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Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Based Trailer Hitch Angle Estimation for Trailer Backup Assist

In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Modeling for Computer-Aided Chassis Control Development

As the complexity of automotive chassis control systems increases with the introduction of technologies such as yaw and roll stability systems, processes for model-based development of chassis control systems becomes an essential part of ensuring overall vehicle safety, quality, and reliability. To facilitate such a model-based development process, a vehicle modeling framework intended for chassis control development has been created. This paper presents a design methodology centered on this modeling framework which has been applied to real world driving events and has demonstrated its capability to capture vehicle dynamic behavior for chassis control development applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Rollover Sensor Test Modeling

A computational model of a mid-size sport utility vehicle was developed using MADYMO. The model includes a detailed description of the suspension system and tire characteristics that incorporated the Delft-Tyre magic formula description. The model was correlated by simulating a vehicle suspension kinematics and compliance test. The correlated model was then used to simulate a J-turn vehicle dynamics test maneuver, a roll and non-roll ditch test, corkscrew ramp and a lateral trip test, the results of which are presented in this paper. The results indicate that MADYMO is able to reasonably predict the vehicle and occupant responses in these types of applications and is potentially suited as a tool to help setup a suite of vehicle configurations and test conditions for rollover sensor testing. A suspension system sensitivity study is presented for the laterally tripped non-roll event.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Objective Metrics

Among the development phases of an automotive vehicle one can point out the definition of the main characteristics of its suspensions like for example the suspension kinematics and compliances properties. Suspension definition phase can be understood as the following scenario: given a suspension type, which hard points (geometric) and what values of stiffness for the whole system will result in a desired dynamic behavior for the vehicle as well as production feasibility. This present work intends to show the influence of some suspension properties on the global dynamic behavior of the vehicle, having as a target an efficient suspension design. In terms of global dynamic behavior this work point out some control parameters, which describe the vehicle transient and steady-state properties. Those parameters are: Yaw phase lag, understeer gradient, Steady state acceleration gain and yaw overshoot during a maneuver like brake in a turn and power-off in a curve.
Technical Paper

Use of Plastic Trim Fasteners for Automotive Trimming Applications

For many years, the use of in-mold fasteners has been avoided for various reasons including: not fully understanding the load cases in the part, the fear of quality issues occurring, the need for servicing, or the lack of understanding the complexity of all failure modes. The most common solution has been the use of secondary operations to provide attachments, such as, screws, metal clips, heat staking, sonic welding or other methods which are ultimately a waste in the process and an increase in manufacturing costs. The purpose of this paper is to take the reader through the design process followed to design an in-molded attachment clip on plastic parts. The paper explores the design process for in-molded attachment clips beginning with a design concept idea, followed by basic concept testing using a desktop 3D printer, optimizing the design with physical tests and CAE analysis, and finally producing high resolution 3D prototypes for validation and tuning.
Technical Paper

Up-Front Body Structural Designs for Squeak and Rattle Prevention

Squeak and rattle is one of the major concerns in vehicle design for customer satisfaction. Traditionally squeak and rattle problems are found and fixed at a very late design stage due to lack of up-front CAE prevention and prediction tools. A research work at Ford reveals a correlation between the squeak and rattle performance and diagonal distortions at body closure openings and fastener accelerations in an instrument panel. These findings make it possible to assess squeak and rattle performance implications between different body designs using body-in-prime (B-I-P) and vehicle low frequency noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) CAE models at a very early design stage. This paper is concerned with applications of this squeak and rattle assessment method for up-front body designs prior to a prototype stage.
Technical Paper

Torque Angle Signature Analysis of Joints with Thread Rolling Screws and Unthreaded Weld Nuts

Bolted joint separation occurs when components of a joint are no longer capable of maintaining a clamp load. The clamp load of a joint is the resultant of various factors such as the strength of joining components, geometry, and the surface condition of the joined parts. The fastener installation torque is a very critical parameter that contributes towards achieving the desired clamping force at the joint during the assembly process. Thread rolling screws are increasingly being used in many automotive structural applications. The thread rolling screws are easy to install, are self aligning, and offer a torque prevailing feature with improved vibration resistance when mated with a un-threaded nut. This combination results in a robust joint and low field costs. They also offer increased joint strength by work hardening the mating nut interface.
Technical Paper

Ting Noise Generation in Automotive Applications

Automobile customers are looking for higher performance and quieter comfortable rides. The driveline of a vehicle can be a substantial source of NVH issues. This paper provides an understanding of a driveline noise issue which can affect any variant of driveline architecture (FWD, AWD, RWD and 4X4). This metallic noise is mostly present during the take-off and appropriately termed as ting noise. This noise was not prevalent in the past. For higher fuel economy, OEMs started integrating several components for lighter subsystems. This in effect made the system more sensitive to the excitation. At present the issue is addressed by adding a ting washer in the interface of the wheel hub bearings and the halfshafts. This paper explains the physics behind the excitation and defines the parameters that influence the excitation. The halfshaft and the wheel hub are assembled with a specified hub nut torque.
Journal Article

Thermal Response of Aluminum Engine Block During Thermal Spraying of Bores: Comparison of FEA and Thermocouple Results

Thermally sprayed coatings have used in place of iron bore liners in recent aluminum engine blocks. The coatings are steel-based, and are sprayed on the bore wall in the liquid phase. The thermal response of the block structure determines how rapidly coatings can be applied and thus the investment and floor space required for the operation. It is critical not to overheat the block to prevent dimensional errors, metallurgical damage, and thermal stress cracks. This paper describes an innovative finite element procedure for estimating both the substrate temperature and residual stresses in the coating for the thermal spray process. Thin layers of metal at a specified temperature, corresponding to the layers deposited in successive thermal spray torch passes, are applied to the substrate model, generating a heat flux into the block. The thickness, temperature, and application speed of the layers can be varied to simulate different coating cycles.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.

The Multi Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project

The desire for greater fuel efficiency and reduced emissions have accelerated a shift from traditional materials to design solutions that more closely match materials and their properties with key applications. The Multi-Material Lightweight Vehicle (MMLV) Project presents cutting edge engineering that meets future challenges in a concept vehicle with weight and life-cycle assessment savings. These results significantly contribute to achieving fuel reduction and to meeting future Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) regulations without compromising vehicle performance or occupant safety.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Ammonia to NOX Ratio on SCR Performance

It is likely that use of urea-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR) will be needed to meet U.S. Tier 2 diesel emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NOx). The ideal ratio of ammonia (NH3) molecules to NOx molecules (known as alpha) is 1:1 based on urea consumption and having NH3 available for reaction of all of the exhaust NOx. However, SCR efficiency can be less than 100% at low temperatures in general, and at higher temperatures with high exhaust SCR catalyst space velocities. At the low temperatures where NOx conversion efficiency is low, it may be advantageous to reduce the alpha ratio to values less than one (less NH3 than is needed to convert 100% of the NOx emissions) to avoid NH3 slip. At higher space velocities and high temperatures, the NOx conversion efficiency may be higher with alpha ratios greater than 1. There is however concern that the additional NH3 will be slipped under these conditions.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Flare Component Specifications on the Sealing of Double Inverted Flare Brake Tube Joints

While SAE double inverted flares have been in use for decades, leaking joints continue to be a problem for OEMs in production settings consuming time and energy to detect and correct them before releasing vehicles from the assembly plant. It should be noted that this issue is limited to first-time vehicle assembly; once a flared brake tube joint is sealed at the assembly plant it remains sealed during normal customer usage. From their inception through the late 1980s most brake tubes have been 3/16″ nominal diameter. With the advent of higher flow requirements of Traction Control and Yaw/Stability control systems, larger tubes of 1/4″ and 5/16″ size have also been introduced. While it was known that the first-time sealing capability of the 3/16″ joint was not 100%, leakers were generally containable in the production environment and the joint was regarded as robust.
Technical Paper

The Current State of Worldwide Standards for Ferrous Castings

Technical Standards are essential for the expanded use of any engineering material. The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Iron and Steel Castings Committee has been reworking existing, (and issuing new), standards for automotive iron and steel castings. This paper will review the status of the SAE standards for Ductile Iron, Austempered Ductile Iron (ADI), Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) and high Silicon-Molybdenum (Si-Mo) Ductile Iron, Gray Iron and Steel Castings. The SAE Standards, (and draft standards), will be critically compared to those for ASTM and ISO. Salient differences in the standards will be discussed and implications to design engineers will be addressed. Comparisons to other, competitive materials (and their standards) will be made.
Technical Paper

The Application of a One-Way Coupled Aerodynamic and Multi-Body Dynamics Simulation Process to Predict Vehicle Response during a Severe Crosswind Event

Industry trends towards lighter, more aerodynamically efficient road vehicles have the potential to degrade a vehicle’s response to crosswinds. In this paper, a methodology is outlined that indirectly couples a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of the vehicle’s aerodynamic characteristics with a multi-body dynamics simulation (MBD) to determine yaw, roll and pitch response characteristics during a severe crosswind event. This one-way coupling approach mimics physical test conditions outlined in open loop test procedure ISO 12021:2010 that forms part of the vehicle sign-off criterion at Ford Motor Company. The methodology uses an overset mesh CFD method to drive the vehicle through a prescribed crosswind event, providing unfiltered predictions of vehicle force and moment responses that are used as applied forces in the MBD model. The method does not account for changes in vehicle attitude due to applied aerodynamic forces and moments.
Technical Paper

The Application of Magnesium Die Casting to Vehicle Closures

During the last decade, advances in magnesium die casting technology have enabled the production of large lightweight thin walled die castings that offer new approaches for low investment body construction techniques. As a result, many OEMs have expressed an interest in magnesium door closure systems due to investment reduction opportunities, coupled with potential weight savings of up to 50%. However, for such applications, product engineers are faced with the challenge of designing for stiffness and strength in crash critical applications with a material of lower modulus and ductility compared to wrought sheet product. Concept designs for side door systems have been presented in the literature, and indicate that structural performance targets can be achieved. However, to date, series production designs feature a multitude of supplementary sheet metal reinforcements, attached to die castings, to handle structural loads.
Technical Paper

The Advantages of Using Standard Vehicle Dynamics Procedures and Analysis Programs

Globalization in the automotive industry has resulted in a tremendous competitive advantage to those companies who can internally communicate ideas and information effectively and in a timely manner. This paper discusses one such effort related to objectively testing vehicles for steering and handling characteristics by implementing standard test procedures, data acquisition hardware and analysis methods. Ford Motor Company's Vehicle Dynamics Test Section has refined a number of test procedures to the point that, with proper training, all design and development engineers can quickly acquire, analyze and share test results. Four of these procedures and output are discussed in detail.
Journal Article

Technical Analysis of a Proposed Shock Absorber Design Standard

One important part of the vehicle design process is suspension design and tuning. This is typically performed by design engineers, experienced expert evaluators, and assistance from vehicle dynamics engineers and their computer simulation tools. Automotive suspensions have two primary functions: passenger and cargo isolation and vehicle control. Suspension design, kinematics, compliance, and damping, play a key role in those primary functions and impact a vehicles ride, handling, steering, and braking dynamics. The development and tuning of a vehicle kinematics, compliance, and damping characteristic is done by expert evaluators who perform a variety of on road evaluations under different loading configurations and on a variety of road surfaces. This “tuning” is done with a focus on meeting certain target characteristics for ride, handling, and steering One part of this process is the development and tuning of the damping characteristics of the shock absorbers.
Journal Article

TWC+LNT/SCR Systems for Satisfying Tier 2, Bin 2 Emission Standards on Lean-Burn Gasoline Engines

A laboratory study was performed to assess the potential capability of TWC+LNT/SCR systems to satisfy the Tier 2, Bin 2 emission standards for lean-burn gasoline applications. It was assumed that the exhaust system would need a close-coupled (CC) TWC, an underbody (U/B) TWC, and a third U/B LNT/SCR converter to satisfy the emission standards on the FTP and US06 tests while allowing lean operation for improved fuel economy during select driving conditions. Target levels for HC, CO, and NOx during lean/rich cycling were established. Sizing studies were performed to determine the minimum LNT/SCR volume needed to satisfy the NOx target. The ability of the TWC to oxidize the HC during rich operation through steam reforming was crucial for satisfying the HC target.