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Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

A Feedgas HC Emission Model for SI Engines Including Partial Burn Effects

A model is presented which incorporates the key mechanisms in the formation and reduction of unburned HC emissions from spark ignited engines. The model includes the effects of piston crevice volume, oil layer absorption / desorption, partial burns, and in-cylinder and exhaust port oxidation. The mechanism for the filling and emptying of the piston crevice takes into account the location of the flame front so that the flow of both burned gas and unburned gas is recognized. Oxidation of unburned fuel is calculated with a global, Arrhenius-type equation. A newly developed submodel is included which calculates the amount of unburned fuel to be added to the cylinder as a result of partial burns. At each crankangle, the submodel compares the rate of change of the burned gas volume to the rate of change of the cylinder volume.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

A Heavy Truck Cab Suspension for Improved Ride

This paper presents a simplified concept of the cab-over-engine tractor ride problem. It discusses ways ride can be improved and the reasons cab suspension was chosen as the preferred solution. It describes the Ford CL-9000 cab suspension, explains why it improves ride and includes some data to indicate the benefits that are realized.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

A New FEA Method for the Evaluation of a Body Joint

A finite element analysis method has been developed to assess the design of an automobile body joint. The concept of the coefficient of joint stiffness and the force distribution ratio are proposed accordingly. The coefficient of joint stiffness reveals whether a joint is stiff enough compared to its joining components. In addition, these parameters can be used to estimate the potential and the effectiveness for any further improvement of the joint design. The modeling and analysis of the proposed process are robust. The coefficient of joint stiffness could be further developed to serve as the joint design target.
Technical Paper

A New Port and Cylinder Wall Wetting Model to Predict Transient Air/Fuel Excursions in a Port Fuel Injected Engine

We have developed a new wall wetting model to predict the transient Air/Fuel ratio excursion in a port fuel injected (PFI) engine due to changes in air or fuel flow. The quasi-dimensional model accounts for fuel films both in the port as well as in the cylinder of a PFI engine and includes the effects of back-flow on the port fuel films to redistribute and vaporize the fuel. A multi-component fuel model is included in the simulation; it gives realistic fuel behavior and allows the effects of different fuel distillation curves to be studied. The multi-component fuel model calculates the changing composition of the fuel puddles in the port and cylinder during the cycle. The inclusion of an in-cylinder fuel film allows the model to be used for cold start conditions down to 290 K. The model uses the Reynold's analogy to calculate the fuel vaporization process and uses a boundary layer calculation to solve for the liquid film flow.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on Borderline Knock

The effects of engine operating conditions on the octane requirement and the resulting knock-limited output were studied on a single cylinder engine using production cylinder heads. A 4-valve cylinder head with port deactivation was used to study the effect of fuel octane, inlet air temperature, coolant temperature, air/fuel ratio, compression ratio and exhaust back pressure. The effect of the thermal environment was studied in more detail using separate cooling systems for the cylinder head and engine block on a 2-valve cylinder head. The results of this study compared closely with results found in the literature even though the engine and/or operating conditions were quite different in many cases.
Technical Paper

A Small Displacement DI Diesel Engine Concept for High Fuel Economy Vehicles

The small-displacement direct-injection (DI) diesel engine is a prime candidate for future transportation needs because of its high thermal efficiency combined with near term production feasibility. Ford Motor Company and FEV Engine Technology, Inc. are working together with the US Department of Energy to develop a small displacement DI diesel engine that meets the key challenges of emissions, NVH, and power density. The targets for the engine are to meet ULEV emission standards while maintaining a best fuel consumption of 200g/kW-hr. The NVH performance goal is transparency with state-of-the-art, four-cylinder gasoline vehicles. Advanced features are required to meet the ambitious targets for this engine. Small-bore combustion systems enable the downsizing of the engine required for high fuel economy with the NVH advantages a four- cylinder has over a three-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

A Structural Ceramic Diesel Engine-The Critical Elements

A structural ceramic diesel engine has the potential to provide low heat rejection and significant improvements in fuel economy. Analytical and experimental evaluations were conducted on the critical elements of this engine. The structural ceramic components, which included the cylinder, piston and pin, operated successfully in a single cylinder engine for over 100 hours. The potential for up to 8-11% improvement in indicated specific fuel consumption was projected when corrections for blow-by were applied. The ringless piston with gas squeeze film lubrication avoided the difficulty with liquid lubricants in the high temperature piston/cylinder area. The resulting reduction in friction was projected to provide an additional 15% improvement in brake specific fuel consumption for a multi-cylinder engine at light loads.
Technical Paper

A Study on Ride-Down Efficiency and Occupant Responses in High Speed Crash Tests

In vehicle crash tests, an unbelted occupant's kinetic energy is absorbed by the restraints such as an air bag and/or knee bolster and by the vehicle structure during occupant ride-down with the deforming structure. Both the restraint energy absorbed by the restraints and the ride-down energy absorbed by the structure through restraint coupling were studied in time and displacement domains using crash test data and a simple vehicle-occupant model. Using the vehicle and occupant accelerometers and/or load cell data from the 31 mph barrier crash tests, the restraint and ride-down energy components were computed for the lower extremity, such as the femur, for the light truck and passenger car respectively.
Technical Paper

A Time-Domain Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Vehicle Body Structures

Fatigue analysis using finite element models of a full vehicle body structure subjected to proving ground durability loads is a very complex task. The current paper presents an analytical procedure for fatigue life predictions of full body structures based on a time-domain approach. The paper addresses those situations where this kind of analysis is necessary. It also discusses the major factors (e.g., stress equivalencing procedure, cycle counting method, event lumping and load interactions) which affect fatigue life predictions in the procedure. A comparison study is conducted which explores the combination of these factors favorable for realistic fatigue life prediction. The concepts are demonstrated using a body system model of production size.
Technical Paper

Additional Notes on Finite Element Models of Deformable Featureless Headform

Model characteristics of a finite element deformable featureless headform with one to four layers of solid elements for the headform skin are studied using both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH codes. The models use a viscoelastic material law whose constitutive parameters are established through comparisons of drop test simulations at various impact velocities with the test data. Results indicate that the one-layer model has a significant distinct characteristic from the other (2-to-4-layer) models, thus requiring different parametric values. Similar observation is also noticed in simulating drop tests with one and two layers of solid elements for the headform skin using PAM-CRASH. When using the same parametric values for the viscoelastic material, both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH simulations yield the same results under identical impact conditions and, thereby, exhibit a “functional equivalency” between these two codes.
Technical Paper

An Algorithm to Compensate for Air Charge Prediction Errors

Various methods are available to predict future cylinder air charge for improved air/fuel control. However, there can never be perfect prediction. This paper presents an algorithm to correct for imperfect cylinder charge prediction. This is done by expanding the air/fuel control boundary to include the catalyst, and correcting prediction errors as soon as possible using small corrective changes to later cylinder fuel inputs. The method was experimentally tested and showed improved air/fuel control as indicated by reduced variability of catalyst downstream air/fuel ratio. Additional vehicle testing showed potential to further reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

An Analytical Method for Determining Engine Torque Harmonics for Use With Up Front CAE

An analytical method for determining engine torque harmonics is presented. The approach employs an engine cycle simulation model to calculate instantaneous cylinder pressure for each operating condition based on engine characteristics that can be determined experimentally and/or analytically. Cylinder pressure is converted to instantaneous torque from which harmonics are determined using an FFT algorithm. A description of the cycle simulation model, including required data, is presented. The method is validated by presenting correlation results at a number of operating conditions (i.e. engine speeds and loads) comparing analytical versus test driveline torque harmonics. Finally, limitations in the method as well as possible extensions to the method are discussed.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Local Heating as a Means of Fuel Evaporation for Gasoline Engines

The technique of evaporating fuel by localized heating before entering the intake manifold is evaluated as a means of improving A/F ratio control. Techniques currently in use are briefly discussed, and attempts to analyze fuel evaporation in S.I. engines are reviewed. A test fixture which includes all the essential features of production feasible hardware is used to develop a basis of understanding for the evaporation process. Tests are conducted on a flow bench using water as “fuel”, and on an engine using isooctane and gasoline. A heat-mass transfer analogy is described and used to predict evaporation rates for water and isooctane. Predicted and measured rates are compared for both bench and engine tests. Engine tests with gasoline show the ability of the test configuration to evaporate all part throttle fuel flow before it enters the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

An Objective Approach to Highway Truck Frame Design

The design requirements for the frame as a load carrying member are discussed in relationship to a highway truck and its basic vehicle package. The theoretical and experimental procedures are given in detail to demonstrate the techniques for frame design. The features of a method to laboratory test a frame with correlation to service miles is discussed.