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Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization, Separation, and Synthesis Tools for Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises

Recent applied mathematics research on the properties of the invertible shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform has produced new ways to visualize, separate, and synthesize impulsive sounds, such as thuds, slaps, taps, knocks, and rattles. These new methods can be used to examine the joint time-frequency characteristics of a sound, to select individual components based on their time-frequency localization, to quantify the components, and to synthesize new sounds from the selected components. The new tools will be presented in a non-mathematical way illustrated by two real-life sound quality problems, extracting the impulsive components of a windshield wiper sound, and analyzing a door closing-induced rattle.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Vision Based Object Distance Estimation

This work describes a single camera based object distance estimation system. As technology on vehicles is constantly advancing on the road to autonomy, it is critical to know the locations of objects in 3D space for safe behavior of the vehicle. Though significant progress has been made on object detection in 2D sensor space from a single camera, this work additionally estimates the distance to said object without requiring stereo vision or absolute knowledge of vehicle motion. Specifically, our proposed system is comprised of three modules: vision based ego-motion estimation, object-detection, and distance estimation. In particular, we compensate for the vehicle ego-motion by using pin-hole camera model to increase the accuracy of the object distance estimation.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Variable Cam Timing (VCT) Knock Root Cause Analysis and Failure Mode Prevention

Knock in the Camshaft Torque Actuated (CTA) in the Variable Cam Timing (VCT) engine can be a NVH issue and a source of customer complaint. The knock noise usually occurs during hot idle when the VCT phaser is in the locked position and the locking pin is engaged. During a V8 engine development at Ford, the VCT knock noise was observed during hot idle run. In this paper investigation leading to the identification of the root cause through both test and the CAE simulation is presented. The key knock contributors involving torque and its rate of change in addition to the backlash level are discussed. A CAE metric to assess knock occurrence potential for this NVH failure mode is presented. Finally a new design feature in terms of locking pinhole positioning to mitigate or eliminate the knock is discussed.
Technical Paper

Using Engine as Torsional Shaker for Vehicle Sensitivity Refinement at Idle Conditions

Vehicle idle quality has become an increasing quality concern for automobile manufacturers because of its impact on customer satisfaction. There are two factors that critical to vehicle idle quality, the engine excitation force and vehicle sensitivity (transfer function). To better understand the contribution to the idle quality from these two factors and carry out well-planned improvement measures, a quick and easy way to measure vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions is desired. There are several different ways to get vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions. A typical way is to use CAE. One of the biggest advantages using CAE is that it can separate vehicle sensitivities to different forcing inputs. As always, the CAE results need to be validated before being fully utilized. Another way to get vehicle sensitivity is through impact test using impact hammer or shaker. However this method doesn't include the mount preload due to engine firing torque [3, 4, & 5].
Technical Paper

Use of Raman Spectroscopy to Identify Automotive Polymers in Recycling Operations

To support its recycling efforts, Ford Motor Company is using a Raman based instrument, the RP-1, co-developed with SpectraCode Inc. to identify unknown polymeric parts. Our recycling initiative involves detailed dismantling of our vehicles into individual parts, calculating the percentage recyclability and making recommendations for the future use of recycled polymers. While Ford has voluntarily adopted the SAE J1344 marking protocol for identifying part material composition, a large number of unmarked parts still exist and require identification. This identification is being done with the help of RP-1. To facilitate this identification, we have generated an accurate reference library of Raman spectra for comparison to those of unknown materials. This paper will describe the techniques that were used to develop and refine the RP-1 reference library to identify automotive polymers, especially black/dark plastics.
Technical Paper

Up-Front Prediction of the Effects of Cylinder Head Design on Combustion Rates in SI Engines

Accurate prediction of engine combustion characteristics, especially burn rates, can eliminate a number of hardware iterations, thus resulting in a significant reduction in design and developmental time and cost. An analytical methodology has been developed which allows the determination of part-load MBT spark timing to within 2 crank-angle degrees. The design methodology employs the in-house-developed steady-state quasi-dimensional engine simulation model (GESIM), coupled with full-field measurement of the in-cylinder fluid motion at bottom dead center (BDC) in the computer-controlled water analog system (AquaDyne). The in-cylinder flow-field measurements are obtained using 3-D Particle Tracking Velocimetry (3-D PTV), also developed in-house. In this methodology, the in-cylinder flow measurement data are used to calibrate both the tumble and swirl models in GESIM.
Technical Paper

Understanding of Intake Cam Phasing Effects on the Induction and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Engine

Variable Cam Timing (VCT) has been proven to be a very effective method in PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engines for improved fuel economy and combustion stability, and reduced emissions. In DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines, VCT is applied in both stratified-charge and homogeneous charge operating modes. In stratified-charge mode, VCT is used to reduce NOx emission and improve combustion stability. In homogeneous charge mode, the function of VCT is similar to that in PFI engines. In DISI engine, however, the VCT also affects the available fuel-air mixing time. This paper focuses on VCT effects on the induction process and the fuel-air mixing homogeneity in a DISI engine. The detailed induction process with large exhaust-intake valve overlap has been investigated with CFD modeling. Seven characteristic sub-processes during the induction have been identified. The associated mechanism for each sub-process is also investigated.
Technical Paper

Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from Stratified Charge Direct Injection Engines

The sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in direct injection stratified charge engines are presented. Whereas crevices in the combustion chamber are the primary sources of UHC emissions in homogeneous charge engines, lean quenching and liquid film layers dominate UHC emissions in stratified charge operation. Emissions data from a single cylinder engine, operating in stratified charge mode at a low speed / light load condition is summarized. This operating point is interesting in that liquid film formation, as evidenced by smoke emissions, is minimal, thus highlighting the lean quenching process. The effects of operating parameters on UHC emissions are demonstrated via sweeps of spark advance, injection timing, manifold pressure, and swirl level. The effects of EGR dilution are also discussed. Spark advance is shown to be the most significant factor in UHC emissions. A semi-empirical model for UHC emissions is presented based on the analysis of existing engine data.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging the 1983½-1984 Ford 2.3L OHC Engine

Successful application of turbocharger technology to the Ford 2.3L OHC engine requires management of thermal loading. The 1979/1980 2.3L draw-thru carbureted engine was octane and spark advance limited, requiring calibration to worse case 91 RON conditions. Since no adaptive calibration control was possible relatively late ignition timing compromised engine performance. To improve performance, driveability, fuel economy and emission control, work was initiated in mid 1980 on a blow-thru electronic fuel injected engine scheduled for 1983½ production. Program assumptions were issued specifying a tuned EFI blow-thru inlet system, exhaust manifold mounted AiResearch T03 turbocharger with integral wastegate and 8.0:1 compression ratio with a dished piston. Also included were base engine revisions to accommodate increased thermal and mechanical loads.
Technical Paper

Turbocharging Ford's 2.3 Liter Spark Ignition Engine

Ford's new 2.3 Litre I-4 Turbocharged Engine and Powertrain was specifically developed to match the new 1979 Mustang/ Capri. This engine/vehicle combination was developed to provide the customer excellent vehicle performance, good fuel economy and driveability. Extensive vehicle and dynamometer work was done to match the turbocharger to the engine and optimize in-vehicle mid-range to high end performance. The relatively high compression ratio (9.0:1) was retained from the naturally aspirated engine to preserve low end manual transmission vehicle performance before turbocharger boost. Revisions to basic engine components and structures to insure durability will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Turbocharger First Order Synchronous Noise and Vibrations: Predictions and Measurements

EcoBoost engines constitute one of the strategies used by Ford Motor Company to deliver engines with improved fuel economy and performance. However, turbochargers exhibit many inherent NVH challenges that need to be addressed in order to deliver refined engines that meet customer’s expectation. One of these challenges is the turbocharger 1st order synchronous noise due to the interaction between the manufacturing tolerances of the rotating components and the dynamic behavior of the rotor. This paper discusses an MBD/FEA/BEM based method to predict the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the rotor semi floating bearing, its impact on the bearing loads and the resulting powerplant noise due to the interaction with the turbocharger imbalance level.
Technical Paper

Transient Non-linear FEA and TMF Life Estimates of Cast Exhaust Manifolds

A transient nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (FEA) method has been developed to simulate the inelastic deformation and estimate the thermo-mechanical fatigue life of cast iron and cast steel exhaust manifolds under dynamometer test conditions. The FEA uses transient heat transfer analysis to simulate the thermal loads on the manifold, and includes the fasteners, gasket and portion of the cylinder head. The analysis incorporates appropriate elastic-plastic and creep material models. It is shown that the creep deformation is the most single critical component of inelastic deformation for cast iron manifold ratcheting, gasket sealing, and crack initiation. The predicted transient temperature field and manifold deformation of the FEA model compares exceptionally well with two experimental tests for a high silicon-molybdenum exhaust manifold.
Technical Paper

Transient Investigation of Two Variable Geometry Turbochargers for Passenger Vehicle Diesel Engines

The use of variable geometry turbocharging (VGT) as an aid to performance enhancement has been the subject of much interest for use in high-speed, light-duty automotive diesel applications in recent times (4). One of the key benefits anticipated is the improved transient response possible with such a device over the conventional fixed geometry turbine with wastegate. The transient responses of two different types of variable geometry turbocharger have been investigated on a dynamic engine test bed. To demonstrate the effect of the turbocharger on the entire system a series of step changes in engine load at constant engine speed were carried out with the turbocharger and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) systems under the control of the engine management microprocessor. Results are presented which compare the different performance and emissions characteristics of the devices. Some control issues are discussed with a view to improving the transient response of both types.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel Modeling and Control for Cold Start Intake Cam Phasing

Advancing intake valve timing shortly after engine crank and run-up can potentially reduce vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in port fuel injected (PFI) engines equipped with intake variable cam timing (iVCT). Due to the cold metal temperatures, there can be significant accumulation of liquid fuel in the intake system and in the cylinder. This accumulation of liquid fuel provides potential sources for unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). Since the entire vehicle exhaust system is cold, the catalyst will not mitigate the release of unburned HCs. By advancing the intake valve timing and increasing valve overlap, liquid fuel vaporization in the intake system is enhanced thereby increasing the amount of burnable fuel in the cylinder. This increase in burnable HCs must be countered by a reduction in injector-delivered fuel via a compensator that reacts to cam movement.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Analysis of Cast Aluminum Cylinder Heads

Thermal fatigue presents a new challenge in cast aluminum engine design. Accurate thermomechanical stress analysis and reliable failure criterion are the keys to a successful life prediction. It is shown that the material stress and strain behavior of cast aluminum is strongly temperature and strain rate sensitive. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive relation is thus proposed to simultaneously describe the plasticity and creep of cast aluminum components deforming at high temperatures. A fatigue failure criterion based on a damage accumulation model is introduced. Damages due to mechanical fatigue, environmental impact and creep are accounted for. The material stress and strain model and thermal fatigue model are shown to be effective in accurately capturing features of thermal fatigue by simulating a component thermal fatigue test using 3D FEA with ABAQUS and comparing the results with measured data.
Technical Paper

The Volume Acoustic Modes of Spark-Ignited Internal Combustion Chambers

Acoustic standing waves are excited in internal combustion chambers by both normal combustion and autoignition. The energy in these acoustic modes can be transmitted through the engine block and radiated as high-frequency engine noise. Using finite-element models of two different (four-valve and two-valve) production engine combustion chambers, the mode shapes and relative frequencies of the in-cylinder volume acoustic modes are calculated as a function of crank angle. The model is validated by comparison to spectrograms of experimental time-sampled waveforms (from flush-mounted cylinder pressure sensors and accelerometers) from these two typical production spark-ignited engines.