Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

Weldability Prediction of AHSS Stackups Using Artificial Neural Network Models

Typical automotive body structures use resistance spot welding for most joining purposes. New materials, such as Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are increasingly used in the construction of automotive body structures to meet increasingly higher structural performance requirements while maintaining or reducing weight of the vehicle. One of the challenges for implementation of new AHSS materials is weldability assessment. Weld engineers and vehicle program teams spend significant efforts and resources in testing weldability of new sheet metal stack-ups. In this paper, we present a methodology to determine the weldability of sheet metal stack-ups using an Artificial Neural Network-based tool that learns from historical data. The paper concludes by reviewing weldability results predicted by using this tool and comparing with actual test results.
Technical Paper

Wear Protection Properties of Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Lubricants

A laboratory wear test is used to evaluate the wear protection properties of new and used engine oils formulated for FFV service. Laboratory-blended mixtures of these oils with methanol and water have also been tested. The test consists of a steel ball rotating against three polished cast iron discs. Oil samples are obtained at periodic intervals from a fleet of 3.0L Taurus vehicles operating under controlled go-stop conditions. To account for the effects of fuel dilution, some oils are tested before and after a stripping procedure to eliminate gasoline, methanol and other volatile components. In addition to TAN and TBN measurements, a capillary electrophoresis technique is used to evaluate the formate content in the oils. The results suggest that wear properties of used FFV lubricants change significantly with their degree of usage.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Particle Size Distributions: A Comparison of Tailpipe and Dilution Tunnel Measurements

This paper explores the extent to which standard dilution tunnel measurements of motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter modify particle number and size. Steady state size distributions made directly at the tailpipe, using an ejector pump, are compared to dilution tunnel measurements for three configurations of transfer hose used to transport exhaust from the vehicle tailpipe to the dilution tunnel. For gasoline vehicles run at a steady 50 - 70 mph, ejector pump and dilution tunnel measurements give consistent results of particle size and number when using an uninsulated stainless steel transfer hose. Both methods show particles in the 10 - 100 nm range at tailpipe concentrations of the order of 104 particles/cm3.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Mechanical Behavior of Threaded Fasteners in Thermoplastic Bosses Under Load

Because it is common to attach plastic parts to other plastic, metal, or ceramic assemblies with mechanical fasteners that are often stronger and stiffer than the plastic with which they are mated, it is important to be able to predict the retention of the fastener in the polymeric component. The ability to predict this information allows engineers to more accurately estimate length of part service life. A study was initiated to understand the behavior of threaded fasteners in bosses molded from engineering thermoplastic resins. The study examined fastening dynamics during and after insertion of the fastener and the effects of friction on the subsequent performance of the resin. Tests were conducted at ambient temperatures over a range of torques and loads using several fixtures that were specially designed for the study. Materials evaluated include modified-polyphenylene ether (M-PPE), polyetherimide (PEI), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), and polycarbonate (PC).
Technical Paper

Trends on Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming Processes

Present models and methods for simulations of sheet metal forming processes are reviewed in this paper. Because of rapid progress of computer hardware, complex computations, formerly impossible to perform due to high computational cost, are now feasible. Therefore, more realistic and computational intensive models are suggested for finite elements, materials, and frictional forces. Also, simulation methods suitable for sheet metal forming processes are recommended. Four numerical examples at the end of the paper are presented to support the recommendations.
Technical Paper

Titania Exhaust Gas Sensor for Automotive Applications

The change in the resistance of titanium dioxide with oxygen partial pressure is utilized to obtain an air-to-fuel ratio sensor. TiO2 material properties, sensor components and performance characteristics are discussed. Some results of engine dynamometer and vehicle tests of sensor performance and durability are presented.
Technical Paper

TiAl-Based Alloys for Exhaust Valve Applications

The recent development of TiAl-based alloys by the aerospace community has provided an excellent material alternative for hot components in automotive engines. The low density combined with an elevated temperature strength similar to that of Ni-base superalloys make TiAl-based alloys very attractive for exhaust valve applications. Lighter weight valvetrain components improve performance and permit the use of lower valve spring loads which reduce noise and friction and enhance fuel economy. However, difficult fabricability and a perception that TiAl alloys are high cost, low volume aerospace materials must be overcome in order to permit consideration for use in high-volume automotive applications. This paper provides a comparison of properties for several exhaust valve alternative materials. The density of TiAl alloys is lower than Ti alloys with creep and fatigue properties equivalent to IN-751, a current high performance exhaust valve material.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reliability Prediction of Automotive Electronic Packaging

The paper briefly reviews the current and future needs for automotive electronic packaging technology and the related reliability issues. Reliability approaches based upon physics-of-failure are discussed, and an example is given to illustrate the importance of understanding the root cause of failure and the application of a state-of-the-art approach to life prediction of leadless solder joints under thermal cycling. An introduction is also given to the recent development of the CAIR (Computer Aided Interconnect Reliability) system developed at Ford for reliability prediction of solder interconnects in automotive electronic packaging. The system integrates a number of software modules using a user interface and allows for evaluation of critical design parameters within a short period of time. The system is intended to implement the “prevention mode” into the product design process to meet the increasing reliability demand and to reduce cost and cycle time.
Technical Paper

The Relationship Between Catalyst Hydrocarbon Conversion Efficiency and Oxygen Storage Capacity

Measurements of oxygen storage capacity (OSC) and HC conversion efficiency for 17 catalysts were carried out in the laboratory. All catalysts with steady state HC efficiency below 90% were found to have roughly equivalent and very low capacities to store oxygen. However, catalyst oxygen storage capacity was seen to rise sharply with HC conversion efficiency in excess of 90 percent. These results parallel the trends which are observed between rear HEGO/EGO indexes for OBD-II catalyst monitoring and HC conversion efficiency. In addition, temperature programed reduction (TPR) was found to lend insight into the relationship between catalyst OSC and HC conversion efficiency by providing a qualitative understanding of the mechanisms by which OSC deteriorates. TPR profiles showed that most of the usable oxygen storage is derived from surface ceria which is interacted with precious metals.
Technical Paper

The P2000S Unitized Sport Utility Vehicle Body Structure

The P2000S body structure was designed as part of an advanced research project to determine the feasibility of a high volume, lightweight sport utility vehicle (SUV) that would achieve performance targets of the newly emerging “City SUV” market by developing a unitized (no frame) SUV body structure fabricated principally of aluminum. In order to be viable, this body structure was required to meet all safety, durability, NVH and other functional attributes of a truck while having the ride characteristics of a sedan. This paper describes the P2000S body structure including the structural philosophy, project constraints on the design, manufacturing processes, supporting analyses, assembly processes and unique material and design concepts which resulted in the 50% body structure weight reduction in comparison to similar sized body-on-frame production steel sport utility vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Heat Treat Process and Alloy on the Surface Microstructure and Fatigue Strength of Carburized Alloy Steel

Gas carburized and quenched low alloy steels typically produce surface microstructures which contain martensite, retained austenite and often NMTP's (non-martensitic transformation products). The NMTP's are caused by a reduction of surface hardenability in the carburizing process from loss of alloying elements to oxidation. Gas carburized low alloy steels such as SAE 8620 with NMTP's on the surface have been shown to have inferior bending fatigue properties when compared to more highly alloyed steels which do not form NMTP's, such as SAE 4615M. One method of minimizing the formation of oxides and eliminating NMTP formation during carburizing and quenching is to use plasma carburizing instead of conventional gas carburizing. In this study the microstructures and bending fatigue performance of plasma carburized SAE 8620 and SAE 4615M is compared to the same alloys conventionally gas carburized and quenched.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Calcium Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Plain Carbon (SAE 1050) Steel

The influence of calcium treatment on the mechanical properties of a plain carbon steel (SAE 1050) was investigated. The mechanical properties investigated were tensile and impact strength, fatigue crack growth rate, and the fatigue threshold. Impact testing was conducted at both room temperature and at -40°C. Several heats of both calcium and non-calcium treated steel (SAE 1050) were tested in both the as hot-rolled condition and in the quenched and tempered condition (with a hardness level of HRC = 45). The results of this investigation show no significant difference in the tensile properties or room temperature impact properties between the calcium treated and the non-calcium treated steels. However, the impact strengths of calcium treated steels were slightly higher than that of non-calcium treated steels at -40°C.
Technical Paper

The Fourier Transform Applied to Vehicle Exterior Noise Source Identification

This paper discusses a motor vehicle noise source identification technique designed for use during the SAE J986a or similar drive-by test procedure. It provides, by application of the Fourier Transform, the capability to obtain a narrowband (9.8 Hz) frequency resolution over an extended frequency range (0-10,000 Hz) at the peak vehicle noise level, a particular RPM, or a particular vehicle location in the test zone. Other features include corrections for the Doppler shift, averaging of noise tests, and subtraction of spectra of two separate noise tests from a component disconnect/reconnect procedure. The above analysis, in conjunction with the noise source isolation resulting directly from the disconnect procedure, identifies the major vehicle noise contributors in terms of their respective amplitudes and frequencies.
Technical Paper

The Ford Aluminum Beaker Test: A New Tool for the Study of ATF Oxidation

A small-scale oxidation test for automatic transmission fluids has been developed. In the test air flow rates, temperature and catalytic activity can be closely controlled at desired levels. A test procedure for screening automatic transmission fluids is described. Data are presented illustrating the ability of the test to distinguish between different levels of oxidation resistance, the repeatability of the test, and the correlation achieved thus far with a presently used full-scale transmission oxidation test.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Stress Absorbing Layers on the Wear Behavior of Painted Plastic Substrates

Erosion damage to automotive car bodies caused by stones and small sand particles and road debris significantly affects the appearance of paint. Painted engineering plastics as well as precoated sheet steel are affected by erosion phenomenon. Erosion of painted plastic substrates results in cosmetic concerns while that on metal substrates results in cosmetic to perforation corrosion. This work describes a laboratory simulation of erosion of painted plastic substrates by small particles on various paint and substrate types. Gloss loss was used to quantitatively evaluate erosion of painted surfaces. Wear behavior of painted plastic substrates to slag sand impact was evaluated as a function of several variables including paint type (one-component melamine crosslinked (1K) vs. two-component isocyanate crosslinked (2K)), thermal history, and coating modulus. The effect of slag sand type (particle size and chemical composition) was studied.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mileage on Emissions and Emission Component Durability by the Fuel Additive Methylcyclopentadiencyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT)

Vehicle emissions have been measured and the results statistically evaluated for a vehicle test fleet consisting of four Escorts and four Explorers using both a fully formulated durability fuel doped with methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) at 1/32 gram Mn/gallon and the same fully formulated durability fuel without the MMT. The fleet was divided in half -- half with MMT and half without MMT doped fuel. This report covers emission measurement results at 5,000; 15,000; 50,000 and 100,000 miles of exposure to MMT doped fuel. A modified paired t-test is used to analyze the emission data obtained from all the fleet vehicles. The statistical evaluation of both feedgas and tailpipe emissions indicate that the use of MMT is detrimental to emissions of HC at the 15,000 mile; 50,000 mile and 100,000 mile levels of MMT exposure. As mileage is accumulated, the pronounced the effect on HC by the fuel additive MMT.
Technical Paper

The Effect of MMT on the OBD-11 Catalyst Efficiency Monitor

The effect of MMT on the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor has been investigated. The results conclusively show that manganese which is deposited onto the catalyst during the combustion of MMT- containing fuel provides for an increased level of catalyst oxygen storage capacity. This added oxygen storage was found to result in a reduced rear EGO sensor response and caused malfunctioning catalysts to be incorrectly diagnosed by the OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitor.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Copper Level and Solidification Rate on the Aging Behavior of a 319-Type Cast Aluminum Alloy

Compositional and microstructural variations in a casting can often result in rather significant variations in the response to a given aging treatment, leading to location dependent mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of copper content and solidification rate on the aging behavior of a type 319 cast aluminum alloy. The nominal composition of the alloy is Al-7% Si-3.5% Cu-0.25% Mg, however, typical secondary 319 aluminum specifications allow copper levels to vary from 3-4%. Solidification rates throughout a casting can vary greatly due to, among other factors, differences in section size. To determine the effect of copper level and solidification rate on the aging response, aging curves were experimentally developed for this alloy. Three different copper levels (3, 3.5, 4%) and two solidification rates were used for this study. Aging temperatures ranged from 150-290°C with nine aging times at each temperature.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Chemicals and Solvents on Plastics -An Engineering Practice Guide

The presence of a foreign substance on or within a polymer often affects the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of the material. The change in strength and rigidity of a polymer resulting from the plasticizing action of a sorbed chemical or due to the withdrawal of an added plasticizer by the leaching operation can seriously affect the useful life of the material. In the real engineering world, incompatible chemicals and lubricants get onto various plastic components unexpectedly through design, manufacturing processes, customers services and repairs. This paper presents a number of case-studies which illustrate how undesirable chemicals found on plastic parts can affect product performance and cause damage to the parts.
Technical Paper


APPLICATIONS of nuclear energy in automotive manufacture have been made principally in the field of radioactivity. These are grouped under the following categories: radiography, nondestructive testing, gaging and control, tracer techniques, and static neutralizers. Radioactivity techniques are being used in foundry operations to check stock and metal levels in cupolas and distribution of element additives. In steel operations, these techniques are being used to check assimilation of ore-concentrate fines and thickness of rolled sheet steel. Other applications include measurement of pipe and wall thickness in pressure lines and engines, and inspection of castings and welds for internal faults. Radioactive techniques for improving processes, quality, and materials have potentially universal application. Greater industrial access to reactors will permit broader study and speed the development of new applications of radio-activity in industry.