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Technical Paper

Windshield Wiper System Motor Selection and Application

The selection of a motor for a windshield wiper system requires a full analysis of all system variables, in addition to strict adherence to tests and development procedures. Following a well-programmed procedure will assure complete and adequate windshield wiper prime mover selection and successful application. There are five basic steps discussed: 1. Determination of wiper parameters. 2. Motor performance. 3. System load determination. 4. Calibration and matching of wiper motor to system. 5. Testing and evaluating.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise Spectral Predictions Using a Lattice-Based Method

The current ability of the Virtual Aerodynamic/ Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to predict interior vehicle sound pressure levels is demonstrated using an automobile model which has variable windshield angles. This prediction method uses time-averaged flow solutions from a lattice gas CFD code coupled with wave number-frequency spectra for the various flow regimes to calculate the side window vibration from which the sound pressure level spectrum at the driver's ear is determined. These predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel data. The results demonstrate the ability of this methodology to correctly predict wind noise spectral trends as well as the overall loudness at the driver's ear. A more sophisticated simulation method employing the same lattice gas code is investigated for prediction of the time-accurate flow field necessary to compute the actual side glass pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Emission Performance Simulation

Several emission performance tests like Butane Working Capacity (BWC), Cycle Life, and ORVR load tests are required for the certification of a vehicle; these tests are both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents a test process based upon analytical simulation of BWC of an automotive carbon canister in order to greatly reduce the cost incurred in physical tests. The computational model for the fixed-bed system of a carbon canister is based upon non-equilibrium, non-Isothermal, and non-adiabatic algorithm to simulate the real life loading/purging of hydrocarbon vapors from this device.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Wind Noise Analysis Using a SEA Model with Measured Source Levels

A series of tests have been performed on a production vehicle to determine the characteristics of the external turbulent flow field in wind tunnel and road conditions. Empirical formulas are developed to use the measured data as source levels for a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of the vehicle structural and acoustical responses. Exterior turbulent flow and acoustical subsystems are used to receive power from the source excitations. This allows for both the magnitudes and wavelengths of the exterior excitations to be taken into account - a necessary condition for consistently accurate results. Comparisons of measured and calculated interior sound levels show good correlation.
Journal Article

Vehicle Sideslip Angle EKF Estimator based on Nonlinear Vehicle Dynamics Model and Stochastic Tire Forces Modeling

This paper presents the extended Kalman filter-based sideslip angle estimator design using a nonlinear 5DoF single-track vehicle dynamics model with stochastic modeling of tire forces. Lumped front and rear tire forces have been modeled as first-order random walk state variables. The proposed estimator is primarily designed for vehicle sideslip angle estimation; however it can also be used for estimation of tire forces and cornering stiffness. This estimator design does not rely on linearization of the tire force characteristics, it is robust against the variations of the tire parameters, and does not require the information on coefficient of friction. The estimator performance has been first analyzed by means of computer simulations using the 10DoF two-track vehicle dynamics model and underlying magic formula tire model, and then experimentally validated by using data sets recorded on a test vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Flow Measurement and CFD Analysis for Wind Noise Assessment

A time cost effective methodology has been developed for the prediction of the A-pillar vortex formation and the side and the rear window flow separation for the purpose of wind noise assessment. This methodology combines a simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and wind tunnel test data by CFD post-processing tools. The solution of the simplified CFD model provides background data for the whole flow field, but it lacks detail features such as mirror, sealing groove and glass in-set, which are locally important but difficult to mesh and require a very fine mesh resolution. The wind tunnel test data was taken in the specific areas of interest at the A-pillar, side window, rear window area, and roof from a real automotive. Then the wind tunnel test data was superposed upon the simplified CFD model to correct the numerical error due to geometry simplification and insufficient mesh resolution.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Electrical System Computer Aided Design (VESCAD) Tool

The Vehicle Electrical System Computer Aided Design (VESCAD) tool is a means by which the vehicle electrical system, including all wiring and the components attached to wiring can be laid out over an outline of the planform (looking down on the vehicle) view of the vehicle. This graphical representation of the vehicle electrical system is linked to a database that contains the definition of all the wiring of the vehicle plus electrical component attributes. The vehicle electrical system can be composed and completely manipulated graphically, using a mouse, and the database is dynamically changed, including automatic re-routing of the wiring in the wiring harnesses. A complete series of reports can be generated once a vehicle electrical system is configured using VESCAD. All of the reports can be keyed by component(s), harness(es), subsystem(s) or the entire vehicle.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Fingerprint Process

The dynamic characteristics of a vehicle are an important part of the driver's experience. Ford Motor Company is actively pursuing a leadership role in this arena. To achieve this goal, all the necessary information to complete the vehicle dynamics picture of a vehicle must be gathered in an efficient and well-organized manner. A process was developed to fingerprint a vehicle so that this information could drive vehicle tuning, new Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) models, correlate existing CAE models, support problem resolution and conduct target setting. This paper will discuss a Vehicle Dynamics Fingerprint Process in detail and explain the steps involved.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Disc Brake Squeal Simulations and Experiences

Brake related warranty costs are a major concern to the automotive industry. Large part of these costs are due to noise, more particularly due to the brake squeal complaints. Computer-aided engineering solutions have attracted a lot of attention from the engineering and development community for more effective brake product development. Recently, three brake squeal analysis methods were implemented on disc type brakes in a vehicle program at Ford. This paper summarizes the results and documents the experience obtained during implementation in the vehicle CAE process.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Structure Durability Analysis

Due to several indeterminate factors, the assessment of the durability performance of a vehicle body is traditionally accomplished using test methods. An analytical fatigue life prediction method (four-step durability process) that relies mainly on numerical techniques is described in this paper. The four steps comprising this process include the identification of high stress regions, recognizing the critical load types, determining the critical road events and calculation of fatigue life. In addition to utilizing a general purpose finite element analysis software for the application of the Inertia Relief technique and a previously developed fatigue analysis program, two customized programs have been developed to streamline the process into an integrated, user-friendly tool. The process is demonstrated using a full body, finite element model.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Aerodynamic Shape Optimization

Recent advances in morphing, simulation, and optimization technologies have enabled analytically driven aerodynamic shape optimization to become a reality. This paper will discuss the integration of these technologies into a single process which enables the aerodynamicist to optimize vehicle shape as well as gain a much deeper understanding of the design space around a given exterior theme.
Technical Paper

Variable Displacement by Engine Valve Control

Intake and exhaust valve control has been combined with engine calibration control by an on-board computer to achieve a Variable Displacement Engine with improved BSFC during part throttle operation. The advent of the on-board computer, with its ability to provide integrated algorithms for the fast accurate flexible control of the entire powertrain, has allowed practical application of the valve disabler mechanism. The engine calibration basis and the displacement selection criteria are discussed, as are the fuel economy, emissions and behavior of a research vehicle on selected drive cycles ( Metro, Highway and Steady State ). Additionally, the impact upon vehicle driveability and other related subsystems ( e.g., transmission ) is addressed.
Technical Paper

Variability of Hybrid III Clearance Dimensions within the FMVSS 208 and NCAP Vehicle Test Fleets and the Effects of Clearance Dimensions on Dummy Impact Responses

Locations of key body segments of Hybrid III dummies used in FMVSS 208 compliance tests and NCAP tests were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Mean clearance dimensions and their standard deviations for selected body segments of driver and passenger occupants with respect to selected vehicle surfaces were determined for several classes of vehicles. These occupant locations were then investigated for correlation with impact responses measured in crash tests and by using a three dimensional human-dummy mathematical model in comparable settings. Based on these data, the importance of some of the clearance dimensions between the dummy and the vehicle surfaces was determined. The study also compares observed Hybrid III dummy positions within selected vehicles with real world occupant positions reported in published literature.
Journal Article

Validation and Sensitivity Studies for SAE J2601, the Light Duty Vehicle Hydrogen Fueling Standard

The worldwide automotive industry is currently preparing for a market introduction of hydrogen-fueled powertrains. These powertrains in fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) offer many advantages: high efficiency, zero tailpipe emissions, reduced greenhouse gas footprint, and use of domestic and renewable energy sources. To realize these benefits, hydrogen vehicles must be competitive with conventional vehicles with regards to fueling time and vehicle range. A key to maximizing the vehicle's driving range is to ensure that the fueling process achieves a complete fill to the rated Compressed Hydrogen Storage System (CHSS) capacity. An optimal process will safely transfer the maximum amount of hydrogen to the vehicle in the shortest amount of time, while staying within the prescribed pressure, temperature, and density limits. The SAE J2601 light duty vehicle fueling standard has been developed to meet these performance objectives under all practical conditions.
Technical Paper

Using Experimental Modal Modeling Techniques to Investigate Steering Column Vibration and Idle Shake of a Passenger Car

An experimental modal model of an early prototype car was constructed and validated against test results. The model was then used to suggest practical hardware modification alternatives which would: (1) shift the steering column resonant frequency away from the idle range, and (2) maintain a low steering column tip vibration within the 600-750 RPM idle range. This model was also used to evaluate the effectiveness of tuning radiator mounts to the overall vehicle idle quality. It was found that a pair of braces from either the steering column bracket to brake pedal bracket or to the cowl top area could improve idle shake of the test vehicle. The driver side brake pedal brace alone is not effective. However, the passenger side brake pedal brace alone is as effective as the two brake pedal braces together. It was found that the radiator mounts on the test vehicle are extremely non-linear. Therefore, tuning the mount to improve idle quality is impractical.
Technical Paper

Using Computer Simulation to Evaluate and Improve Vehicle Handling

As evidenced by extensive research work done under contract to the government recently, it is clear that there is a strong federal interest in the limit handling performance of automobiles. Should these efforts come to fruition, manufacturers may be faced with the difficult task of designing vehicles to meet independent and, at times, conflicting handling requirements. Not only must vehicles continue to meet with subjective approval of handling behavior by customers, but they may also be required to meet objective limit performance criteria. Problems arise in that vehicles designed to achieve high levels of limit performance are not guaranteed to be more controllable or subjectively acceptable to customers. This paper shows ways design changes may cause conflicting influences on several measures of performance.
Technical Paper

Using CAE to Guide Passenger Airbag Door Design for Optimal Head Impact Performance

The increased focus on occupant protection by automobile manufacturers combined with incessant consumer demand for safety features such as dual airbags has posed design engineers with major challenges in the field of Instrument Panel (IP) design. Typically, airbags are designed to deploy when the speed of the automobile is above 13 mph in a frontal impact. The airbag door should meet head impact requirements for unbelted occupants involved in low speed impacts (<15mph) when airbags are not deployed. This paper describes how computer aided engineering (CAE) simulation techniques were used in improving the design of the passenger airbag door of a full size van for head impact performance. Fewer tests were conducted primarily for validation, which resulted in significantly less prototypes, costs and time.
Technical Paper

Use of FCRASH in a Door Openability Simulation

During frontal and rear end type collisions, very large forces will be imparted to the passenger compartment by the collapse of either front or rear structures. NCAP tests conducted by NHTSA involve, among other things, a door openability test after barrier impact. This means that the plastic/irreversible deformations of door openings should be kept to a minimum. Thus, the structural members constituting the door opening must operate during frontal and rear impact near the elastic limit of the material. Increasing the size of a structural member, provided the packaging considerations permit it, may prove to be counter productive, since it may lead to premature local buckling and possible collapse of the member. With the current trend towards lighter vehicles, recourse to heavier gages is also counterproductive and therefore a determination of an optimum compartment structure may require a number of design iterations. In this article, FEA is used to simulate front side door behavior.
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Use of E-Mail in Global Virtual Team: a Field Research

In nowadays market, highlighted by global products, companies are pushed to sell products that comply with legal and customer requirements in different countries and, not unusually, different continents. In order to achieve such challenge, and pressed to reduce project and production costs, companies are spreading design centers around the world, based on regional expertise. These excellence centers must work together to benefit from synergies and local skills from different regions. Such projects are staffed by Virtual Team (BINDER, 2007), whose members barely face each other. This means teams will work frequently with people they have never met, who live on different time zones and have different cultures. As a consequence, communication is done basically through computer-based media, mainly based on emailing, and must be even clearer and more direct than with the people who work on the next desk.