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Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

2016-10-17
2016-01-2209
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization, Separation, and Synthesis Tools for Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises

2003-05-05
2003-01-1527
Recent applied mathematics research on the properties of the invertible shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform has produced new ways to visualize, separate, and synthesize impulsive sounds, such as thuds, slaps, taps, knocks, and rattles. These new methods can be used to examine the joint time-frequency characteristics of a sound, to select individual components based on their time-frequency localization, to quantify the components, and to synthesize new sounds from the selected components. The new tools will be presented in a non-mathematical way illustrated by two real-life sound quality problems, extracting the impulsive components of a windshield wiper sound, and analyzing a door closing-induced rattle.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Vision Based Object Distance Estimation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0109
This work describes a single camera based object distance estimation system. As technology on vehicles is constantly advancing on the road to autonomy, it is critical to know the locations of objects in 3D space for safe behavior of the vehicle. Though significant progress has been made on object detection in 2D sensor space from a single camera, this work additionally estimates the distance to said object without requiring stereo vision or absolute knowledge of vehicle motion. Specifically, our proposed system is comprised of three modules: vision based ego-motion estimation, object-detection, and distance estimation. In particular, we compensate for the vehicle ego-motion by using pin-hole camera model to increase the accuracy of the object distance estimation.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Use of Raman Spectroscopy to Identify Automotive Polymers in Recycling Operations

2000-03-06
2000-01-0739
To support its recycling efforts, Ford Motor Company is using a Raman based instrument, the RP-1, co-developed with SpectraCode Inc. to identify unknown polymeric parts. Our recycling initiative involves detailed dismantling of our vehicles into individual parts, calculating the percentage recyclability and making recommendations for the future use of recycled polymers. While Ford has voluntarily adopted the SAE J1344 marking protocol for identifying part material composition, a large number of unmarked parts still exist and require identification. This identification is being done with the help of RP-1. To facilitate this identification, we have generated an accurate reference library of Raman spectra for comparison to those of unknown materials. This paper will describe the techniques that were used to develop and refine the RP-1 reference library to identify automotive polymers, especially black/dark plastics.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

1998-09-29
982291
A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

The Use of Low Viscosity Oils to Improve Fuel Economy in Light Duty Diesel Engines

2000-06-19
2000-01-2054
Historically, fuel cost conscious customers have tended to purchase diesel passenger cars. However, with increasing competition from alternative fuels and lean burn and direct injection gasoline fuelled engines, diesel engined vehicles currently face tough challenges from the point of fuel economy and emissions. In gasoline engines, low viscosity friction modified oils have demonstrated their potential for reducing internal engine friction and thus improving fuel economy, without adversely effecting engine durability. These fuel economy improvements have led to the introduction of such a low viscosity friction modified 5W-30 oil as the initial and service fill for the majority of Ford products sold in Europe. The trend towards even lower viscosities continues. To assess the potential benefits and issues of moving to 5W-20 in diesel engines, a short pilot study has been conducted using a Ford 1.8l direct injection diesel engine.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

2009-10-06
2009-36-0238
Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.
Technical Paper

The Particle Emission Characteristics of a Light Duty Diesel Engine by Using Different Pilot Injections

2010-10-05
2010-01-1959
Pilot injection has been used widely in diesel engines for its NOx and noise reducing characteristics. In this paper, its impacts to the particle emissions were studied using a light-duty common-rail Euro 4 diesel engine with different pilot injection strategies. Three steady-state engine modes were selected from the EU legislative diesel engine test cycle to represent low, medium and high engine speeds and loads. The quantities and injection timings of the pilot injection strategies were then varied. The particle number concentration and size distributions were investigated along with the smoke and regulated gas emissions such as the NOx trade-off. These results indicate how a pilot injection alongside a main injection can increase the particle size compared to a single main injection event. Furthermore, the split injection was closely related to the engine mode.
Journal Article

The Effects of Temperature, Shear Stress, and Deposit Thickness on EGR Cooler Fouling Removal Mechanism - Part 2

2016-04-05
2016-01-0186
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers are used on diesel engines to reduce peak in-cylinder flame temperatures, leading to less NOx formation during the combustion process. There is an ongoing concern with soot and hydrocarbon fouling inside the cold surface of the cooler. The fouling layer reduces the heat transfer efficiency and causes pressure drop to increase across the cooler. A number of experimental studies have demonstrated that the fouling layer tends to asymptotically approach a critical height, after which the layer growth ceases. One potential explanation for this behavior is the removal mechanism derived by the shear force applied on the soot and hydrocarbon deposit surface. As the deposit layer thickens, shear force applied on the fouling surface increases due to the flow velocity growth. When a critical shear force is applied, deposit particles start to get removed.
Journal Article

The Effect of Reducing Compression Ratio on the Work Output and Heat Release Characteristics of a DI Diesel under Cold Start Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-1306
An experimental investigation has been carried out to compare the indicated performance and heat release characteristics of a DI diesel engine at compression ratios of 18.4:1 and 15.4:1. The compression ratio was changed by modifying the piston bowl volume; the bore and stroke were unchanged, and the swept volume was nominally 500cc. The engine is a single cylinder variant of modern design which meets Euro 4 emissions requirements. Work output and heat release characteristics for the two compression ratios have been compared at an engine speed of 300 rev/min and test temperatures of 10, -10 and -20°C. A more limited comparison has also been made for higher speeds representative of cold idle at one test temperature (-20°C). The reduction in compression ratio generally produces an increase in peak specific indicated work output at low speeds; this is attributable to a reduction in blowby and heat transfer losses and lower peak rates of heat release increasing cumulative burn.
Journal Article

The Effect of Hydrocarbons on the Selective Catalyzed Reduction of NOx over Low and High Temperature Catalyst Formulations

2008-04-14
2008-01-1030
Selective Catalytic Reduction of NOx is a promising technology to enable diesel engines to meet certification under Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions requirements. SCR catalysts for vehicle use are typically zeolitic materials known to store both hydrocarbons and ammonia. Ammonia storage on the zeolite has a beneficial effect on NOx conversion; hydrocarbons however, compete with ammonia for storage sites and may also block access to the interior of the zeolites where the bulk of the catalytic processes take place. This paper presents the results of laboratory studies utilizing surrogate hydrocarbon species to simulate engine-out exhaust over catalysts formulated to operate in both low (≈175-500°C) and high temperature (≈250-600°C) regimes. The effects of hydrocarbon exposure of these individual species on the SCR reaction are examined and observations are made as to necessary conditions for the recovery of SCR activity.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Injection on the Velocity Fluctuations in the Bowl of a DISI Engine

2005-05-11
2005-01-2102
Swirl plane Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were performed in a single-cylinder optically accessible gasoline direct injection (DISI) engine using a borescope introduced through the spark plug hole. This allowed the use of a contoured piston and the visualization of the flow field in and around the piston bowl. The manifold absolute pressure (MAP) was fixed at 90 kPa and the engine speed was varied in increments of 250 rpm from 750 rpm to 2000 rpm. Images were taken from 270° to 320° bTDC of compression at 10° intervals to study the evolution of the velocity fluctuations. Measurements were performed with and without fuel injection to study its effect on the in-cylinder flow fields. Fuel was injected at 10 MPa and 5 MPa. The 2-D spatial mean velocities of individual flow fields and their decompositions were averaged over 100 cycles and used to investigate the effects of engine speed and image timing on the flow field.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers on the Low-Speed Friction Characteristics of Automatic Transmission Fluids Observed with Scanning Force Microscopy

1998-02-23
981099
The effect of friction modifiers on the low-speed frictional properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) was investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). A clutch lining material was covered by a droplet of test ATF, and a steel tip was scanned over the sample. The scanning speeds were varied from 0.13 to 8.56 mm /sec, and the frictional force was deduced from the torsion of the SFM cantilever. A reduction in dynamic friction due to the addition of the friction modifier was clearly observed over the entire speed range. This indicates that the boundary lubrication mechanism is dominant under this condition, and therefore surface-active friction modifiers can effectively improve the frictional characteristics. The friction reduction was more pronounced at lower sliding speeds. Thus addition of friction modifiers produced a more positive slope in the μ-ν (friction vs. sliding speed) plots, and would contribute to make wet clutch systems less susceptible to shudder vibrations.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Dimethoxy Methane Additive on Diesel Vehicle Particulate Emissions

1998-10-19
982572
FTP emissions tests on a passenger vehicle equipped with a 1.8 L IDI turbo-charged diesel engine show that the mass emissions of particles decrease by (36±8)% when 16.6% dimethoxymethane (DMM) by volume is added to a diesel fuel. Particle size measurements reveal log-normal accumulation mode distributions with number weighted geometric mean diameters in the 80 - 100 nm range. The number density is comparable for both base fuel and the DMM/diesel blend; however, the distributions shift to smaller particle diameter for the blend. This shift to smaller size is consistent with the observed reduction in particulate mass. No change is observed in NOx emissions. Formaldehyde emissions increase by (50±25)%, while emissions of other hydrocarbons are unchanged to within the estimated experimental error.
Technical Paper

Surge Prediction in a Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) Compressor Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

2019-06-05
2019-01-1490
The Single Sequential Turbocharger (SST) used in Ford’s 6.7L Scorpion Diesel is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to draw conclusions about the compressor stability at low mass flows. The SST compressor concept consists of a double-sided wheel which flows in parallel fed by two separate inlets (front and rear), followed by a single vane-less diffuser, and a volute. CFD simulations for the full stage are performed at low mass flow rates Both, front and rear, sides have ported shroud casing-treatment (CT) in the inlet region. An objective of the analysis is to determine which side of the SST unit compressor (front or rear on the double-sided wheel) suffers flow break down first as the mass flow is reduced, and its impact on the overall stability of the SST compressor. Another objective is to better understand the interactions between the compressor inlet flow and the flow through the casing-treatment.
Technical Paper

Suitability Study of n-Butanol for Enabling PCCI and HCCI and RCCI Combustion on a High Compression-ratio Diesel Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1816
This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
Journal Article

Study on Fatigue Behaviors of Porous T300/924 Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Unidirectional Laminates

2017-03-28
2017-01-0223
Morphological features of voids were characterized for T300/924 12-ply and 16-ply composite laminates at different porosity levels through the implementation of a digital microscopy (DM) image analysis technique. The composite laminates were fabricated through compression molding. Compression pressures of 0.1MPa, 0.3MPa, and 0.5MPa were selected to obtain composite plaques at different porosity levels. Tension-tension fatigue tests at load ratio R=0.1 for composite laminates at different void levels were conducted, and the dynamic stiffness degradation during the tests was monitored. Fatigue mechanisms were then discussed based on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the fatigue fracture surfaces. The test results showed that the presence of voids in the matrix has detrimental effects on the fatigue resistance of the material, depending on the applied load level.
Technical Paper

Static and Fatigue Performance of Fusion Welded Uncoated DP780 Coach Joints

2008-04-14
2008-01-0695
Typical automotive joints are lap, coach, butt and miter joints. In tubular joining applications, a coach joint is common when one tube is joined to another tube without the use of brackets. Various fusion joining processes are popular in joining coach joints. Common fusion joining processes are Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW), Laser and Laser Hybrid, and Gas Tungsten arc welding (GTAW). In this study, fusion welded 2.0 mm uncoated DP780 steel coach joints were investigated. Laser, Gas metal arc welding (GMAW), and laser hybrid (Laser + GMAW) welding processes were selected. Metallurgical properties of the DP780 fusion welds were evaluated using optical microscopy. Static and fatigue tests were conducted on these joints for all three joining processes. It was found that joint fit-up, type of welding process, and process parameters, especially travel speed, have significant impact on static and fatigue performance of the coach joints in this study.
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