system. Extensive modifications of the base engine were required to adapt the engine to the higher thermal load and the specific boundary condition of a supercharger application.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Heat Treat Process and Alloy on the Surface Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Carburized Alloy Steel

Gas carburized and quenched low alloy steels typically produce surface microstructures which contain martensite, retained austenite and often NMTP's (non-martensitic transformation products). The NMTP's are caused by a reduction of surface hardenability in the carburizing process from loss of alloying elements to oxidation. Gas carburized low alloy steels such as SAE 8620 with NMTP's on the surface have been shown to have inferior bending fatigue properties when compared to more highly alloyed steels which do not form NMTP's, such as SAE 4615M. One method of minimizing the formation of oxides and eliminating NMTP formation during carburizing and quenching is to use plasma carburizing instead of conventional gas carburizing. In this study the microstructures and bending fatigue performance of plasma carburized SAE 8620 and SAE 4615M is compared to the same alloys conventionally gas carburized and quenched.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Design Constraints on Diesel Combustion System Size Scaling

A set of scaling laws were previously developed to guide the transfer of combustion system designs between diesel engines of different sizes [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ]. The intent of these scaling laws was to maintain geometric similarity of key parameters influencing diesel combustion such as in-cylinder spray penetration and flame lift-off length. The current study explores the impact of design constraints or limitations on the application of the scaling laws and the effect this has on the ability to replicate combustion and emissions. Multi dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were used to evaluate the relative impact of engine design parameters on engine performance under full load operating conditions. The base engine was first scaled using the scaling laws. Design constraints were then applied to assess how such constraints deviate from the established scaling laws and how these alter the effectiveness of the scaling effort.
Journal Article

The Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions from a Euro4 Diesel Vehicle

New European emissions legislation (Euro5) specifies a limit for Particle Number (PN) emissions and therefore drives measurement of PN during vehicle development and homologation. Concurrently, the use of biofuel is increasing in the marketplace, and Euro5 specifies that reference fuel must contain a bio-derived portion. Work was carried out to test the effect of fuels containing different levels of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) on particle number, size, mass and composition. Measurements were conducted with a Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) to time-resolve sub-micron particles (5-1000nm), and a Horiba Solid Particle Counting System (SPCS) providing PN data from a Euro5-compliant measurement system. To ensure the findings are relevant to the modern automotive business, testing was carried out on a Euro4 compliant passenger car fitted with a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine and using standard homologation procedures.
Technical Paper

The Future of the FREE-PISTON ENGINE in Commercial Vehicles

THIS paper describes the development and utilization of a new Ford free-piston power-plant, the model 519. Mr. Noren traces the development of the engine from the initial idea to the point where commercial utilization could be considered. Mr. Erwin describes one commercial use: in the Typhoon tractor. The ratio of size and weight to horsepower is favorable for farm tractors, being smaller and lighter than equivalent diesel engines. The performance of the tractor has been satisfactory thus far, operating smoothly and being practically vibration-free, with little noise. The advantages of the free-piston gasifier, as reported by the authors, are: flexibility, fuel economy, no need for auxiliary starting engine, economical manufacture of a wide range of engine sizes, adaptability to a wide range of fuels, and good torque characteristics.
Technical Paper

The Ford PROCO Engine Update

The Ford PROCO stratified charge engine combines the desirable characteristics of premixed charge and Diesel engines. The outstanding characteristics of premixed charge engines are their high specific output, wide speed range, light weight and easy startability but they exhibit only modest fuel economy and relatively high exhaust emissions. The desirable characteristic of the Diesel engine is its outstanding fuel economy. However, the disadvantages of the Diesel, which include noisy operation, limited speed range, exhaust odor, smoke, hard startability, and particulate emissions have tended to limit their acceptance. In the gasoline fueled, PROCO stratified charge engine, direct cylinder fuel injection permits operation at overall lean mixture ratios and higher compression ratio. These features enable the PROCO engine to achieve brake specific fuel consumption values in the range of prechamber diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Ford GT Transaxle - Tailor Made in 2 Years

This paper describes the rapid development of the Ford GT transmission, from concept phase to production, where the technical challenges involved are implicit in the specifications provided. It presents the steps taken at a project management level to expedite development, as well as the tools used to design and rate components at the design stage. Examples of concurrent engineering are given as well as management techniques used to predict and address key risks. In addition, details of analysis and test procedures are given, underlining their contribution to the rapid introduction of the transmission to the market place.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Small Fuel Droplets on Cold Engine Emissions Using Ford's Air Forced Injection System

The effect of port injected small fuel droplets was evaluated for several different modes of engine operation. The droplets were generated by an Air Forced Injector (AFI), Figure 1, which uses high velocity air through a nozzle to produce fuel droplets on the order of 10mm Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). AFI results were compared to those from a standard production pintle injector. Steady state data, “motored cold start” data, and injector cut-out data were collected. All three data sets illustrate functional advantages of AFI over standard Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI). Steady state testing showed that the AFI delivers complete freedom for specifying injection timing with respect to HC emissions. This freedom is highly advantageous for transient conditions because open valve injection with small droplets causes much less port wall wetting. Therefore, less control system compensation is necessary, and more accurate air-fuel ratio control is achievable.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injector Targeting and Fuel Volatility on Fuel Dynamics in a PFI Engine During Warm-up: Part II - Modeling Results

The effects of injector targeting and fuel volatility on transient fuel dynamics were studied with a comprehensive quasi-dimensional model and compared with experimental results from Part I of this report (1). The model includes the transient, convective vaporization of four multi-component fuel films coupled with a transient thermal warm-up model for realistic valve, port and cylinder temperatures (2, 3). Two injector targetings were analyzed, first with the fuel impacting the intake valve and in addition, the fuel impacting the port floor directly in front of the intake valve. The model demonstrates the importance of both component temperature and fuel impaction area on fuel vaporization, transient air fuel ratio (AFR) response and the amount of liquid fuel entering the cylinder. Generally, a smaller injector footprint area will lead to more liquid fuel entering the cylinder even if the spray is targeted at the back of the intake valve.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Charge Motion on Early Flame Kernel Development

The fiber optic spark plug was used in conjunction with a piezoelectric pressure transducer to collect combustion diagnostic data on four production engines designed to generate quiescent, swirl, and tumble charge motions. Spark advance was varied under low speed, low load conditions to investigate changes in flame kernel behavior and in-cylinder charge motion as functions of crank angle and spark advance. Two flame kernel models were filled to the data and a critical comparison of the models was conducted. Flame kernel behavior was represented by three values: convection velocity, growth rate, and convection direction. Convection velocity was highest in the swirl chambers. It also varied considerably among cylinders in the same engine. Growth rate correlated well with 0-2% burn but showed negligible correlations with later burn or IMEP. Convection direction proved useful in determining flow direction near the plug.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Aging Temperature and Air-Fuel Ratio on the NOx Storage Capacity of a Lean NOx Trap

This paper summarizes results from a study on the effects of aging temperature and A/F ratio on the NOx storage capacity of a lean NOx trap. When aged at stoichiometry at 700°C, the NOx storage capacity of the NOx trap dropped considerably during the first 200 hours of aging and then at a much slower rate beyond 200 hours. The NOx storage capacity dropped more rapidly as the aging temperature increased, with the drop in capacity particularly evident between 900°C and 1000°C. The drop in NOx capacity was significantly larger for samples aged with part-time lean operation and/or part-time rich operation than for samples aged continuously at stoichiometry. The detrimental effects of lean and rich operation increased as the temperature increased. A Pt/Al2O3 model catalyst was exposed to reducing conditions at temperatures ranging from 670°C to 1041°C and then to oxidizing conditions over the same temperature range, and in-situ XRD was used to investigate Pt particle coarsening.