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Technical Paper

Modeling Study of Urea SCR Catalyst Aging Characteristics

This paper presents a study of urea SCR catalyst aging characteristics and implementation into an analytical model that complements laboratory based experiments for a dynamometer-aged SCR brick. The model calibration is based on measured data taken from a 120k-mile simulated dynamometer-aged base metal/zeolite SCR. Dynamometer aging led to non-uniform axial deterioration with more severe deactivation toward the front of the SCR brick compared to the rear. Data from a 120k-mile simulated hydrothermally oven-aged SCR (uniform axial aging) is used to establish baseline aged NOx performance and NH3 adsorption/desorption behavior. An axial deterioration factor is applied to the baseline model to account for differences between oven and dynamometer aging. The model is exercised using engine out vehicle data to examine how different aging processes (oven vs. dynamometer) affect overall NOx performance during the EPA FTP (Environmental Protection Agency Federal Test Procedure).
Technical Paper

Laboratory Studies and Mathematical Modeling of Urea SCR Catalyst Performance

This paper presents the development of an analytical model that complements laboratory based experiments to provide a tool for Selective Catalyst Reduction (SCR) applications. The model calibration is based on measured data from NOx reduction performance tests as well as ammonia (NH3) adsorption/desorption tests over select SCR catalyst formulations in a laboratory flow reactor. Only base metal/zeolite SCR samples were evaluated. Limited validations are presented that show the model agrees well with vehicle data from Environmental Protection Agency Federal Test Procedure (EPA FTP) emission assessments. The model includes energy and mass balances, several different NH3 reactions with NOx, NH3 adsorption and desorption algorithms, and NH3 oxidation.
Journal Article

Enhanced Durability of a Cu/Zeolite Based SCR Catalyst

Passenger and light duty diesel vehicles will require up to 90% NOx conversion over the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) to meet future Tier 2 Bin 5 standards. This accomplishment is especially challenging for low exhaust temperature applications that mostly operate in the 200 - 350°C temperature regime. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts formulated with Cu/zeolites have shown the potential to deliver this level of performance fresh, but their performance can easily deteriorate over time as a result of high temperature thermal deactivation. These high temperature SCR deactivation modes are unavoidable due to the requirements necessary to actively regenerate diesel particulate filters and purge SCRs from sulfur and hydrocarbon contamination. Careful vehicle temperature control of these events is necessary to prevent unintentional thermal damage but not always possible. As a result, there is a need to develop thermally robust SCR catalysts.