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Technical Paper

Zero Prototype Approach in the Development of a Plastic Automotive Component

2004-11-16
2004-01-3300
In the developement process, the engineer is required to design, validate and deliver the components for manufacturing, in an as short as possible lead time. For that, the engineer may use some available tools to save not only time, but also cost. This work presents a zero prototype approach applyied to a plastic component, whose main accomplishment was the decreasing of lead time development due to the intensive use of virtual tools (CAD/CAE). As a result, the product was delivered in a short time, with no need of building physical prototypes, thus reducing development cost.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

2003-05-05
2003-01-1702
An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

2003-10-19
2003-01-3341
North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Weld Line Factors for Thermoplastics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0481
Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C). The results showed that different materials had various values of W-L factor.
Technical Paper

Warpage Prediction on Injection Molded Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0149
Warpage is the distortion induced by inhomogeneous shrinkage during injection molding of plastic parts. Uncontrolled warpage will result in dimensional instability and bring a lot of challenges to the mold design and part assembly. Current commercial simulation software for injection molding cannot provide consistently accurate warpage prediction, especially for semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In this study, the root cause of inconsistency in warpage prediction has been investigated by using injection molded polypropylene plaques with a wide range of process conditions. The warpage of injection molded plaques are measured and compared to the numerical predictions from Moldex3D. The study shows that with considering cooling rate effect on crystallization kinetics and using of the improved material model for residual stress calculations, good agreements are obtained between experiment and simulation results.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Verification and Test Methodologies for Structural Aluminum Repair

2003-03-03
2003-01-0570
The increasing use of aluminum in the design of Body In White (BIW) structures created the need to develop and verify repair methodologies specific to this substrate. Over the past century, steel has been used as the primary material in the production of automotive BIW systems. While repair methods and techniques in steel have been evolving for decades, aluminum structural repair requires special attention for such common practices as welding, mechanical fastening, and the use of adhesives. This paper outlines some of the advanced verification and testing methodologies used to develop collision repair procedures for the aluminum 2003 Jaguar XJ sedan. It includes the identification of potential failure modes found in production and customer applications, the formulation of testing methodologies, CAE verification testing and component subsystem prove-out. The objective of the testing was to develop repair methodologies that meet or exceed production system performance characteristics.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Control Software Validation for the Dual Drive Hybrid Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-0736
Through the use of hybrid technology, Ford Motor Company continues to realize enhanced vehicle fuel economy while meeting customer performance and drivability targets. As is characteristic of all Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the basis for resolving these competing requirements resides with its Vehicle System Control (VSC) strategy. This strategy implements complex high-level executive controls to coordinate and optimize the desired operational state of the major HEV powertrain subsystems. To ensure that the VSC software meets its intended functionality, a software validation process developed at Research and Advanced Engineering has been integrated as part of the vehicle controls development process. In this paper, this VSC software validation process implemented for a next generation hybrid powertrain is presented. First, an overview of the hybrid powertrain application and the VSC software architecture is introduced.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Powertrain Thermal Management System Using Model Predictive Control

2016-04-05
2016-01-0215
An advanced powertrain cooling system with appropriate control strategy and active actuators allows greater flexibility in managing engine temperatures and operating near constraints. An organized controls development process is necessary to allow comparison of multiple configurations to select the best way forward. In this work, we formulate, calibrate and validate a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for temperature regulation and constraint handling in an advanced cooling system. A model-based development process was followed; where the system model was used to develop and calibrate a gain scheduled linear MPC. The implementation of MPC for continuous systems and the modification related to implementing switching systems has been described. Multiple hardware configurations were compared with their corresponding control system in simulations. The system level requirements were translated into MPC calibration parameters for consistent comparison between multiple configurations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Evaluations and NVH Target Cascading Considerations for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2362
The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, characterization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Generally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Objective Metrics

2003-11-18
2003-01-3631
Among the development phases of an automotive vehicle one can point out the definition of the main characteristics of its suspensions like for example the suspension kinematics and compliances properties. Suspension definition phase can be understood as the following scenario: given a suspension type, which hard points (geometric) and what values of stiffness for the whole system will result in a desired dynamic behavior for the vehicle as well as production feasibility. This present work intends to show the influence of some suspension properties on the global dynamic behavior of the vehicle, having as a target an efficient suspension design. In terms of global dynamic behavior this work point out some control parameters, which describe the vehicle transient and steady-state properties. Those parameters are: Yaw phase lag, understeer gradient, Steady state acceleration gain and yaw overshoot during a maneuver like brake in a turn and power-off in a curve.
Technical Paper

Validation of a System of Finite Element Models Representing a Complex Transaxle

2003-05-05
2003-01-1594
The validation of an assembly of component finite element models to high frequencies is a difficult challenge. Basic steps coupled with advanced correlation techniques are required to produce system finite element models that correlate to modal test data. This paper describes those steps as they were applied to a system model of a complex transaxle.
Technical Paper

Validation of Non-linear Load-Controlled CAE Analyses of Oil-Canning Tests of Hood and Door Assemblies

2003-03-03
2003-01-0603
Two finite element methodologies for simulating oil-canning tests on closure assemblies are presented. Reflecting the experimental conditions, the simulation methodologies assume load-controlled situations. One methodology uses an implicit finite-element code, namely ABAQUS®, and the other uses an explicit code, LS-DYNA®. It is shown that load-displacement behavior predicted by both the implicit and explicit codes agree well with experimental observations of oil-canning in a hood assembly. The small residual dent depth predictions are in line with experimental observations. The method using the implicit code, however, yields lower residual dent depth than that using the explicit code. Because the absolute values of the residual dent depths are small in the cases examined, more work is needed, using examples involving larger residual dent depth, to clearly distinguish between the two procedures.
Technical Paper

Validating Powertrain Controller Systems With the VPACS-HIL Powertrain Simulator

2005-04-11
2005-01-1663
To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Traditionally, this validation testing is done with open-loop signal generators, powertrain dynamometers, and real vehicles. Such testing methods either cannot simulate complex control system interactions, or are expensive and subject to variability. To address these concerns while decreasing development time and improving vehicle quality, Ford Motor Company is placing increasing focus on validating a PCS through simulation. One such testing method is a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation, which mates the physical elements of a PCS to a real-time computer simulation of a powertrain.
Technical Paper

Utilization of CAE Tools to Assist Active Glove Box Design

2017-03-28
2017-01-0493
Traditionally, Knee Air Bag (KAB) is constructed of a woven nylon or polyester fabric. Recently, Ford developed an injection molded air bag system for the passenger side called Active Glove Box (AGB). This system integrates a plastic bladder welded between the glove box outer and inner doors. This new system is smaller and lighter, thus improving the roominess and other creature comforts inside the passenger cabin while providing equivalent restraint performance as traditional knee airbag system. This patented technology allows positioning of airbags in new locations within the vehicle, thus giving more freedom to designers. The first application of this technology was standard equipment on the 2015 Ford Mustang. Given that this technology is first in the industry, it was a challenge to design, test and evaluate the performance of the system as there is no benchmark to compare this technology. A CAE driven design methodology was chosen to overcome this challenge.
Journal Article

Using an Assembly Sequencing Application to React to a Production Constraint: a Case Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-0242
Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this work we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
Technical Paper

Using Engine as Torsional Shaker for Vehicle Sensitivity Refinement at Idle Conditions

2007-05-15
2007-01-2319
Vehicle idle quality has become an increasing quality concern for automobile manufacturers because of its impact on customer satisfaction. There are two factors that critical to vehicle idle quality, the engine excitation force and vehicle sensitivity (transfer function). To better understand the contribution to the idle quality from these two factors and carry out well-planned improvement measures, a quick and easy way to measure vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions is desired. There are several different ways to get vehicle sensitivity at idle conditions. A typical way is to use CAE. One of the biggest advantages using CAE is that it can separate vehicle sensitivities to different forcing inputs. As always, the CAE results need to be validated before being fully utilized. Another way to get vehicle sensitivity is through impact test using impact hammer or shaker. However this method doesn't include the mount preload due to engine firing torque [3, 4, & 5].
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Ash to Improve GPF Performance at Zero Mileage

2019-04-02
2019-01-0974
Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) with high filtration efficiency (>80%) at zero mileage are in growing demand to meet increasingly tight vehicle emission standards for particulate matter being implemented in US, EU, China and elsewhere. Current efforts to achieve high filter performance mainly focus on fine-tuning the filter structure, such as the pore size distribution and porosity of the bare substrate, or the washcoat loading and location of catalyzed substrates. However, high filtration efficiency may have a cost in high backpressure that negatively affects engine power. On the other hand, it has been recognized in a few reports that very low amounts of ash deposits (from non-combustible residue in the exhaust) can significantly increase filtration efficiency with only a mild backpressure increase.
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