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Technical Paper

Wind Noise Spectral Predictions Using a Lattice-Based Method

The current ability of the Virtual Aerodynamic/ Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to predict interior vehicle sound pressure levels is demonstrated using an automobile model which has variable windshield angles. This prediction method uses time-averaged flow solutions from a lattice gas CFD code coupled with wave number-frequency spectra for the various flow regimes to calculate the side window vibration from which the sound pressure level spectrum at the driver's ear is determined. These predictions are compared to experimental wind tunnel data. The results demonstrate the ability of this methodology to correctly predict wind noise spectral trends as well as the overall loudness at the driver's ear. A more sophisticated simulation method employing the same lattice gas code is investigated for prediction of the time-accurate flow field necessary to compute the actual side glass pressure spectra.
Technical Paper

Virtual Engine Dynamometer in Service Life Testing of Transmissions: A Comparison Between Real Engine and Electric Dynamometers as Prime Movers in Validation Test Rigs

A test cell was developed for evaluating a 6-speed automatic transmission. The target vehicle had an internal combustion 5.4L gasoline V8 engine. An electric dynamometer was used to closely simulate the engine characteristics. This included generating mean torque from the ECU engine map, with a transient capability of 10,000 rpm/second. Engine inertia was simulated with a transient capability of 20,000 rpm/second, and torque pulsation was simulated individually for each piston, with a transient capability of 50,000 rpm/second. Quantitative results are presented for the correlation between the engine driven and the dynamometer driven transmission performance over more than 60 test cycles. Concerns about using the virtual engine in validation testing are discussed, and related to the high frequency transient performance required from the electric dynamometer. Qualitative differences between the fueled engine and electric driven testing are presented.
Technical Paper

Vehicular Emission Performance Simulation

Several emission performance tests like Butane Working Capacity (BWC), Cycle Life, and ORVR load tests are required for the certification of a vehicle; these tests are both expensive and time consuming. This paper presents a test process based upon analytical simulation of BWC of an automotive carbon canister in order to greatly reduce the cost incurred in physical tests. The computational model for the fixed-bed system of a carbon canister is based upon non-equilibrium, non-Isothermal, and non-adiabatic algorithm to simulate the real life loading/purging of hydrocarbon vapors from this device.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Wind Noise Analysis Using a SEA Model with Measured Source Levels

A series of tests have been performed on a production vehicle to determine the characteristics of the external turbulent flow field in wind tunnel and road conditions. Empirical formulas are developed to use the measured data as source levels for a Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model of the vehicle structural and acoustical responses. Exterior turbulent flow and acoustical subsystems are used to receive power from the source excitations. This allows for both the magnitudes and wavelengths of the exterior excitations to be taken into account - a necessary condition for consistently accurate results. Comparisons of measured and calculated interior sound levels show good correlation.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sound Package - Art or Science?

Sound package engineering has always been an art developed through experience and much subjective road testing. Because the problem is complex, it is essential to have a logical procedure to achieve the most efficient sound package. The quiet car concept is proposed as a solution. Additionally, a plea is made for relevant automobile-oriented material test procedures to be recognized industry-wide.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Flow Measurement and CFD Analysis for Wind Noise Assessment

A time cost effective methodology has been developed for the prediction of the A-pillar vortex formation and the side and the rear window flow separation for the purpose of wind noise assessment. This methodology combines a simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model and wind tunnel test data by CFD post-processing tools. The solution of the simplified CFD model provides background data for the whole flow field, but it lacks detail features such as mirror, sealing groove and glass in-set, which are locally important but difficult to mesh and require a very fine mesh resolution. The wind tunnel test data was taken in the specific areas of interest at the A-pillar, side window, rear window area, and roof from a real automotive. Then the wind tunnel test data was superposed upon the simplified CFD model to correct the numerical error due to geometry simplification and insufficient mesh resolution.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Particle Size Distributions: A Comparison of Tailpipe and Dilution Tunnel Measurements

This paper explores the extent to which standard dilution tunnel measurements of motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter modify particle number and size. Steady state size distributions made directly at the tailpipe, using an ejector pump, are compared to dilution tunnel measurements for three configurations of transfer hose used to transport exhaust from the vehicle tailpipe to the dilution tunnel. For gasoline vehicles run at a steady 50 - 70 mph, ejector pump and dilution tunnel measurements give consistent results of particle size and number when using an uninsulated stainless steel transfer hose. Both methods show particles in the 10 - 100 nm range at tailpipe concentrations of the order of 104 particles/cm3.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Body Structure Durability Analysis

Due to several indeterminate factors, the assessment of the durability performance of a vehicle body is traditionally accomplished using test methods. An analytical fatigue life prediction method (four-step durability process) that relies mainly on numerical techniques is described in this paper. The four steps comprising this process include the identification of high stress regions, recognizing the critical load types, determining the critical road events and calculation of fatigue life. In addition to utilizing a general purpose finite element analysis software for the application of the Inertia Relief technique and a previously developed fatigue analysis program, two customized programs have been developed to streamline the process into an integrated, user-friendly tool. The process is demonstrated using a full body, finite element model.
Technical Paper

Use of FCRASH in a Door Openability Simulation

During frontal and rear end type collisions, very large forces will be imparted to the passenger compartment by the collapse of either front or rear structures. NCAP tests conducted by NHTSA involve, among other things, a door openability test after barrier impact. This means that the plastic/irreversible deformations of door openings should be kept to a minimum. Thus, the structural members constituting the door opening must operate during frontal and rear impact near the elastic limit of the material. Increasing the size of a structural member, provided the packaging considerations permit it, may prove to be counter productive, since it may lead to premature local buckling and possible collapse of the member. With the current trend towards lighter vehicles, recourse to heavier gages is also counterproductive and therefore a determination of an optimum compartment structure may require a number of design iterations. In this article, FEA is used to simulate front side door behavior.
Technical Paper

Use of Experimentally Measured In-Cylinder Flow Field Data at IVC as Initial Conditions to CFD Simulations of Compression Stroke in I.C. Engines - A Feasibility Study

The feasibility of using experimentally determined flow fields at intake valve closing, IVC, as initial conditions for computing the in-cylinder flow dynamics during the compression stroke is demonstrated by means of a computer simulation of the overall approach. A commercial CFD code, STAR-CD, was used for this purpose. The study involved two steps. First, in order to establish a basis for comparison, the in-cylinder flow field throughout the intake and compression strokes, from intake valve opening, IVO, to top dead center, TDC, was computed for a simple engine geometry. Second, experimental initial conditions were simulated by randomly selecting and perturbing a set of velocity vectors from the computed flow field at IVC.
Technical Paper

Understanding the Interaction Between Passive Four Wheel Drive and Stability Control Systems

The purpose of this paper is to describe and define the interaction between a brake based stability control system and a passive coupler (viscous coupling unit) inside the transfer case of a Four-Wheel Drive (4WD) vehicle. This paper will focus on the driveline system and the impact that a stability control system can have on it. It will provide understanding of torque transfer on 4WD vehicles that are equipped with a brake based stability control system and use this knowledge to recommend ways to reduce the undesirable torque transfer interaction between the two systems. These recommendations can be readily applied to future 4WD/AWD vehicles to improve compatibility between the two systems.
Technical Paper

Ultra Thin Wall Substrates - Trends for Performance in FTP and US06 Tests

This paper compares the emissions performance of four ultra thin wall ceramic substrates with standard wall thickness product on a chassis dynamometer for two different substrate volumes. This comparison helps establish performance trends and provides useful information for selection of substrates in designing catalytic converter systems. This experimental study tests and compares four ultra thin wall products (400/4, 600/3, 600/4, and 900/2) with a standard wall product (400/6.5) at two different substrate volumes. Engine bench aging is used to simulate typical aged conditions. Temperature data as well as second by second and bag emissions data for hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen were used to evaluate the relative performances of the substrates. The US FTP and US06 driving cycles were used as protocols for the comparison. Results suggest that lower bulk density and higher geometric surface area interact to lead to lower emissions.
Journal Article

Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Isentropic Pressure Observer Model

Exhaust pressures (P3) are hard parameters to measure and can be readily estimated, the cost of the sensors and the temperature in the exhaust system makes the implementation of an exhaust pressure sensor in a vehicle control system a costly endeavor. The contention with measured P3 is the accuracy required for proper engine and vehicle control can sometimes exceed the accuracy specification of market available sensors and existing models. A turbine inlet exhaust pressure observer model based on isentropic expansion and heat transfer across a turbocharger turbine was developed and investigated in this paper. The model uses 4 main components; an open loop P3 orifice flow model, a model of isentropic expansion across the turbine, a turbine and pipe heat transfer models and an integrator with the deviation in the downstream turbine outlet parameter.
Technical Paper

Transient A/F Estimation and Control Using a Neural Network

A new estimator for IC engine A/F ratio is described. A/F ratio is important for engine operation since it determines the quantities of engine emissions, such as HC, CO, NOx, the conversion efficiency of catalyst systems, and the engine combustion stability. The A/F ratio estimator described in this paper is based on a fundamental metric that relies on inducing and detecting crankshaft speed fluctuations caused by modulating the engine's fuel injection pulse widths. Fuel pulse width modulation varies the instantaneous combustion A/F ratio crankshaft velocity. Synchronous measurement of crankshaft velocity provides a metric that, when used with other engine state variables as inputs to a conventional neural network, can accurately estimate A/F ratio. The estimator provides A/F information when a physical sensor is not available.
Technical Paper

Tire Treadwear Experiment Using Taguchi Methods

An experiment has been conducted to study the effect of vehicle alignment, tire construction and operational conditions on tire treadwear. The Taguchi approach was used to compose the experimental design and to analyze the data. The treadwear testing was conducted on the indoor test machine; this test duplicates the treadwear pattern observed during road test. The responses of interest were total wear, irregular wear patterns, and diagonal wear. The study quantified the relative importance of different factors to treadwear and also the degree of wear irregularity.
Technical Paper

The “Peter Principle” Applied to Mini-Computers

Hierarchical computer systems are an effective way of combining the features of mini- and maxi-computers in automation projects. By distributing the functions in a multi-computer system, the mini-computers can retain the responsiveness and reliability of simple configurations while the more extensive information handling is performed by the larger host computers. This approach overcomes most of the problems found with independent small control systems on one hand and over-extended, centralized computer systems on the other. This philosophy is illustrated with actual applications at Ford Motor Co.
Technical Paper

The Simulation of Single Cylinder Intake and Exhaust Systems

A detailed description of a numerical method for computing unsteady flows in engine intake and exhaust systems is given. The calculations include the effects of heat transfer and friction. The inclusion of such calculations in a mathematically simulated engine cycle is discussed and results shown for several systems. In particular, the effects of bell-mouth versus plain pipe terminations and the effects of a finite surge tank are calculated. Experimental data on the effect of heat transfer from the back of the intake valve on wave damping are given and show the effect to be negligible. Experimental data on wave damping during the valve closed period and on the temperature rise of the air near the valve are also given.
Technical Paper

The Radiant and Convective Components of Diesel Engine Heat Transfer

The ratio of two temperature gradients across the combustion-chamber wall in a diesel engine is used to provide a heat flow ratio showing the radiant heat transfer as a per cent of local total heat transfer. The temperature gradients were obtained with a thermocouple junction on each side of the combustion-chamber wall. The first temperature gradient was obtained by covering the thermocouple at the cylinder gas-wall interface with a thin sapphire window, while the second was obtained without the window. Results show that the time-average radiant heat transfer is of significant magnitude in a diesel engine, and is probably even more significant in heat transfer during combustion and expansion.
Journal Article

The Particle Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine with 10% Alternative Fuel Blends

In this study, the particle emission characteristics of 10% alternative diesel fuel blends (Rapeseed Methyl Ester and Gas-to-Liquid) were investigated through the tests carried out on a light duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine. Under steady engine conditions, the study focused on particle number concentration and size distribution, to comply with the particle metrics of the European Emission Regulations (Regulation NO 715/2007, amended by 692/2008 and 595/2009). The non-volatile particle characteristics during the engine warming up were also investigated. They indicated that without any modification to the engine, adding selected alternative fuels, even at a low percentage, can result in a noticeable reduction of the total particle numbers; however, the number of nucleation mode particles can increase in certain cases.
Technical Paper

The New 1.0l Supercharger Zetec RoCam Engine

The current Brazilian tax legislation promotes vehicles, powered by engines with up to 1.0l displacement. In order to offer the customer an engine with the maximum tax advantage, a supercharged derivative of the Ford 1.0l Zetec RoCam engine was developed. The market specific boundary conditions in South America require powertrains with immediate response especially at low engine speeds. This can be achieved by a supercharged engine concept. The paper discusses the required engine modifications for the supercharger application. The combustion system was changed to benefit from the higher volumetric efficiency, including the optimisation of the intake, exhaust and bypass control system. Extensive modifications of the base engine were required to adapt the engine to the higher thermal load and the specific boundary condition of a supercharger application.