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Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

The Salt Spray Test - Past, Present, and Future

The salt spray test has been an industry wide standard corrosion test since its conception in 1914. A literary review of its history shows that it has· always been thought of as inconsistent and unreliable but, for a variety of reasons, has continued to be used. A study of more than 55 salt spray cabinets was performed using a controlled lot of parts and questionnaires on cabinet operation. Although the tested parts varied from mildly corroded to extremely rusted no factor could be found to account for the differences. Although the test has its uses it should be studied by an industry formed committee which should make recommendations as to further standardization and corrections to the test. A lengthy chronological bibliography aids the reader in further study and reference.

The Future (& Past) of Electrified Vehicles

The presentation offers a brief history of the electric vehicle and parallels the realities of those early vehicles with the challenges and solutions of the electrified vehicles coming to market today. A technology evolution for every major component of these vehicles has now made this mode of transportation viable. The Focus Electric is Ford's first electric passenger car utilizing the advanced technology developments to meet the needs of electric car buyers in this emerging market. Presenter Charles Gray, Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of the Automobile Antenna in the United States and Europe-A Historic Retrospective, Part One: The First Forty Years

While one probably tends to think that car radios were invented and developed in the United States during the early twenties, it was actually in Chelmsford, England, that the first mobile experiments took place. Designed by Guglielmo Marconi, the first mobile installation antenna on record goes back to 1897. On the other side of the Atlantic, the experiments of Guglielmo Marconi were continued by the Americans Lee Deforest and Edwin Armstrong, who set the foundations of radio early in the twentieth century. Lee DeForest had been one of the prime advocates of “automobiles as wireless stations.” Early in 1903, and as told by a magazine of that era, “he fitted his instruments to automobiles so that the electricity which propels the automobile while in motion can be used for wireless telegraphy when the automobile is at a standstill”.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of the Automobile Antenna in the United States and Europe — A Historic Retrospective — Part Two — The Last Fifty Years

The evolution and development of the automobile radio antenna is perhaps one of the most neglected success stories in the automotive industry. Born in the twilight of the last century, it evolved from a simple wire wrapped around a tree branch, to the current heated rear screen or backlite antenna. Part One (SAE No. 870090) described seven types of antennas in detail, covering the period 1897-1937. It was shown how the early radio engineers, struggling to develop a viable car antenna, had displayed a great degree of creativity and flexibility, from the “firecracker” experiments of Guglielmo Marconi in 1897, to the ingenious systems developed to overcome the problems created by the all-metal Turret-Top vehicles introduced by General Motors in 1934. In those pioneering days, the United States public was having a love affair with both the automobile and radio broadcasting, so it was no surprise that their marriage did not take long to arrive.
Technical Paper

The Basic Nature of Vehicle Understeer-Oversteer

This paper gives a comprehensive analysis of vehicle understeer-oversteer, utilizing theoretical and experimental approaches. It departs from the conventional by defining understeer-oversteer in the transient as well as in the steady-state condition under various types of inputs. The relationship between understeer-oversteer and directional and oscillatory stability is stated within this concept. The paper introduces new definitions, based on transient condition analysis, for direct and indirect understeer, directional and oscillatory stability, side-slip velocity, and others. It employs a computer program evolved from the equations of motion, shown in the comprehensive Appendix, to analyze the basic nature of understeer-oversteer. New procedures are outlined for quantitative determination of vehicle understeer and stability. The paper discusses the relationships between understeer, oscillatory stability, and the subjective “feel” of passenger automobiles.
Technical Paper

The Assessment and Use of Linear Static FE Stress Analyses for Durability Calculations

This paper considers some aspects of the use of linear elastic FE analysis as a basis for durability calculations. It specifically considers problems that can be treated as quasi-static and describes the use of inertia relief. However, much of the discussion is also applicable to situations that can better be represented as dynamic. It provides guide-lines for FE modelling for durability analyses including the requirements for mesh quality and for load and boundary condition definition. It also describes a novel way of looking at surface stress information, and reviews some of the methods of getting from linear elastic FE stresses and load histories to realistic elastic-plastic stress and strain histories.
Technical Paper

The Aerodynamic Development of the 1986 European Ford Transit

THIS PAPER GIVES an overview of the aerodynamic development of a medium commercial vehicle. It deals with the setting out and achievement of the objectives of reducing aerodynamic drag as well as other aspects of aerodynamic design development such as engine cooling, heating and ventilating and sensitivity to side winds. Reference is made to measures taken to develop heater intake designs which are suitable for a low resistance vehicle with a fast attached flow over most of the forward surfaces. At the time of initial design studies, the Ford of Europe windtunnel in Cologne, West Germany, had not yet been commissioned and it was necessary therefore to adapt testing methods to suite the different windtunnels which were used at various stages of the development programme.
Journal Article

Target Setting Principles and Methods in the Product Development Cycle

Vehicle target setting is an evolving process based on continually changing internal (management, standards) and external (competitive and legal) requirements. In addition to evolving requirements, the process for establishing and documenting targets may not be clear. The objective of this paper is to detail the overall process of target setting, the critical factors to consider, and key definitions for each stage of the process. It will describe the complete process from early competitive benchmarking to final verification testing. Setting targets for a vehicle requires definition and thorough benchmarking of the competition, an understanding of the key attributes used to describe the vehicles' performance, and a clearly defined set of requirements. These requirements will be regulatory, corporate and competitively based and grouped by clearly defined, customer perceived attributes which can be cascaded to specific vehicle systems.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Vehicle High Mileage NVH Performance

High mileage NVH performance is one of the major concerns in vehicle design for long term customer satisfaction. The current paper is concerned with performance analysis of high mileage vehicles which cover four automobile manufacturers and five vehicle families of the same weight class based on subjective evaluation data. The analysis includes the assessment of five vehicle families from the following aspects: overall and NVH performances, performance by individual attribute, degradation history of each vehicle family, performance variation within each vehicle family. Since the data are statistical in nature, statistical methods are employed, numerically and graphically, in the analysis. The performance categories which exhibit most degradation are identified. The analysis method presented in this paper is applicable to any high mileage vehicle fleet subjective data. The knowledge derived in the study can be used as a guideline in designing vehicles for high mileage NVH robustness.
Technical Paper

Software Architecture for a Driver Information System

This paper describes the software architecture for the Driver Information System available in the 1985 Lincoln Continental Mark VII. This CRT-based system consists of a redefineable touch screen and designated feature keys. An overview is provided describing some of the system features, including a discussion relating to the ergonomic considerations which were given to the product's overall design. Definition of, and interaction between, major components is discussed, including details pertaining to the input conditioning, multiple CPU communication, screen prioritization, and interrupt handling.
Technical Paper

Silicon Microstructures: Merging Mechanics with Electronics

We review the advantages of silicon micromachining in manufacturing low-cost, high-volume, mechanical sensors. The characteristics of the technology are discussed and contrasted with those of typical milling operations. We describe the fabrication of simple mechanical elements to explain how micromachined parts can be manufactured in large numbers with a high degree of dimensional control. These parts are the key components of cost-effective, high performance pressure, flow, and acceleration sensors that are gradually penetrating the automotive market.
Technical Paper

Service Bay Diagnostic System

The Service Bay Diagnostic System (SBDS) will be designed to assist the dealership technician in diagnosing and repairing Ford Motor vehicles. The system hardware will be configured around a Service Bay Computer with mass storage capability and auxiliary service equipment. Major system features include: guided service writer/customer interaction, interactive vehicle diagnostics, information management. capabilities, and an additional aid to identifying intermittent failures through the use of a portable over-the-road data acquisition device. In order to assist the technician in properly diagnosing the causal factor, the Service Bay Computer System will also be enhanced through the use of an expert system knowledge base.
Technical Paper

Reliability Analysis Techniques

A measure of functional degradation or its surrogate is more informative than attribute data such as failure time when improving designs or developing meaningful tests. This paper delineates the advantages and disadvantages of using degradation data, and the situations under which one should or should not use degradation analysis. A comparison has been done between degradation testing, testing to failure, and bogey testing. The steps necessary to apply degradation analysis techniques to product design have been described: determine scope of the project, plan degradation test, collect data, analyze data, and document results. A case study has been used to demonstrate the whole process of degradation analysis techniques.
Technical Paper

Regimes of Premixed Turbulent Combustion and Misfire Modeling in SI Engines

A review of flame kernel growth in SI engines and the regimes of premixed turbulent combustion showed that a misfire model based on regimes of premixed turbulent combustion was warranted[1]. The present study will further validate the misfire model and show that it has captured the dominating physics and avoided extremely complex, yet inefficient, models. Results showed that regimes of turbulent combustion could, indeed, be used for a concept-simple model to predict misfire limits in SI engines. Just as importantly, the entire regimes of premixed turbulent combustion in SI engines were also mapped out with the model.
Technical Paper

Rapid Characterization of I.C. Engine In-Cylinder Flow at Spark: A Synergistic Approach Using Experimental and Numerical Simulations

A new methodology for rapidly characterizing the in-cylinder flow field at spark ignition for internal combustion engines is described in this paper. The process involves the use of 3-D particle tracking velocimetry to measure the flow field at intake valve closing (IVC) in a water analog engine simulation, and the use of CFD to compute the evolution of the measured flow field during the compression stroke, by using the experimental 3-D PTV results at IVC as the initial condition for the calculations. The technique has been applied to investigate the in-cylinder flow field of a typical 4 valve engine operating in two different modes; one or two intake ports active. The results indicate that in either mode the flow field at IVC is dominated by a different large scale structure: tumble in the case where both intake ports are active and swirl in the case where only one port is active. The results also indicate that these structures evolve differently during the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Inputs for Vehicle System Analysis

General methods are discussed for organization and quantification of input conditions for vehicle system analysis. The input considerations are discussed for vehicle ride comfort prediction and vehicle component fatigue life estimation problems. The paper presents an overview of current work in the areas of quantification of road surface inputs to vehicles and the representation of vehicle maneuver environments for use in vehicle system analysis.
Technical Paper

Powder Metallurgy Parts Quality is a Partnership

Under a new program of quality control in the field of powder metallurgy automotive parts called quality assurance, the supplier is made a closer partner with the buyer to get a more dependable part that consistently meets all requirements and specifications. The quality assurance program consists of review of potential suppliers, contract negotiations, initial quality assurance surveys, and routine quality assurance surveys.
Technical Paper

Oscillating Heat Transfer in Reversing Pipe Flow

Oscillating heat transfer is a fundamental phenomenon occurring in Stirling machines and IC engines. A group of relevant dimensionless numbers which characterize this problem is identified by dimensional analysis. The convective heat transfer coefficient, or Nusselt number, is a function of the Reynolds number, the Prandtl number, plus the dynamic Reynolds number and the dimensionless amplitude, when compressibility is not considered. The case for compressible fluid is more complicated. An experiential study confirms above analysis and results in a nonlinear longitudinal fluid temperature distribution in the pipe. The history effect is found to affect the heat transfer rate remarkably. A correlation equation for Nusselt number is obtained by multivariate analysis.