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Technical Paper

Wear Protection Properties of Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Lubricants

A laboratory wear test is used to evaluate the wear protection properties of new and used engine oils formulated for FFV service. Laboratory-blended mixtures of these oils with methanol and water have also been tested. The test consists of a steel ball rotating against three polished cast iron discs. Oil samples are obtained at periodic intervals from a fleet of 3.0L Taurus vehicles operating under controlled go-stop conditions. To account for the effects of fuel dilution, some oils are tested before and after a stripping procedure to eliminate gasoline, methanol and other volatile components. In addition to TAN and TBN measurements, a capillary electrophoresis technique is used to evaluate the formate content in the oils. The results suggest that wear properties of used FFV lubricants change significantly with their degree of usage.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Structure Durability Analysis

Due to several indeterminate factors, the assessment of the durability performance of a vehicle body is traditionally accomplished using test methods. An analytical fatigue life prediction method (four-step durability process) that relies mainly on numerical techniques is described in this paper. The four steps comprising this process include the identification of high stress regions, recognizing the critical load types, determining the critical road events and calculation of fatigue life. In addition to utilizing a general purpose finite element analysis software for the application of the Inertia Relief technique and a previously developed fatigue analysis program, two customized programs have been developed to streamline the process into an integrated, user-friendly tool. The process is demonstrated using a full body, finite element model.
Technical Paper

Upfront Durability CAE Analysis for Automotive Sheet Metal Structures

Automotive product development requires higher degree of quality upfront engineering, faster CAE turn-around, and integration with other functional requirements. Prediction of potential durability concerns using analytical methods for sheet metal structures subjected to road loads and other customer uses has become very important. A process has been developed to provide design direction based upon peak loads, simultaneous peak loads, and vehicle program analytical or measured loads. It identifies critical loads at each input location and load sets for multiple input locations, filters load time histories, selects critical areas and analyzes for fatigue life. Several case studies have been completed. The results show that the variations are consistent with the accuracies in finite element analysis, road load data acquisition, and fatigue calculation methods.
Technical Paper

Tire Treadwear Experiment Using Taguchi Methods

An experiment has been conducted to study the effect of vehicle alignment, tire construction and operational conditions on tire treadwear. The Taguchi approach was used to compose the experimental design and to analyze the data. The treadwear testing was conducted on the indoor test machine; this test duplicates the treadwear pattern observed during road test. The responses of interest were total wear, irregular wear patterns, and diagonal wear. The study quantified the relative importance of different factors to treadwear and also the degree of wear irregularity.
Journal Article

Thermophysical Properties Measurement of Interior Car Materials vs. Temperature and Mechanical Compression

Thermophysical properties of materials used in the design of automotive interiors are needed for computer simulation of climate conditions inside the vehicle. These properties are required for assessment of the vehicle occupants' thermal sensation as they come in contact with the vehicle interior components, such as steering wheels, arm rests, instruments panel and seats. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the thermophysical properties of materials which are required for solving the non-linear Fourier equations with any boundary conditions and taking into account materials' specific heat, volume density, thermal conductivity, and thermal optical properties (spectral and total emissivity and absorptivity). The model and results of the computer simulation will be published in a separate paper.
Technical Paper

The Use of Frequency Domain Vibration Methods for Automotive Component Durability

A simple CAE method of predicting the performance of a component during sine testing has been developed and applied to the practical case of an automotive component. The slow frequency sweep rate during a test is represented as a sequence of steady state conditions. Direct frequency response analysis at the limited number of frequencies is conducted and results used as a basis for prediction of fatigue damage using the Palmgren-Miner rule. The total damage during the test is calculated by linear summation of the damage during each frequency interval. This technique is completely general and can be applied even if there are multiple inputs to the component. A simple extension enables application to engine testing and other cases where excitation may be expressed as a Fourier series expansion of periodic excitations.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Heat Treat Process and Alloy on the Surface Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Carburized Alloy Steel

Gas carburized and quenched low alloy steels typically produce surface microstructures which contain martensite, retained austenite and often NMTP's (non-martensitic transformation products). The NMTP's are caused by a reduction of surface hardenability in the carburizing process from loss of alloying elements to oxidation. Gas carburized low alloy steels such as SAE 8620 with NMTP's on the surface have been shown to have inferior bending fatigue properties when compared to more highly alloyed steels which do not form NMTP's, such as SAE 4615M. One method of minimizing the formation of oxides and eliminating NMTP formation during carburizing and quenching is to use plasma carburizing instead of conventional gas carburizing. In this study the microstructures and bending fatigue performance of plasma carburized SAE 8620 and SAE 4615M is compared to the same alloys conventionally gas carburized and quenched.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Calcium Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Plain Carbon (SAE 1050) Steel

The influence of calcium treatment on the mechanical properties of a plain carbon steel (SAE 1050) was investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were tensile and impact strength, fatigue crack growth rate, and the fatigue threshold. Impact testing was conducted at both room temperature and at -40°C. Several heats of both calcium and non-calcium treated steel (SAE 1050) were tested in both the as hot-rolled condition and in the quenched and tempered condition (with a hardness level of HRC = 45). The results of this investigation show no significant difference in the tensile properties or room temperature impact properties between the calcium treated and the non-calcium treated steels. However, the impact strengths of calcium treated steels were slightly higher than that of non-calcium treated steels at -40°C.
Technical Paper

The Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Multi-Spot-Welded Structures

The fatigue strength of spot welds in a multi-spot-welded structure is one of the key issues of concern for achieving structural durability and optimum design in automobile industry. In this study, a global-local fatigue life prediction method is proposed to predict the fatigue life of spot welds in multi-spot-welded structures. In this method, the remote stress-strain field away from the spot-welds, calculated from a global coarse finite element model, is assumed to be acceptable, and is used to recover the stress-strain information of the spot-welds. To improve the accuracy of the remote stress-strain field, an “equivalent” spot weld element is also proposed. The method makes it feasible to predict the fatigue life of spot welds without constructing a detailed finite element model for each spot weld. The method will help reduce finite element model size and save time.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Stress Absorbing Layers on the Wear Behavior of Painted Plastic Substrates

Erosion damage to automotive car bodies caused by stones and small sand particles and road debris significantly affects the appearance of paint. Painted engineering plastics as well as precoated sheet steel are affected by erosion phenomenon. Erosion of painted plastic substrates results in cosmetic concerns while that on metal substrates results in cosmetic to perforation corrosion. This work describes a laboratory simulation of erosion of painted plastic substrates by small particles on various paint and substrate types. Gloss loss was used to quantitatively evaluate erosion of painted surfaces. Wear behavior of painted plastic substrates to slag sand impact was evaluated as a function of several variables including paint type (one-component melamine crosslinked (1K) vs. two-component isocyanate crosslinked (2K)), thermal history, and coating modulus. The effect of slag sand type (particle size and chemical composition) was studied.
Technical Paper

The Build-Up of Oil Dilution by Gasoline and the Influence of Vehicle Usage Pattern

The dilution of lubricating oil by fuel has adverse effects on engine wear, oil lubricity, air/fuel ratio control and feedgas emissions. Dilution is one of the factors limiting oil change intervals. The level and rate of accumulation depend on engine operating conditions and patterns of vehicle use. The work reported here develops and evaluates an empirical model to predict accumulation characteristics. This is aligned to requirements for predictions of dilution build-up in service. Predictions are shown to be in good agreement with data given in the literature. The model is used to investigate the influence of patterns of vehicle use on dilution.
Technical Paper

Steel Powders for High Performance Automotive Parts

Increased use of powder-forged connecting rods in the automotive industry prompted an investigation into the suitability of powders from different suppliers for this application. Specifications developed by North American users call for ultra clean powders to enhance machinability and fatigue life. Powders from four manufacturers were each blended with graphite and lubricant, then pressed, sintered and forged to full density. Metallographic samples were prepared and evaluated for inclusion content. In addition, the powders were mixed to the composition of connecting rods, (C - 0.5%, Cu - 2% and MnS - 0.3%), and were similarly pressed, sintered and forged. Test bars were machined from the forged discs. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed in the tension-compression mode and strain-life curves were developed. It was determined that all powders examined were very clean and were comparable in their inclusion content.
Technical Paper


PROPER protection of metal parts operating as bearing surfaces, or in contact under relatively heavy loads, during the break-in period often means the difference between successful operation and failure. Various surface coatings have been investigated to discover which ones will give this protection. The authors discuss here three types of surface treatment for cast-iron and steel that do give superior wear and scuff resistance.
Technical Paper

Response of Aluminum Alloys to Temperature Exposures Observed in Automotive Service

This report presents results of experiments to determine the effect of elevated temperature exposures on the mechanical properties of aluminum alloy materials. The two alloys studied, 5754 and 6111, are of the types which would be used in a stamped automobile structure and exterior panels. Yield strength, tensile strength, and total elongation are reported for a variety of test conditions. The material temperature exposures simulated a broad range of conditions which might be experienced during manufacturing operations such as adhesive curing and vehicle paint bake cycles. In addition, tests were conducted at temperatures to resemble in-service under-hood and under body (near the exhaust system) conditions. Materials were prestrained various amounts prior to temperature exposure to simulate metal forming processes. Results show that both materials react to temperature and aging times differently.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Inputs for Vehicle System Analysis

General methods are discussed for organization and quantification of input conditions for vehicle system analysis. The input considerations are discussed for vehicle ride comfort prediction and vehicle component fatigue life estimation problems. The paper presents an overview of current work in the areas of quantification of road surface inputs to vehicles and the representation of vehicle maneuver environments for use in vehicle system analysis.
Technical Paper

Powerplant NVH Benchmarking

Getting Powerplant NVH Benchmarking right is a key first step in knowing where your design stands relative to its competition and what needs to be improved in order to achieve or maintain NVH leadership. It is through benchmarking that you can define industry trends, who gets it right, who doesn't, and why. A good benchmarking database also lets you estimate the improvements or deterioration due to engine architecture changes or design features. This paper describes a methodology used for selecting, measuring, and comparing powerplant NVH attributes.
Technical Paper

Power Steering System Key-Life Test Procedure Development

As part of an effort to develop a laboratory steering system durability test, power steering system test procedure development was conducted. Fatigue damage to steering systems caused by road roughness was quantified utilizing data recorded from instrumented test vehicles and customer survey results. In addition, data recorded from customer vehicles were employed to determine fatigue damage to steering systems caused by driving style and road style inputs. Proving ground steering system test procedures that generate the same amount of damage to a steering system as that accumulated by the design target percentile customer for the design target miles of public road usage were developed.
Technical Paper

Outside-Engine Wear Study of Ceramic Coated Cylinder Wall Tribo-System

This research focuses on study of feasibility of using ceramic oxide coatings on the cylinder wall of hypoeutectic aluminum silicon alloy engine blocks. Coatings are achieved in an aqueous electrolytic bath and composed of both alpha and gamma phases of Al2O3 and have shown promising wear resistance. Composition and acidity level of the electrolyte creates a variation of surface roughness, coating hardness and thickness which has direct influence on the wear behavior of the sliding surfaces. The effect of load bearing and coating morphology on coefficient of friction was studied. SEM images of the substrate showed no predominant wear behavior or delamination. Coefficient of friction and wear rate were also measured. This study shows the importance of surface structure on oil retention and wear rate. Coarser coatings can be desirable under starved oil condition since they show lower coefficient of friction.
Technical Paper

On the Determination of Strain Energy Functions of Rubbers

Methodology of determining coefficients of material strain energy functions of rubbers from experimental measurements of homogeneous deformations is examined within the scope of the 3rd order deformation theory [3]. Closed-form solutions of most frequently employed material testing deformations - simple tensile, pure shear and equal bi-axial deformations - are examined to reveal the shortcomings of using any one deformation in characterizing the strain energy function, In order to obtain a more representative material strain energy function, employment of more than one homogenous deformation is recommended along with improved material sampling. In situations, however, where data from simple-tensile deformation alone are available a set of constraints on the coefficients have been derived that improves the extrapolation characteristics of the fitted function.