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Technical Paper

Wear Protection Properties of Flexible Fuel Vehicle (FFV) Lubricants

A laboratory wear test is used to evaluate the wear protection properties of new and used engine oils formulated for FFV service. Laboratory-blended mixtures of these oils with methanol and water have also been tested. The test consists of a steel ball rotating against three polished cast iron discs. Oil samples are obtained at periodic intervals from a fleet of 3.0L Taurus vehicles operating under controlled go-stop conditions. To account for the effects of fuel dilution, some oils are tested before and after a stripping procedure to eliminate gasoline, methanol and other volatile components. In addition to TAN and TBN measurements, a capillary electrophoresis technique is used to evaluate the formate content in the oils. The results suggest that wear properties of used FFV lubricants change significantly with their degree of usage.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Prediction for Multigrade Oils

The variation of viscosity with temperature and shear rate plays an important role in the analysis of lubrication of automotive systems. In this paper, a method for predicting the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids, such as multigrade engine oils, over a wide range of temperatures and shear rates is outlined. This expression determines viscosity parameters for shear thinning fluids in terms of easily measured viscosity values at some reference state. A comparison of predictions with experimental data suggests that viscosity for multigrade engine oils can be predicted to within experimental uncertainty. The proposed method can be used in assessing lubricant viscosity at shear rates greater than 106 s-1, which are beyond the capability of current laboratory instruments. A comparative study with multigrade oils shows that performance at very high shear rates cannot be accurately gauged from high temperature, high shear (HTHS) viscosity measurements.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Control for Start-Stop Powertrains with Automatic Transmissions

The 2013 Ford Fusion will be launched with an optional automatic engine start-stop feature. To realize engine start-stop on a vehicle equipped with a conventional powertrain, there are two major challenges in the vehicle system controls. First, the propulsive torque delivery from a stopped engine has to be fast. The vehicle launch delay has to be minimized such that the corporate vehicle attributes can be met. Second, the fuel economy improvement offered by this technology has to justify the cost associated with it. In pursuing fuel economy, the driver's comfort and convenience should be minimally impacted. To tackle these challenges, a vehicle system control strategy has been developed to accurately interpret the driver's intent, monitor the vehicle subsystem's power demands, schedule engine automatic stop and re-start, and coordinate the fast and smooth torque delivery to the wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Particle Size Distributions: A Comparison of Tailpipe and Dilution Tunnel Measurements

This paper explores the extent to which standard dilution tunnel measurements of motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter modify particle number and size. Steady state size distributions made directly at the tailpipe, using an ejector pump, are compared to dilution tunnel measurements for three configurations of transfer hose used to transport exhaust from the vehicle tailpipe to the dilution tunnel. For gasoline vehicles run at a steady 50 - 70 mph, ejector pump and dilution tunnel measurements give consistent results of particle size and number when using an uninsulated stainless steel transfer hose. Both methods show particles in the 10 - 100 nm range at tailpipe concentrations of the order of 104 particles/cm3.
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Variability in Hydrocarbon Speciation Measurements at Low Emission (ULEV) Levels

As vehicle tailpipe emission levels decrease with improvements in emission control technology and reformulation of gasolines, exhaust hydrocarbon levels begin to approach the levels in ambient air. Hydrocarbon speciation at these low levels requires high sensitivity capillary gas chromatography methods. In this study, a mixture of “synthetic” exhaust was prepared at two concentration levels (approximately 5 ppm C and 10 ppm C), and was analyzed by the widely-used Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP) Phase II (gas chromatography) speciation method with a sensitivity of 0.005 ppm C for individual species. The mixture at each concentration level, along with a sample of ambient air, was analyzed a total of 20 times on 10 separate days over a 2½ week period. Concentrations of total hydrocarbons (HCs) and individual species (using the AQIRP library) were measured; averages and standard deviations were calculated.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Combustion Systems: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation

Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines have been investigated for many years but only recently have shown promise as a next generation gasoline engine technology. Much of this new enthusiasm is due to advances in the fuel injection system, which is now capable of producing a well-controlled spray with small droplets. A physical understanding of new combustion systems utilizing this technology is just beginning to occur. This analytical and experimental investigation with a research single-cylinder combustion system shows the benefits of in-cylinder gasoline injection versus injection of fuel into the intake port. Charge cooling with direct injection is shown to improve volumetric efficiency and reduce the mixture temperature at the time of ignition allowing operation with a higher compression ratio which improves the thermodynamic cycle efficiency.
Technical Paper

Two Alternative, Dielectric-Effect, Flexible-Fuel Sensors

This paper describes two types of dielectric-effect sensors that may be used as alternatives to a dielectric-effect sensor using a single capacitor. In the first type, three capacitors are mounted in a compact module inserted into a vehicle fuel line. The three capacitors are connected together to form an electrical pi-filter network. This approach provides a large variation of output signal as the fuel changes from gasoline to methanol. The sensor can be designed to operate in the 1 to 20 MHz frequency range. The second type of sensor investigated uses a resonant-cavity structure. Ordinarily, sensors based on resonant cavities are useful only if the operating frequency is several hundred MHz or higher. The high relative dielectric constant of methanol allows useful sensors to be built using relatively short lengths of metal tubing for the cavities. For example, a sensor built using a fuel rail only 38.7 cm long operated in a frequency range from 31 to 52 MHz.
Technical Paper

Treatment of Natural Gas Vehicle Exhaust

The objective of this study is to investigate the removal of methane (CH4), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon monoxide (CO) from simulated natural gas vehicle (NGV) exhaust over a palladium catalyst. The effects of changes in space velocity and natural gas sulfur (S) content were studied. The study suggests that the NGV has to be operated slightly rich of stoichiometry to achieve simultaneous removal of the three constituents. The CH4 conversion decreases with an increase in the space velocity. The CO and NO conversions remain unaffected over the space velocity range (10,000 hr-1 to 100,000 hr-1) investigated. The presence of sulfur dioxide in the exhaust lowers the CH4 conversion and increases the CO conversion in the rich region. The NO conversion remains unaffected. Studies were conducted over model catalysts to investigate the modes of CH4 removal from the simulated NGV exhaust.
Technical Paper

Transient Heat Transfer of 42V Ni-MH Batteries for an HEV Application

While a Ni-MH battery has good performance properties, such as a high power density and no memory effect, it needs a powerful thermal management system to maintain within the required narrow thermal operating range for the 42V HEV applications. Inappropriate battery temperatures result in degradation of the battery performance and life. For the battery cooling system, air is blown into the battery pack. The exhaust is then vented outside due to potential safety issues with battery emissions. This cooling strategy can significantly impact fuel economy and cabin climate control. This is particularly true when the battery is experiencing frequent charge and discharge of high-depths in extreme hot or cold weather conditions. To optimize performance and life of HEV traction batteries, the battery cooling design must keep the battery operation temperature below a maximum value and uniform across the battery cells.
Journal Article

Towards an Optimum Aftertreatment System Architecture

Aftertreatment system design involves multiple tradeoffs between engine performance, fuel economy, regulatory emission levels, packaging, and cost. Selection of the best design solution (or “architecture”) is often based on an assumption that inherent catalyst activity is unaffected by location within the system. However, this study acknowledges that catalyst activity can be significantly impacted by location in the system as a result of varying thermal exposure, and this in turn can impact the selection of an optimum system architecture. Vehicle experiments with catalysts aged over a range of mild to moderate to severe thermal conditions that accurately reflect select locations on a vehicle were conducted on a chassis dynamometer. The vehicle test data indicated CO and NOx could be minimized with a catalyst placed in an intermediate location.
Technical Paper

TiAl-Based Alloys for Exhaust Valve Applications

The recent development of TiAl-based alloys by the aerospace community has provided an excellent material alternative for hot components in automotive engines. The low density combined with an elevated temperature strength similar to that of Ni-base superalloys make TiAl-based alloys very attractive for exhaust valve applications. Lighter weight valvetrain components improve performance and permit the use of lower valve spring loads which reduce noise and friction and enhance fuel economy. However, difficult fabricability and a perception that TiAl alloys are high cost, low volume aerospace materials must be overcome in order to permit consideration for use in high-volume automotive applications. This paper provides a comparison of properties for several exhaust valve alternative materials. The density of TiAl alloys is lower than Ti alloys with creep and fatigue properties equivalent to IN-751, a current high performance exhaust valve material.
Technical Paper

Throttle Body at Engine Idle - Tolerance Effect on Flow Rate

A small airflow rate at engine idle is required to maintain a low engine speed and to save fuel consumption. Since the throttle plate is almost closed at idle, the plate and bore tolerance becomes important in determining the plate open area and thus the airflow rate. The objective of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis as a tool to aid throttle body design and to find out how the tolerance affects the airflow rate. Also, the conventional equation for calculating the throttle plate open area is modified to include the leakage area which is no longer negligible at idle. Throttle bodies with plate closed angles of 4.0 and 4.5 degrees under tight and loose fit conditions were studied. The flow regions above and below the plate are connected by a narrow region between the plate and the bore. This sudden change in flow area creates a big pressure loss across the plate.
Technical Paper

Thermal Reactor - Design, Development and Performance

Thermal reactor systems have been designed to assist in the development of a low emission concept vehicle to meet exhaust emission goals of 0.82 gm/mile hydrocarbon, 7.1 gm/mile carbon monoxide, and 0.68 gm/mile nitrogen oxides established by the Inter-Industry Emission Control (IIEC) Program. The reactor includes design features required for acceptable life characteristics, together with the quick warm-up necessary to achieve the emission targets. Exhaust gas recirculation and enrichened carburetion are used to reduce the oxides of nitrogen. Associated problems defined during development of several thermal reactor systems are described. The primary problem was achieving durability at the typically high operating exhaust gas temperatures (1600-1800 F) necessary for concurrent HC, CO, and NOx control.
Technical Paper

The Pulse Flame Combustor Revisited

The pulse flame combustor was adapted by researchers at Ford Motor Company in the early 1970s in order to produce exhaust gas simulating the combustion products of the internal combustion engine for the evaluation of automotive catalysts. Over the years, the pulse flame combustor has found application in a wide variety of research oriented tasks associated with automotive catalysts and emissions. More recent research and development efforts which have resulted due to elevated demands toward lower vehicle emission levels have prompted continuing refinements of the apparatus and effected innovative approaches to the study of emerging automotive catalyst and emission control issues with the pulse flame combustor. This report provides an overview of the operation and design evolution of the pulse flame combustor. In addition, recent applications of this laboratory device for studying automotive catalysts, alternative fuels, and other automotive emission control topics are reviewed.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Multigap Spark Plug Designed for Automotive Applications

The electrical principle of operation, the geometrical and electrical circuit constraints on the design of, and the electrical and in-engine performance of a multigap spark plug developed for automotive applications are described. The electrical principle of operation is based on successively breaking down an array of spark gaps through the use of a resistive ladder network. The measurements evaluating the electrical performance of various multigap designs indicate that these plugs can deliver up to twice the energy of a single gap plug to the arcs, using the same ignition system. The increased amount of energy is also delivered in a shorter time than for single gap plugs.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.