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Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Particle Size Distributions: A Comparison of Tailpipe and Dilution Tunnel Measurements

This paper explores the extent to which standard dilution tunnel measurements of motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter modify particle number and size. Steady state size distributions made directly at the tailpipe, using an ejector pump, are compared to dilution tunnel measurements for three configurations of transfer hose used to transport exhaust from the vehicle tailpipe to the dilution tunnel. For gasoline vehicles run at a steady 50 - 70 mph, ejector pump and dilution tunnel measurements give consistent results of particle size and number when using an uninsulated stainless steel transfer hose. Both methods show particles in the 10 - 100 nm range at tailpipe concentrations of the order of 104 particles/cm3.
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Throttle Movement Rate Effects on Transient Fuel Compensation in a Port-Fuel-Injected SI Engine

Throttle ramp rate effects on the in-cylinder fuel/air (F/A) excursion was studied in a production engine. The fuel delivered to the cylinder per cycle was measured in-cylinder by a Fast Response Flame Ionization detector. Intake pressure was ramped from 0.4 to 0.9 bar. Under slow ramp rates (∼1 s ramp time), the Engine Electronic Control (EEC) unit provided the correct compensation for delivering a stoichiometric mixture to the cylinder throughout the transient. At fast ramp rates (a fraction of a second ramps), a lean spike followed by a rich one were observed. Based on the actual fuel injected in each cycle during the transient, a x-τ model using a single set of x and τ values reproduced the cycle-to-cycle in-cylinder F/A response for all the throttle ramp rates.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss at Component Interfaces in Stirling Cycles

The paper considers the thermodynamic irreversibility in Stirling cycle machines at the interface between components with different thermodynamic characteristics. The approach of the paper is to consider the simplest possible cases and to focus on the factors that influence the thermodynamic losses. For example, an ideal adiabatic cylinder facing an ideal isothermal heat exchanger is considered. If there is no mixing in the cylinder (gas remains one dimensionally stratified), there will be no loss (irreversibility) if the gas motion is in phase with the gas pressure changes. If there is a phase shift, as required to have a network for the cylinder, there will be a loss (entropy generation) because the gas will not match the heat exchanger temperature. There will also be a loss if the gas in the cylinder is mixed rather than stratified. Similar simple interface conditions can be considered between components and interconnecting open volumes and between heat exchangers and regenerators.
Technical Paper

The Study of Friction between Piston Ring and Different Cylinder Liners using Floating Liner Engine - Part 1

The objective of this work was to develop an experimental system to support development and validation of a model for the lubrication of two-piece Twin-Land-Oil-Control-Rings (hereafter mentioned as TLOCR). To do so, a floating liner engine was modified by opening the head and crankcase. Additionally, only TLOCR was installed together with a piston that has 100 micron cold clearance to minimize the contribution of the skirt to total friction. Friction traces, FMEP trend, and repeatability have been examined to guarantee the reliability of the experiment results. Then, engine speed, liner temperature, ring tension, and land widths were changed in a wide range to ensure all three lubrication regimes were covered in the experiments.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Technical Paper

The Molecular Analysis of Sulfate Species in Environmental Aerosols Using Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Speciation of sulfurous acid, sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate collected from the aerosol phase on a Fluoropore filter has been readily accomplished using techniques of chemical ionization mass spectrometry combined with thermal separation. Thermal separation of ammonium hydrogen sulfate from ammonium sulfate was not possible. Spectral separation of these species by selective ionization is proposed. Analysis of sulfate aerosols collected from ambient air and catalyzed vehicle emissions is described. It was found that sulfuric acid aerosol was rapidly converted to ammonium sulfate or ammonium hydrogen sulfate in the presence of ambient concentrations of ammonia. Ambient samples collected in the Detroit metropolitan area have been found to contain only trace quantities of sulfuric aicd. Sulfate samples collected from a dilution tube into which catalyzed vehicle exhaust was injected were found to contain significant quantities of ammonium sulfate in addition to sulfuric acid.
Technical Paper

The Mars Gravity Biosatellite: Innovations in Murine Motion Analysis and Life Support

The MIT-based Mars Gravity Biosatellite payload engineering team has been engaged in designing and prototyping sensor and control systems for deployment within the rodent housing zone of the satellite, including novel video processing and atmospheric management tools. The video module will be a fully autonomous real-time analysis system that takes raw video footage of the specimen mice as input and distills those parameters which are of primary physiological importance from a scientific research perspective. Such signals include activity level, average velocity and rearing behavior, all of which will serve as indicators of animal health and vestibular function within the artificial gravity environment. Unlike raw video, these parameters require minimal storage space and can be readily transmitted to earth over a radio link of very low bandwidth.
Journal Article

The Impact of Biodiesel on Particle Number, Size and Mass Emissions from a Euro4 Diesel Vehicle

New European emissions legislation (Euro5) specifies a limit for Particle Number (PN) emissions and therefore drives measurement of PN during vehicle development and homologation. Concurrently, the use of biofuel is increasing in the marketplace, and Euro5 specifies that reference fuel must contain a bio-derived portion. Work was carried out to test the effect of fuels containing different levels of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) on particle number, size, mass and composition. Measurements were conducted with a Cambustion Differential Mobility Spectrometer (DMS) to time-resolve sub-micron particles (5-1000nm), and a Horiba Solid Particle Counting System (SPCS) providing PN data from a Euro5-compliant measurement system. To ensure the findings are relevant to the modern automotive business, testing was carried out on a Euro4 compliant passenger car fitted with a high-pressure common-rail diesel engine and using standard homologation procedures.
Technical Paper

The Ford PROCO Engine Update

The Ford PROCO stratified charge engine combines the desirable characteristics of premixed charge and Diesel engines. The outstanding characteristics of premixed charge engines are their high specific output, wide speed range, light weight and easy startability but they exhibit only modest fuel economy and relatively high exhaust emissions. The desirable characteristic of the Diesel engine is its outstanding fuel economy. However, the disadvantages of the Diesel, which include noisy operation, limited speed range, exhaust odor, smoke, hard startability, and particulate emissions have tended to limit their acceptance. In the gasoline fueled, PROCO stratified charge engine, direct cylinder fuel injection permits operation at overall lean mixture ratios and higher compression ratio. These features enable the PROCO engine to achieve brake specific fuel consumption values in the range of prechamber diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Stress Absorbing Layers on the Wear Behavior of Painted Plastic Substrates

Erosion damage to automotive car bodies caused by stones and small sand particles and road debris significantly affects the appearance of paint. Painted engineering plastics as well as precoated sheet steel are affected by erosion phenomenon. Erosion of painted plastic substrates results in cosmetic concerns while that on metal substrates results in cosmetic to perforation corrosion. This work describes a laboratory simulation of erosion of painted plastic substrates by small particles on various paint and substrate types. Gloss loss was used to quantitatively evaluate erosion of painted surfaces. Wear behavior of painted plastic substrates to slag sand impact was evaluated as a function of several variables including paint type (one-component melamine crosslinked (1K) vs. two-component isocyanate crosslinked (2K)), thermal history, and coating modulus. The effect of slag sand type (particle size and chemical composition) was studied.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Mileage on Emissions and Emission Component Durability by the Fuel Additive Methylcyclopentadiencyl Manganese Tricarbonyl (MMT)

Vehicle emissions have been measured and the results statistically evaluated for a vehicle test fleet consisting of four Escorts and four Explorers using both a fully formulated durability fuel doped with methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) at 1/32 gram Mn/gallon and the same fully formulated durability fuel without the MMT. The fleet was divided in half -- half with MMT and half without MMT doped fuel. This report covers emission measurement results at 5,000; 15,000; 50,000 and 100,000 miles of exposure to MMT doped fuel. A modified paired t-test is used to analyze the emission data obtained from all the fleet vehicles. The statistical evaluation of both feedgas and tailpipe emissions indicate that the use of MMT is detrimental to emissions of HC at the 15,000 mile; 50,000 mile and 100,000 mile levels of MMT exposure. As mileage is accumulated, the pronounced the effect on HC by the fuel additive MMT.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Soot Formation in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx whilst minimising the penalties of increased smoke emission and fuel consumption. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR was enhanced considerably by cooling the EGR. In addition to more effective NOx control, this measure also improved volumetric efficiency which assisted in the control of smoke emission and fuel consumption. This second of two papers on the use of EGR in diesel engines deals with the effects of EGR on soot emission and on the engine fuel economy.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Combustion and NOx Emissions in a High-Speed Direct-injection Diesel Engine

A number of tests were conducted on a 2.5 litre, high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine running at various loads and speeds. The aim of the tests was to gain understanding which would lead to more effective use of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) for controlling exhaust NOx. In addition to exhaust emission measurements, extensive in-cylinder sampling of combustion gases was carried out using a fast-acting, snatch-sampling valve. The results showed that the effectiveness of EGR in suppressing NOx was enhanced considerably by intercooling the inlet charge and by cooling the EGR. A companion paper (SAE 960841) deals with the effects of EGR on soot formation and emission [1].
Technical Paper

Techniques for Analyzing Thermal Deactivation of Automotive Catalysts

Automotive three-way catalysts (TWC) were characterized using temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, chemisorption measurements and laboratory activity measurements. Capabilities and limitations of these standard analytical techniques for the characterization of production-type automotive catalysts are pointed out. With the exception of chemisorption techniques, all appear to have general utility for analyzing exhaust catalysts. The techniques were used to show that the noble metals and ceria in fresh Pt/Rh and Pd/Rh catalysts are initially highly dispersed and contain a mixture of interacting and non-interacting species. Thermal aging of these catalysts (in the reactor or vehicle) caused both precious metal and ceria particles to sinter, thereby decreasing the interaction between the two.
Technical Paper


PARAMOUNT among the problems relating to the efficiency of the internal-combustion engine is that of breathing capacity, or air consumption. Considering volumetric efficiency to be the most valuable parameter in an analytical or experimental approach to this problem, the authors of this paper have devoted several years of study to this factor in relation to 4-stroke engines. The studies have resulted in extensive findings, some of which have already been published. This paper attempts to bring together in readable form the results of the work to date, including both published and unpublished data. The authors discuss in detail the effect of volumetric efficiency on operating variables, piston speed, inlet-valve flow capacity, cylinder design, and size. They introduce a gulp factor, the inlet-valve Mach index, and explain how this factor can be used to guide engineers.
Technical Paper

Study of a Stratified-Charge DISI Engine with an Air-Forced Fuel Injection System

A small-bore 4-stroke single-cylinder stratified-charge DISI engine using an air-forced fuel injection system has been designed and tested under various operating conditions. At light loads, fuel consumption was improved by 16∼19% during lean, stratified-charge operation at an air-fuel ratio of 37. NOx emissions, however, were tripled. Using EGR during lean, stratified-charge operation significantly reduced NOx emissions while fuel consumption was as low as the best case without EGR. It was also found that combustion and emissions near the lean limit were a strong function of the combination of injection and spark timings, which affect the mixing process. Injection pressure, air injection duration, and time delay between fuel and air injections also played a role. Generating in-cylinder air swirl motion slightly improved fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Study of Particle Number Emissions from a Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) Engine Including Data from a Fast-Response Particle Size Spectrometer

A study has been conducted to measure the particle number emissions from a current-generation 1.6-liter, Euro IV-compliant turbo-charged Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) passenger car engine. A fast-response particle size spectrometer was used along with a PMP-compliant particulate measurement system to measure the effect of various engine parameters on the particulate emissions during the New European Drive Cycle (NEDC). Overall particle number is shown along with further analysis of the transient particle emissions. The cold start clearly affects particle formation with approximately 50% of the cumulative particle number being emitted within 200 seconds of the start. Even beyond 200 seconds, the particle number emissions fall as the test progresses and are generally consistent with increases in engine coolant temperature indicating that cold engine fuel preparation issues are contributing to the particle number count.
Technical Paper

Spectrogram Analysis of Accelerometer-Based Spark Knock Detection Waveforms

Spark knock pressure oscillations can be detected by a cylinder pressure transducer or by an accelerometer mounted on the engine block. Accelerometer-based detection is lower cost but is affected by extraneous mechanical vibrations and the frequency response of the engine block and accelerometer. The knock oscillation frequency changes during the expansion stroke because the chamber geometry is changing due to the piston motion and the burned gases are cooling. Spectrogram analysis shows the time-dependent frequency content of the pressure and acceleration signals, revealing characteristic signatures of knock and mechanical vibrations. Illustrative spectrograms are presented which yield physical insight into accelerometer-based knock detection.
Journal Article

Soot and Ash Deposition Characteristics at the Catalyst-Substrate Interface and Intra-Layer Interactions in Aged Diesel Particulate Filters Illustrated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) Milling

The accumulation of soot and lubrication-derived ash particles in a diesel particulate filter (DPF) increases exhaust flow restriction and negatively impacts engine efficiency. Previous studies have described the macroscopic phenomenon and general effects of soot and ash accumulation on filter pressure drop. In order to enhance the fundamental understanding, this study utilized a novel apparatus that of a dual beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) and focused ion beam (FIB), to investigate microscopic details of soot and ash accumulation in the DPF. Specifically, FIB provides a minimally invasive technique to analyze the interactions between the soot, ash, catalyst/washcoat, and DPF substrate with a high degree of measurement resolution. The FIB utilizes a gallium liquid metal ion source which produces Ga+ ions of sufficient momentum to directionally mill away material from the soot, ash, and substrate layers on a nm-μm scale.