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Technical Paper

Year-Long Evaluation of Trucks and Buses Equipped with Passive Diesel Particulate Filters

A program has been completed to evaluate ultra-low sulfur diesel fuels and passive diesel particulate filters (DPFs) in truck and bus fleets operating in southern California. The fuels, ECD and ECD-1, are produced by ARCO (a BP Company) and have less than 15 ppm sulfur content. Vehicles were retrofitted with two types of catalyzed DPFs, and operated on ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel for over one year. Exhaust emissions, fuel economy and operating cost data were collected for the test vehicles, and compared with baseline control vehicles. Regulated emissions are presented from two rounds of tests. The first round emissions tests were conducted shortly after the vehicles were retrofitted with the DPFs. The second round emissions tests were conducted following approximately one year of operation. Several of the vehicles retrofitted with DPFs accumulated well over 100,000 miles of operation between test rounds.
Technical Paper

World Wide Escort/Lynx Engine Design and Development

In 1981, Ford Motor Company introduced a new family of fuel efficient four cylinder engines world wide. These engines, based on a compound valve arrangement in a hemispherical combustion chamber, were specifically designed for installation in light weight front-wheel-drive vehicles. Ford Research efforts were integrated with the resources of Ford U.S. and Ford of Europe to design and develop the engine in a compressed time frame. The technical and organizational efforts to accomplish this task, as well as, the design and development are discussed.
Technical Paper

Wave Propagation in Catalytic Converters: A Preliminary Investigation

The present study investigates the wave propagation and attenuation in catalytic converters. The relationships for wave propagation in a catalytic monolith are derived first and then coupled to the wave propagation in tapered ducts. Analytical predictions are compared with experimental results to validate the theory.
Technical Paper


AS a basis for the analyses of this symposium, a hypothetical car has been used to evaluate the engine power distribution in performance. Effects of fuel,-engine accessories, and certain car accessories are evaluated. The role of the transmission in making engine power useful at normal car speeds is also discussed. Variables encountered in wind and rolling resistance determinations are reevaluated by improved test techniques. Net horsepower of the car in terms of acceleration, passing ability and grade capability are also summarized.
Journal Article

Visual, Thermodynamic, and Electrochemical Analysis of Condensate in a Stoichiometric Spark-Ignited EGR Engine

The objectives of this project were to investigate the corrosivity of condensate in a stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engine when running exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and to determine the effects of sulfur-in-fuel on corrosion. A 2.0 L turbocharged direct-injected SI engine was operated with low-pressure EGR for this study. The engine was instrumented for visual, thermodynamic, and electrochemical analyses to determine the potential for corrosion at locations where condensation was deemed likely in a low-pressure loop EGR (LPL-EGR) engine. The electrochemical analysis was performed using multi-electrode array (MEA) corrosion probes. Condensate was also collected and analyzed. These analyses were performed downstream of both the charge air cooler (CAC) and the EGR cooler. It was found that while conditions existed for sulfuric acid to form with high-sulfur fuel, no sulfuric acid was detected by any of the measurement methods.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor (VCPS) with Individual Variable-Oriented Independent Estimators

Tremendous amount of useful information can be extracted from the cylinder pressure signal for engine combustion control. However, the physical cylinder pressure sensors are undesirably expensive and their health need to be monitored for fault diagnostic purpose as well. This paper presents the results of the development of a virtual cylinder pressure sensor (VCPS) with individual variable-oriented independent estimators. Two neural network-based independent cylinder pressure related variable estimators were developed and verified at steady state. The results show that these models can predict the variables correctly compared with the extracted variables from the measured physical cylinder pressure sensor signal. Good generalization capabilities of the developed models are observed in the sense that the models work well not only for the training data set but also for the new inputs that they have never been exposed to before.
Technical Paper

Verification of a Gaseous Portable Emissions Measurement System with a Laboratory System Using the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065

This paper summarizes the validation testing of the Horiba Instruments OBS-2200 gaseous portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for in-use compliance testing per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065.920 (Section 1065.920). The qualification process included analyzer verifications as well as engine testing on a model-year 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine produced by Volvo Powertrain. The measurements of brake-specific emissions with the OBS-2200 were compared to those of a CFR Part 1065-compliant CVS test cell over a series of not-to-exceed (NTE) events. The OBS-2200 passed all linearity verifications and analyzer checks required of PEMS. Engine test validation was achieved for all three regulated gaseous emissions (CO, NMHC, and NOX) per 40 CFR Part 1065.920(b)(5)(i), which requires a minimum of 91 percent of the measurement allowance adjusted deltas to be less than or equal to zero.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Control for Start-Stop Powertrains with Automatic Transmissions

The 2013 Ford Fusion will be launched with an optional automatic engine start-stop feature. To realize engine start-stop on a vehicle equipped with a conventional powertrain, there are two major challenges in the vehicle system controls. First, the propulsive torque delivery from a stopped engine has to be fast. The vehicle launch delay has to be minimized such that the corporate vehicle attributes can be met. Second, the fuel economy improvement offered by this technology has to justify the cost associated with it. In pursuing fuel economy, the driver's comfort and convenience should be minimally impacted. To tackle these challenges, a vehicle system control strategy has been developed to accurately interpret the driver's intent, monitor the vehicle subsystem's power demands, schedule engine automatic stop and re-start, and coordinate the fast and smooth torque delivery to the wheels.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Response to Throttle Tip-In/Tip-Out

Throttle tip-in/tip-out maneuvers generate a driveline torque transient which may produce an objectionable disturbance to vehicle occupants. Recent developments in vehicle design have contributed to increased severity in this response, which is known as clunk and shuffle. This paper describes experimental procedures which have been developed to quantify response levels and diagnose cases of concern. These techniques are useful for developing engine control systems which require transient strategies that differ greatly from those required for steady state operation. In addition, specific design and calibration modifications, which control clunk and shuffle, are described.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Particle Size Distributions: A Comparison of Tailpipe and Dilution Tunnel Measurements

This paper explores the extent to which standard dilution tunnel measurements of motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter modify particle number and size. Steady state size distributions made directly at the tailpipe, using an ejector pump, are compared to dilution tunnel measurements for three configurations of transfer hose used to transport exhaust from the vehicle tailpipe to the dilution tunnel. For gasoline vehicles run at a steady 50 - 70 mph, ejector pump and dilution tunnel measurements give consistent results of particle size and number when using an uninsulated stainless steel transfer hose. Both methods show particles in the 10 - 100 nm range at tailpipe concentrations of the order of 104 particles/cm3.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drive Cycle Fuel Economy Prediction Using Single Cylinder Engine Data

The confluence of fuel economy improvement requirements and increased use of ethanol as a gasoline blend component has led to various studies into the efficiency and performance benefits to be had when using high octane number, high ethanol content fuels in modern engines. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of fuels in both the CFR octane rating engine and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were prepared with market relevant ranges of octane numbers and ethanol blends levels. The paper reports on the first part of this study where fuel flow measurements were done on a single cylinder research engine, utilizing a GM LHU combustion system, and then used to predict drive cycle fuel economy. For a range of engine speeds and manifold air pressures, spark timing was adjusted to achieve either the maximum brake torque (MBT) or a matched 50 % mass fraction burnt location.
Technical Paper

Vegetable Oils as Alternative Diesel Fuels: Degradation of Pure Triglycerides During the Precombustion Phase in a Reactor Simulating a Diesel Engine

Vegetable oils are candidates for alternative fuels in diesel engines. These oils, such as soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, cottonseed, and peanut, consist of various triglycerides. The chemistry of the degradation of vegetable oils when used as alternate diesel fuels thus corresponds to that of triglycerides. To study the chemistry occurring during the precombustion phase of a vegetable oil injected into a diesel engine, a reactor simulating a diesel engine was constructed. Pure triglycerides were injected into the reactor in order to determine differences in the precombustion behavior of the various triglycerides. The reactor allowed motion pictures to be prepared of the injection event as the important reaction parameters, such as pressure, temperature, and atmosphere were varied. Furthermore, samples of the degradation products of precombusted triglycerides were collected and analyzed (gas chromatography / mass spectrometry).
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Validation Method for Diesel Particulate Filter Durability

The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a critical aftertreatment device for control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine. DPF survivability is challenged by several key factors such as: excessive thermal stress due to DPF runaway regenerations (or uncontrolled regeneration) may cause DPF substrate and washcoat failure. Catalyst poisoning elements from the diesel fuel and engine oil may cause performance degradation of the catalyzed DPF. Harsh vibration from the powertrain, as well as from the road surface, may lead to mechanical failure of the substrate and/or the matting material. Evaluations of these important validation parameters were performed.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Multiple Combustion Modes to Increase Efficiency and Achieve Full Load Dual-Fuel Operation in a Heavy-Duty Engine

Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) natural gas/diesel dual-fuel combustion has been shown to achieve high thermal efficiency with low NOX and PM emissions, but has traditionally been limited to low to medium loads. High BMEP operation typically requires high substitution rates (i.e., >90% NG), which can lead to high cylinder pressure, pressure rise rates, knock, and combustion loss. In previous studies, compression ratio was decreased to achieve higher load operation, but thermal efficiency was sacrificed. For this study, a multi-cylinder heavy-duty engine that has been modified for dual-fuel operation (diesel direct-injection and natural gas (NG) fumigated into the intake stream) was used to explore RCCI and other dual-fuel combustion modes at high compression ratio, while maintaining stock lug curve capability (i.e., extending dual-fuel operation to high loads where conventional diesel combustion traditionally had to be used).
Technical Paper

Using the Cone Calorimeter to Predict FMVSS 302 Performance of Interior and Exterior Automotive Materials

Forty-eight materials from parts used inside and outside the passenger compartment of six motor vehicles were tested according to FMVSS 302. All samples passed the test although the FMVSS 302 test requirements do not apply to exterior materials. The same materials were also tested in the Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E 1354) at three heat fluxes. The FMVSS 302 performance diagram developed earlier on the basis of Cone Calorimeter data for 18 exterior materials from two vehicles appears to have more general validity for solid plastic parts, regardless whether they are taken from locations inside or outside of the passenger compartment. The previously-developed performance diagram is not applicable to plastic foams and fabrics. Additional criteria are proposed to predict whether a foam or fabric is likely to pass the FMVSS 302 test based on ignition time and peak heat release rate measured in the Cone Calorimeter at a heat flux of 35 kW/m2.
Technical Paper

Using Experimental Modal Modeling Techniques to Investigate Steering Column Vibration and Idle Shake of a Passenger Car

An experimental modal model of an early prototype car was constructed and validated against test results. The model was then used to suggest practical hardware modification alternatives which would: (1) shift the steering column resonant frequency away from the idle range, and (2) maintain a low steering column tip vibration within the 600-750 RPM idle range. This model was also used to evaluate the effectiveness of tuning radiator mounts to the overall vehicle idle quality. It was found that a pair of braces from either the steering column bracket to brake pedal bracket or to the cowl top area could improve idle shake of the test vehicle. The driver side brake pedal brace alone is not effective. However, the passenger side brake pedal brace alone is as effective as the two brake pedal braces together. It was found that the radiator mounts on the test vehicle are extremely non-linear. Therefore, tuning the mount to improve idle quality is impractical.
Technical Paper

Use of Alcohol-in-Diesel Fuel Emulsions and Solutions in a Medium-Speed Diesel Engine

The use of alcohol as a supplemental fuel for a medium-speed diesel engine was investigated using a two-cylinder, two-stroke test engine. Both stabilized and unstabilized emulsions of methanol-in-diesel fuel and ethanol-in-diesel fuel were tested. Also, anhydrous ethanol/diesel fuel solutions were evaluated. Maximum alcohol content of the emulsions and solutions was limited by engine knocking due to a reduction in fuel cetane number. Engine power and thermal efficiency were slightly below baseline diesel fuel levels in the high and mid-speed ranges, but were somewhat improved at low speeds during tests of the unstabilized emulsions and the ethanol solutions. However, thermal efficiency of the stabilized emulsions fell below baseline levels at virtually all conditions.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Alternate Diesel Combustion Modes

Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions (individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH)) were characterized for the following alternate diesel combustion modes: premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), and low-temperature combustion (LTC). PCCI and LTC were studied on a PSA light-duty high-speed diesel engine. Engine-out emissions of carbonyl compounds were significantly increased for all LTC modes and for PCCI-Lean conditions as compared to diesel operation; however, PCCI-Rich produced much lower carbonyl emissions than diesel operations. For PAH compounds, emissions were found to be substantially increased over baseline diesel operation for LTC-Lean, LTC-Rich, and PCCI-Lean conditions. PCCI-Rich operation, however, gave PAH emission rates comparable to baseline diesel operation.