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Technical Paper

the advantages of the new SAE standard for INVOLUTE SPLINES from a design standpoint

INVOLUTE SPLINES enjoy three major advantages over their straight-sided counterparts: 1. New design concepts have given a more rational approach to clearances and errors. 2. Manufacturing is cheaper and more accurate. 3. Gaging is simpler. Thus, the involute spline standard of SAE and ASA continue to take precedence over the older straight-sided standards.
Technical Paper

Wave Propagation in Catalytic Converters: A Preliminary Investigation

The present study investigates the wave propagation and attenuation in catalytic converters. The relationships for wave propagation in a catalytic monolith are derived first and then coupled to the wave propagation in tapered ducts. Analytical predictions are compared with experimental results to validate the theory.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Closure Sound Quality

This paper describes an investigation into the sound quality of passenger car and light truck closure sounds. The closure sound events that were studied included side doors, hoods, trunklids, sliding doors, tailgates, liftgates, and fuel filler doors. Binaural recordings were made of the closure sounds and presented to evaluators. Both paired comparison of preference and semantic differential techniques were used to subjectively quantify the sound quality of the acoustic events. Major psychoacoustic characteristics were identified, and objective measures were then derived that were correlated to the subjective evaluation results. Regression analysis was used to formulate models which can quantify customers perceptions of the sounds based on the objectively derived parameters. Many times it was found that the peak loudness level was a primary factor affecting the subjective impression of component quality.
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Vacuum EGR Valve Actuator Model

As part of a general EGR system model, an adiabatic thermodynamic vacuum EGR valve actuator model was developed and validated. The long term goal of the work is improved system operation by correctly specifying and allocating EGR system component requirements.
Technical Paper

User's View of Process Control Computer Systems Management

A survey of industrial control computer applications presently operational in this user's facilities revealed an approximate 50/50 division between those that were internally and externally implemented. Problems encountered in the planning, launching, and follow-up phase of system installation were found to be common to both internal and external system implementations and are categorized and evaluated as being inherent and environmental in nature. In an effort to avoid anticipated problems characteristic of a computerized installation, proper staffing as an inhouse project team is essential. During the process of developing inhouse talent, three plateaus of system implementation maturity are attained. These plateaus range from complete dependency upon outside assistance to “do it yourself” inhouse implementation. Flow charts are developed to depict typical decision paths leading to a plateau of system implementation most appropriate for the particular user “turnkey dilemma.”
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Use of E-Mail in Global Virtual Team: a Field Research

In nowadays market, highlighted by global products, companies are pushed to sell products that comply with legal and customer requirements in different countries and, not unusually, different continents. In order to achieve such challenge, and pressed to reduce project and production costs, companies are spreading design centers around the world, based on regional expertise. These excellence centers must work together to benefit from synergies and local skills from different regions. Such projects are staffed by Virtual Team (BINDER, 2007), whose members barely face each other. This means teams will work frequently with people they have never met, who live on different time zones and have different cultures. As a consequence, communication is done basically through computer-based media, mainly based on emailing, and must be even clearer and more direct than with the people who work on the next desk.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Mechanical Behavior of Threaded Fasteners in Thermoplastic Bosses Under Load

Because it is common to attach plastic parts to other plastic, metal, or ceramic assemblies with mechanical fasteners that are often stronger and stiffer than the plastic with which they are mated, it is important to be able to predict the retention of the fastener in the polymeric component. The ability to predict this information allows engineers to more accurately estimate length of part service life. A study was initiated to understand the behavior of threaded fasteners in bosses molded from engineering thermoplastic resins. The study examined fastening dynamics during and after insertion of the fastener and the effects of friction on the subsequent performance of the resin. Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures over a range of torques and loads using several fixtures that were specially designed for the study. Materials evaluated include modified-polyphenylene ether (M-PPE), polyetherimide (PEI), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), and polycarbonate (PC).
Technical Paper

Underhood Thermal Management by Controlling Air Flow

A series of tests were conducted to determine the potential for reducing vehicle underhood temperatures by either 1) diverting the radiator fan air flow from the engine compartment or 2) by forced air cooling of the exhaust manifold in conjunction with shielding it or 3) by a combination of the two methods. The test vehicle was a Ford F-250 Light Truck with a 7.5L V-8 engine. The vehicle was tested in a dynamometer cell equipped with cell blowers to simulate road speed conditions. It was found that diverting the outlet air from the radiator will reduce underhood component temperatures when the vehicle is in motion and also at normal idle. However, if the vehicle is to be used for power takeoff applications requiring a “kicked” idle, then forced cooling of the exhaust manifolds is also required to maintain reduced underhood temperatures. A combination of these two techniques maximized the reduction of underhood temperatures for all operating conditions tested.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Isentropic Pressure Observer Model

Exhaust pressures (P3) are hard parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature in the exhaust system makes the implementation of an exhaust pressure sensor in a vehicle control system a costly endeavor. The contention with measured P3 is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. A turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper. The model uses 4 main components; an open loop P3 orifice flow model, a model of isentropic expansion across the turbine, a turbine and pipe heat transfer models and an integrator with the deviation in the downstream turbine outlet parameter.
Technical Paper

Trends in Vehicle Personalizing

The “Information Age” and the growth of electronics on vehicles are driving forces behind the “personalized” vehicle. The vision is a responsive vehicle where the powertrain, ride, instrumentation and interior can be customized by the driver. A strategy to personalize the vehicle is presented; first, through market research to identify new features, and second, ergonomic design for easy to use displays and controls. Changes in society that are driving forces are discussed along with the counter balancing need for ergonomic design. Approaches to personalization, ergonomic principles, and technologies are presented.
Technical Paper

Transient Tire Properties

This paper identifies and analyzes steady-state and transient tire properties affecting vehicle directional response characteristics. The study is limited to the relationship between lateral force and slip angle. It shows fundamental differences between steady-state and transient properties. Tire transient properties are described by a force-slip angle loop with cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset as parameters. Cornering stiffness is presented as a variable that changes with speed and steer rate. An interrelationship between cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset resulting from the time lag between lateral force and slip angle is shown. Ramp steer techniques for measuring transient tire properties on a road trailer and on an external drum machine are described. A need for transient tire data for computer simulations of vehicle transient steer maneuvers is shown.
Technical Paper

Time-Resolved Measurement of Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions During Cold Start of a Spark-Ignited Engine

Speciated HC emissions from the exhaust system of a production engine without an active catalyst have been obtained with 3 sec time resolution during a 70°F cold start using two control strategies. For the conventional cold start, the emissions were initially enriched in light fuel alkanes and depleted in heavy aromatic species. The light alkanes fell rapidly while the lower vapor pressure aromatics increased over a period of 50 sec. These results indicate early retention of low vapor pressure fuel components in the intake manifold and exhaust system. Loss of higher molecular weight HC species does occur in the exhaust system as shown by experiments in which the exhaust system was preheated to 100° C. The atmospheric reactivity of the exhaust HC emissions for photochemical smog formation increases as the engine warms.
Technical Paper

TiAl-Based Alloys for Exhaust Valve Applications

The recent development of TiAl-based alloys by the aerospace community has provided an excellent material alternative for hot components in automotive engines. The low density combined with an elevated temperature strength similar to that of Ni-base superalloys make TiAl-based alloys very attractive for exhaust valve applications. Lighter weight valvetrain components improve performance and permit the use of lower valve spring loads which reduce noise and friction and enhance fuel economy. However, difficult fabricability and a perception that TiAl alloys are high cost, low volume aerospace materials must be overcome in order to permit consideration for use in high-volume automotive applications. This paper provides a comparison of properties for several exhaust valve alternative materials. The density of TiAl alloys is lower than Ti alloys with creep and fatigue properties equivalent to IN-751, a current high performance exhaust valve material.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Handling Model - A Symbolically Generated Vehicle Simulation Program Employing an Object-Oriented GUI

The Vehicle Handling Model (VHM) is representative of a new type of vehicle dynamics programs which can be easily used on a personal computer by vehicle development engineers. It consists of a simulation kernel which solves the vehicle equations of motion and a hypertext GUI which controls the model data input, execution, and post processing. The vehicle model has 5 DOF, including the vehicle lateral, vertical, yaw, pitch, and roll motions. The simulation also includes suspension compliance, a simple non-linear tire model, a wind gust model and a human driver model to provide realistic vehicle and steering inputs. The simulation program was generated by AUTOSIM which uses a high level description of the system to generate Fortran source code. The GUI allows an engineer to setup the model, run the analysis, and display the results with just a few clicks of the mouse.
Technical Paper

The Salt Spray Test - Past, Present, and Future

The salt spray test has been an industry wide standard corrosion test since its conception in 1914. A literary review of its history shows that it has· always been thought of as inconsistent and unreliable but, for a variety of reasons, has continued to be used. A study of more than 55 salt spray cabinets was performed using a controlled lot of parts and questionnaires on cabinet operation. Although the tested parts varied from mildly corroded to extremely rusted no factor could be found to account for the differences. Although the test has its uses it should be studied by an industry formed committee which should make recommendations as to further standardization and corrections to the test. A lengthy chronological bibliography aids the reader in further study and reference.
Technical Paper

The New Ford Aeromax and Louisville Heavy Trucks: A Case Study in Applying Polar Plot Techniques to Vehicle Design

One of the major goals in the design of the new Ford Aeromax and Louisville heavy truck product line was to achieve competitive leadership in visibility. Market research found that visibility was an important issue to the heavy truck driver. Visibility is defined as both direct and indirect (i.e., the driver's ability to see with and without the use of supplemental vision devices such as mirrors) and both interior and exterior. The scope of this paper includes the work which was accomplished in evaluating direct and indirect exterior visibility and the resulting vehicle design which achieved Ford's leadership goals. Poor weather visibility and interior vision are beyond the scope of this paper. Polar Plots were the method of choice in the Aeromax/Louisville visibility studies. Industry acceptance of these techniques has been established in the recent approval of SAE J1750, “Evaluating the Truck Driver's Viewing Environment”.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Test Site on Exterior Vehicle Noise Measurements

As the compliance with noise legislation became more difficult, Ford exhaust system development engineers increasingly encountered variances not only from vehicle-to-vehicle, but on the same vehicle tested in different locations. As a result, a series of tests were conducted to establish the correlation among various sites for vehicle exterior noise measurements. The purpose of this paper is to present the results and the method developed to achieve the correlation in terms of the following: 1. Ford and site equipment differences 2. Driver differences 3. Differences between site physical qualities Seven sites were evaluated in the program where seven vehicles were used with a good spread in exterior noise levels. A representative correlation plot is also presented which can be used to predict the expected noise level of any vehicle at any one of these test sites knowing the level obtained at the Ford site.
Journal Article

The Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions from a Euro4 Diesel Vehicle

New European emissions legislation (Euro5) specifies a limit for Particle Number (PN) emissions and therefore drives measurement of PN during vehicle development and homologation. Concurrently, the use of biofuel is increasing in the marketplace, and Euro5 specifies that reference fuel must contain a bio-derived portion. Work was carried out to test the effect of fuels containing different levels of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) on particle number, size, mass and composition. Measurements were conducted with a Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) to time-resolve sub-micron particles (5-1000nm), and a Horiba Solid Particle Counting System (SPCS) providing PN data from a Euro5-compliant measurement system. To ensure the findings are relevant to the modern automotive business, testing was carried out on a Euro4 compliant passenger car fitted with a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine and using standard homologation procedures.