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Technical Paper

Windshield Wiper Linkage Analysis

The Kinematic Analysis Methods Computer Program that has been used by Ford Motor Co. to evaluate mechanisms for the past four years has been modified to generate performance curves for windshield wiper linkages directly using a Calcomp Plotter. Problems such as stalling, “jerky” operation, and excessive phase lag between wipers can be detected early in the design stages by careful evaluation of the curves.
Journal Article

Vehicle Sideslip Angle EKF Estimator based on Nonlinear Vehicle Dynamics Model and Stochastic Tire Forces Modeling

This paper presents the extended Kalman filter-based sideslip angle estimator design using a nonlinear 5DoF single-track vehicle dynamics model with stochastic modeling of tire forces. Lumped front and rear tire forces have been modeled as first-order random walk state variables. The proposed estimator is primarily designed for vehicle sideslip angle estimation; however it can also be used for estimation of tire forces and cornering stiffness. This estimator design does not rely on linearization of the tire force characteristics, it is robust against the variations of the tire parameters, and does not require the information on coefficient of friction. The estimator performance has been first analyzed by means of computer simulations using the 10DoF two-track vehicle dynamics model and underlying magic formula tire model, and then experimentally validated by using data sets recorded on a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Fingerprint Process

The dynamic characteristics of a vehicle are an important part of the driver's experience. Ford Motor Company is actively pursuing a leadership role in this arena. To achieve this goal, all the necessary information to complete the vehicle dynamics picture of a vehicle must be gathered in an efficient and well-organized manner. A process was developed to fingerprint a vehicle so that this information could drive vehicle tuning, new Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models, correlate existing CAE models, support problem resolution and conduct target setting. This paper will discuss a Vehicle Dynamics Fingerprint Process in detail and explain the steps involved.
Technical Paper

User's View of Process Control Computer Systems Management

A survey of industrial control computer applications presently operational in this user's facilities revealed an approximate 50/50 division between those that were internally and externally implemented. Problems encountered in the planning, launching, and follow-up phase of system installation were found to be common to both internal and external system implementations and are categorized and evaluated as being inherent and environmental in nature. In an effort to avoid anticipated problems characteristic of a computerized installation, proper staffing as an inhouse project team is essential. During the process of developing inhouse talent, three plateaus of system implementation maturity are attained. These plateaus range from complete dependency upon outside assistance to “do it yourself” inhouse implementation. Flow charts are developed to depict typical decision paths leading to a plateau of system implementation most appropriate for the particular user “turnkey dilemma.”
Technical Paper

Understanding the Mechanical Behavior of Threaded Fasteners in Thermoplastic Bosses Under Load

Because it is common to attach plastic parts to other plastic, metal, or ceramic assemblies with mechanical fasteners that are often stronger and stiffer than the plastic with which they are mated, it is important to be able to predict the retention of the fastener in the polymeric component. The ability to predict this information allows engineers to more accurately estimate length of part service life. A study was initiated to understand the behavior of threaded fasteners in bosses molded from engineering thermoplastic resins. The study examined fastening dynamics during and after insertion of the fastener and the effects of friction on the subsequent performance of the resin. Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures over a range of torques and loads using several fixtures that were specially designed for the study. Materials evaluated include modified-polyphenylene ether (M-PPE), polyetherimide (PEI), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), and polycarbonate (PC).
Technical Paper

Understanding Vehicle Roll Using Mechanism Simulation Software

Suspension roll centers are currently used to establish vehicle handling characteristics such as under-steer and feel. Roll centers were developed to help understand vehicle designs on paper. Computers and mechanism simulation software allows vehicle models to be built and analyzed. Analyzing forces and moments may be a better technique as opposed to modeling suspension roll centers. A proposed method is to look directly at forces applied to the vehicle body and moments resulting from the applied forces. This force-moment method includes the effects of load transfer and tread change, which are not accounted for by geometric roll centers.
Technical Paper

Transient Tire Properties

This paper identifies and analyzes steady-state and transient tire properties affecting vehicle directional response characteristics. The study is limited to the relationship between lateral force and slip angle. It shows fundamental differences between steady-state and transient properties. Tire transient properties are described by a force-slip angle loop with cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset as parameters. Cornering stiffness is presented as a variable that changes with speed and steer rate. An interrelationship between cornering stiffness and dynamic lateral force offset resulting from the time lag between lateral force and slip angle is shown. Ramp steer techniques for measuring transient tire properties on a road trailer and on an external drum machine are described. A need for transient tire data for computer simulations of vehicle transient steer maneuvers is shown.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Handling Model - A Symbolically Generated Vehicle Simulation Program Employing an Object-Oriented GUI

The Vehicle Handling Model (VHM) is representative of a new type of vehicle dynamics programs which can be easily used on a personal computer by vehicle development engineers. It consists of a simulation kernel which solves the vehicle equations of motion and a hypertext GUI which controls the model data input, execution, and post processing. The vehicle model has 5 DOF, including the vehicle lateral, vertical, yaw, pitch, and roll motions. The simulation also includes suspension compliance, a simple non-linear tire model, a wind gust model and a human driver model to provide realistic vehicle and steering inputs. The simulation program was generated by AUTOSIM which uses a high level description of the system to generate Fortran source code. The GUI allows an engineer to setup the model, run the analysis, and display the results with just a few clicks of the mouse.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Heat Treat Process and Alloy on the Surface Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Carburized Alloy Steel

Gas carburized and quenched low alloy steels typically produce surface microstructures which contain martensite, retained austenite and often NMTP's (non-martensitic transformation products). The NMTP's are caused by a reduction of surface hardenability in the carburizing process from loss of alloying elements to oxidation. Gas carburized low alloy steels such as SAE 8620 with NMTP's on the surface have been shown to have inferior bending fatigue properties when compared to more highly alloyed steels which do not form NMTP's, such as SAE 4615M. One method of minimizing the formation of oxides and eliminating NMTP formation during carburizing and quenching is to use plasma carburizing instead of conventional gas carburizing. In this study the microstructures and bending fatigue performance of plasma carburized SAE 8620 and SAE 4615M is compared to the same alloys conventionally gas carburized and quenched.
Journal Article

The Effects of Sulfur Poisoning and Desulfation Temperature on the NOx Conversion of LNT+SCR Systems for Diesel Applications

A laboratory study was performed to assess the effects of sulfur poisoning and desulfation temperature on the NO conversion of a LNT+(Cu/SCR) in-situ system. Four LNT+(Cu/SCR) systems were aged for 4.5 hours without sulfur at 600, 700, 750, and 800°C using A/F ratio modulations to represent 23K miles of desulfations at different temperatures. NO conversion tests were performed on the LNT alone and on the LNT+SCR system using a 60 s lean/5 s rich cycle. The catalysts were then sulfur-poisoned at 400°C and desulfated four times and re-evaluated on the 60/5 tests. This test sequence was repeated 3 more times to represent 100K miles of desulfations. After simulating 23K miles of desulfations, the Cu-based SCR catalysts improved the NO conversion of the LNT at low temperatures (e.g., 300°C), although the benefit decreased as the desulfation temperature increased from 600°C to 800°C.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Copper Level and Solidification Rate on the Aging Behavior of a 319-Type Cast Aluminum Alloy

Compositional and microstructural variations in a casting can often result in rather significant variations in the response to a given aging treatment, leading to location dependent mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of copper content and solidification rate on the aging behavior of a type 319 cast aluminum alloy. The nominal composition of the alloy is Al-7% Si-3.5% Cu-0.25% Mg, however, typical secondary 319 aluminum specifications allow copper levels to vary from 3-4%. Solidification rates throughout a casting can vary greatly due to, among other factors, differences in section size. To determine the effect of copper level and solidification rate on the aging response, aging curves were experimentally developed for this alloy. Three different copper levels (3, 3.5, 4%) and two solidification rates were used for this study. Aging temperatures ranged from 150-290°C with nine aging times at each temperature.
Technical Paper

The Basic Nature of Vehicle Understeer-Oversteer

This paper gives a comprehensive analysis of vehicle understeer-oversteer, utilizing theoretical and experimental approaches. It departs from the conventional by defining understeer-oversteer in the transient as well as in the steady-state condition under various types of inputs. The relationship between understeer-oversteer and directional and oscillatory stability is stated within this concept. The paper introduces new definitions, based on transient condition analysis, for direct and indirect understeer, directional and oscillatory stability, side-slip velocity, and others. It employs a computer program evolved from the equations of motion, shown in the comprehensive Appendix, to analyze the basic nature of understeer-oversteer. New procedures are outlined for quantitative determination of vehicle understeer and stability. The paper discusses the relationships between understeer, oscillatory stability, and the subjective “feel” of passenger automobiles.
Technical Paper


APPLICATIONS of nuclear energy in automotive manufacture have been made principally in the field of radioactivity. These are grouped under the following categories: radiography, nondestructive testing, gaging and control, tracer techniques, and static neutralizers. Radioactivity techniques are being used in foundry operations to check stock and metal levels in cupolas and distribution of element additives. In steel operations, these techniques are being used to check assimilation of ore-concentrate fines and thickness of rolled sheet steel. Other applications include measurement of pipe and wall thickness in pressure lines and engines, and inspection of castings and welds for internal faults. Radioactive techniques for improving processes, quality, and materials have potentially universal application. Greater industrial access to reactors will permit broader study and speed the development of new applications of radio-activity in industry.
Technical Paper

Sustainable Control System Development in Tomorrow's Vehicles: Technology Leadership Brief

The tremendous growth of complexity in automotive control system electronics in the past 30 years has driven the industry to employ ever more advanced development techniques, ranging from formally managing functional architecture to employing more sophisticated functional safety development processes. The industry now finds itself facing emerging trends that will include more vehicle electrification, connectivity, personalization, and automation. Contextual and location awareness will also play larger roles. In light of these trends, vehicle control development processes will need to continue to evolve. This paper will explore some of the challenges that automakers will face as they move to incorporate these new technologies.
Technical Paper

Supplier Improvement Process Plan

Ford Motor Company Powertrain Engineering instituted an innovative Work Process Plan designed to evaluate, develop, and improve it's selected long-term supplier base. This process was implemented in 1987 and continues to function improving our suppliers capabilities in the areas of Product & Manufacturing Engineering, Quality, Production Control, and Sales/Purchasing Interaction. A pilot Supply Base Development, Casting and Machining team was set -up in July, 1987 to assist the casting, machining, piston, and ring supply base. The success of this team lead to the fornation of three additional Supply Base Development teams within the following year to assist suppliers in Sealing, Assemblies, and Front End Accessory Drive (FEAD) commodities.
Technical Paper

Study of Stick-Slip Friction between Plunging Driveline

Driveline plunge mechanism dynamics has a significant contribution to the driver's perceivable transient NVH error states and to the transmission shift quality. As it accounts for the pitch or roll movements of the front powerplant and rear drive unit, the plunging joints exhibit resisting force in the fore-aft direction under various driveline torque levels. This paper tackles the difficult task of quantifying the coefficient of static friction and the coefficient of dynamic friction in a simple to use metric as it performs in the vehicle. The comparison of the dynamic friction to the static friction allows for the detection of the occurrence of stick-slip in the slip mechanism; which enables for immediate determination of the performance of the design parameters such as spline geometry, mating parts fit and finish, and lubrication. It also provides a simple format to compare a variety of designs available to the automotive design engineer.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Simulation Method for CAE Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation and Design Robustness Analysis

This work presents a statistical approach for simulation based on Monte Carlo method. As an exercise of the method a CAE vehicle dynamics model was specifically created to evaluate the likelihood to meet a given target driving a maneuver for given inputs variations. In the exercise, three different inputs were chosen as stochastic inputs (also called noise factors) and all relevant information about their statistics has been raised, based in components information. The chosen inputs are: front/rear dampers curves, front/rear ride heights and tire surface temperature. A brief description of the Monte Carlo technique is presented. The choice of this method is due to the reduced number of simulations required to have a given accuracy in comparison with other approaches, especially for multivariable system. As output variable for the exercise, the tire patch height was chosen and the resulting probability density function of it is presented.
Technical Paper

Steel Powders for High Performance Automotive Parts

Increased use of powder-forged connecting rods in the automotive industry prompted an investigation into the suitability of powders from different suppliers for this application. Specifications developed by North American users call for ultra clean powders to enhance machinability and fatigue life. Powders from four manufacturers were each blended with graphite and lubricant, then pressed, sintered and forged to full density. Metallographic samples were prepared and evaluated for inclusion content. In addition, the powders were mixed to the composition of connecting rods, (C - 0.5%, Cu - 2% and MnS - 0.3%), and were similarly pressed, sintered and forged. Test bars were machined from the forged discs. Uniaxial fatigue tests were performed in the tension-compression mode and strain-life curves were developed. It was determined that all powders examined were very clean and were comparable in their inclusion content.
Technical Paper

Statistical Energy Analysis for Road Noise Simulation

Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is being actively pursued in the automotive industry as a tool for vehicle high frequency noise and vibration analysis. A D-class passenger car SEA model has been developed for this purpose. This paper describes the development of load cases for the SEA model to simulate road noise on rumble road. Chassis roll test with rough shells was performed to simulate rumble road noise. Sound radiation from tire patch and vibration transmission through spindles were measured to construct the SEA load cases. Correlation between SEA model predictions and measured data was examined. Test and SEA result comparisons have shown that simulation of airborne road noise requires only a trimmed body SEA model, while simulation of structure-borne road noise may require SEA modeling of chassis components.
Technical Paper

Shudder and Frictional Characteristics Evaluation of Dual Clutch Transmission Fluids

Under the initiative of The United States Council for Automotive Research LLC (USCAR) [1], we have developed and run comprehensive friction tests of dual clutch transmission fluids (DCTFs). The focus of this study is to quantify the anti-shudder durability over a simulated oil life of 75,000 shifts. We have evaluated six DCT fluids, including 2 fluids with known field shudder performance. Six different tests were conducted using a DC motor-driven friction test machine (GK test bench): 1. Force Controlled Continuous Slip, 2. Dynamic Friction, 3. Speed controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 4. Motor-torque controlled Acceleration-Deceleration, 5. Static Friction, and 6. Static Break-Away. The test fluids were aged (with the clutch system) on the test bench to create a realistic aging of the entire friction system simultaneously.