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Technical Paper

Weld Line Factors for Thermoplastics

Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C). The results showed that different materials had various values of W-L factor.
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction Workshops “Saving Weight and Saving Money”

Identifying weight reduction ideas is not difficult in the engineering world today. The difficulty is implementation! Typically Product System Teams generate long lists of weight reduction roadmap ideas, but never have time to deliver. Engineers today are too busy to run dual path programs. ‘Roadmap’ ideas sit on an opportunities list until they are “out of time” and then “fall off” the list. This paper will describe a Weight Reduction Workshop process implemented at Ford Motor Company which drives weight reduction ideas into program assumptions early in the definition of a product program. The weight reduction workshop results are: Weight Reduction Ideas Recommended Variable Cost & Investment Estimates Weight savings Cost per pound of weight saved Technical confidence Work plan for each recommended idea Ideas are also evaluated against all the program's sub-attribute requirements to insure the design functions of the component are not compromised.
Technical Paper

Wall Film Dynamics Modeling for Impinging Sprays in Engines

This paper proposes a film dynamics model for liquid film resulting from fuel spray impinging on a wall surface. It is based on a thin film assumption and uses numerical particles to represent the film to be compatible with the particle spray models developed previously. The Lagrangian method is adopted to govern the transport of the film particles. A new, statistical treatment was introduced of the momentum exchange between the impinging spray and the wall film to account for the directional distribution of the impinging momentum. This model together with the previously published models for outgoing droplets constitutes a complete description of the spray wall impingement dynamics. For model validation, films resulting from impinging sprays on a flat surface with different impingement angles were calculated and the results were compared with the corresponding experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Verification and Test Methodologies for Structural Aluminum Repair

The increasing use of aluminum in the design of Body In White (BIW) structures created the need to develop and verify repair methodologies specific to this substrate. Over the past century, steel has been used as the primary material in the production of automotive BIW systems. While repair methods and techniques in steel have been evolving for decades, aluminum structural repair requires special attention for such common practices as welding, mechanical fastening, and the use of adhesives. This paper outlines some of the advanced verification and testing methodologies used to develop collision repair procedures for the aluminum 2003 Jaguar XJ sedan. It includes the identification of potential failure modes found in production and customer applications, the formulation of testing methodologies, CAE verification testing and component subsystem prove-out. The objective of the testing was to develop repair methodologies that meet or exceed production system performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Objective Metrics

Among the development phases of an automotive vehicle one can point out the definition of the main characteristics of its suspensions like for example the suspension kinematics and compliances properties. Suspension definition phase can be understood as the following scenario: given a suspension type, which hard points (geometric) and what values of stiffness for the whole system will result in a desired dynamic behavior for the vehicle as well as production feasibility. This present work intends to show the influence of some suspension properties on the global dynamic behavior of the vehicle, having as a target an efficient suspension design. In terms of global dynamic behavior this work point out some control parameters, which describe the vehicle transient and steady-state properties. Those parameters are: Yaw phase lag, understeer gradient, Steady state acceleration gain and yaw overshoot during a maneuver like brake in a turn and power-off in a curve.
Technical Paper

Using Virtual Seat Prototyping to Understand the Influence of Craftsmanship on Safety, and Seating Comfort

Traditional automotive seat development has relied on a series of physical prototypes that are evaluated and refined in an iterative fashion. Costs are managed by sharing prototypes across multiple attributes. To further manage costs, many OEMs and Tier 1s have, over the past decade, started to investigate various levels of virtual prototyping. The change, which represents a dramatic paradigm shift, has been slow to materialize since virtual prototyping has not significantly reduced the required number of physical prototypes. This is related to the fact virtual seat prototyping efforts have been focused on only selected seat attributes - safety / occupant positioning and mechanical comfort are two examples. This requires that physical prototypes still be built for seat attributes like craftsmanship, durability, and thermal comfort.
Journal Article

Using Ejector Diluters to Sample Vehicle Exhaust at Elevated Pressures and Temperatures

This paper presents an alternative and relatively simple method which allows the use of ordinary ejector-type diluters over a wide range of sample inlet conditions including elevated pressures and temperatures. After calibration of the ejector diluter, the dilution can be accurately characterized using only the pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the diluter and the sample temperature. The method is based on a semi-empirical, stationary model taking into account the critical parameters needed to predict the dilution factor. Under steady state operation it achieves accuracies estimated to be below ±8% (95% confidence interval) for diluter inlet pressures in the range of 1000 - 4000 mbar absolute and temperatures between 20 - 200°C. Performance under actual vehicle testing conditions is evaluated upstream of the DPF for a diesel vehicle run on a chassis dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Using Artificial Ash to Improve GPF Performance at Zero Mileage

Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) with high filtration efficiency (>80%) at zero mileage are in growing demand to meet increasingly tight vehicle emission standards for particulate matter being implemented in US, EU, China and elsewhere. Current efforts to achieve high filter performance mainly focus on fine-tuning the filter structure, such as the pore size distribution and porosity of the bare substrate, or the washcoat loading and location of catalyzed substrates. However, high filtration efficiency may have a cost in high backpressure that negatively affects engine power. On the other hand, it has been recognized in a few reports that very low amounts of ash deposits (from non-combustible residue in the exhaust) can significantly increase filtration efficiency with only a mild backpressure increase.
Technical Paper

Use of Photogrammetry in Extracting 3D Structural Deformation/Dummy Occupant Movement Time History During Vehicle Crashes

The ability to extract and evaluate the time history of structural deformations or crush during vehicle crashes represents a significant challenge to automotive safety researchers. Current methods are limited by the use of electro-mechanical devices such as string pots and/or linear variable displacement transducers (LVDT). Typically, one end of the transducer must be mounted to a point on the structure that will remain un-deformed during the event; the other end is then attached to the point on the structure where the deformation is to be measured. This approach measures the change in distance between these two points and is unable to resolve any movement into its respective X, Y, or Z directions. Also, the accuracy of electro-mechanical transducers is limited by their dynamic response to crash conditions. The photogrammetry technique has been used successfully in a wide variety of applications including aerial surveying, civil engineering and documentation of traffic accidents.
Technical Paper

Update on Emissions Measurement Performance of a PZEV Test Cell

In Fall of 2001, a new emissions test cell was installed at Ford Motor Company that was specifically designed for precise low-level measurements (as described in Reference 6). The primary design focus for this cell was to ensure that optimal measurement capability was available to test vehicles that meet the stringent Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (PZEV) tailpipe requirements (NMOG = 10 mg/mile, NOx = 20 mg/mile). Over the past four years, there have been numerous improvements to the operational and Quality Assurance (QA) practices used in the PZEV Test Cell. Several investigations have also been performed to demonstrate the quality of its emissions measurements. Finally, a number of “lessons learned” have been documented from our experiences with PZEV measurements and with testing hybrid-electric vehicles. This paper summarizes these findings as a reference for others interested in low-level emissions measurements.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Emissions from a PROCO Engine Powered Vehicle

Unregulated emissions, i.e., emissions which are not currently regulated by EPA, have been measured from a 7.5 L (460 CID) PROCO engine powered vehicle operating at 50 kph on a chassis dynamometer. A dilution tube was used. Emphasis was on particulate emissions, which were characterized physically and chemically. A comparison is made to recent similar measurements on Diesel and conventional gasoline powered vehicles.
Technical Paper

Understanding of Intake Cam Phasing Effects on the Induction and Fuel-Air Mixing in a DISI Engine

Variable Cam Timing (VCT) has been proven to be a very effective method in PFI (Port Fuel Injection) engines for improved fuel economy and combustion stability, and reduced emissions. In DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) engines, VCT is applied in both stratified-charge and homogeneous charge operating modes. In stratified-charge mode, VCT is used to reduce NOx emission and improve combustion stability. In homogeneous charge mode, the function of VCT is similar to that in PFI engines. In DISI engine, however, the VCT also affects the available fuel-air mixing time. This paper focuses on VCT effects on the induction process and the fuel-air mixing homogeneity in a DISI engine. The detailed induction process with large exhaust-intake valve overlap has been investigated with CFD modeling. Seven characteristic sub-processes during the induction have been identified. The associated mechanism for each sub-process is also investigated.
Technical Paper

Unburned Hydrocarbon Emissions from Stratified Charge Direct Injection Engines

The sources of unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in direct injection stratified charge engines are presented. Whereas crevices in the combustion chamber are the primary sources of UHC emissions in homogeneous charge engines, lean quenching and liquid film layers dominate UHC emissions in stratified charge operation. Emissions data from a single cylinder engine, operating in stratified charge mode at a low speed / light load condition is summarized. This operating point is interesting in that liquid film formation, as evidenced by smoke emissions, is minimal, thus highlighting the lean quenching process. The effects of operating parameters on UHC emissions are demonstrated via sweeps of spark advance, injection timing, manifold pressure, and swirl level. The effects of EGR dilution are also discussed. Spark advance is shown to be the most significant factor in UHC emissions. A semi-empirical model for UHC emissions is presented based on the analysis of existing engine data.
Journal Article

Twin-LNT System for Advanced Diesel Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

The most significant challenge in emission control for compression ignited internal combustion engines is the suppression of NOx. In the US, NOx-levels have faced a progressive reduction for several years, but recently the introduction of the Real Driving Emissions legislation (RDE) in Europe has not only significantly increased the severity of the required emission reduction but now is in the advent of stretching technology to its limits. Emission control is based on engine-internal optimization to reduce the engine-out emissions in conjunction with aftertreatment technologies, that are either Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) or Lean NOx Trap (LNT) based systems. Due to its ability to control high amounts of NOx, SCR is widely used in heavy-duty applications and is becoming more popular in light-duty and passenger car applications as well.
Technical Paper

Transient NOx Emission Reduction Using Exhaust Oxygen Concentration Based Control for a Diesel Engine

Meeting EPA Tier 2 emission standards presents a great challenge to engine manufacturers. In addition to having an actively controlled aftertreatment system, engine-out NOx emission needs to be reduced significantly to achieve regulatory compliance. Using advanced combustion methods, such as low temperature combustion and/or HCCI, has been shown to reduce engine-out NOx emissions. However, all this new combustion technologies are yet to permeate down into any production system. In current practice, large amount of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) into the cylinders is widely used to reduce emissions. However, NOx emission from transient engine operation still constitutes a very large percentage of the total NOx output during a Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle and has yet to be adequately addressed. Currently, the EGR flow is controlled using the intake mass airflow (MAF) measurement.
Technical Paper

Transient Fuel Modeling and Control for Cold Start Intake Cam Phasing

Advancing intake valve timing shortly after engine crank and run-up can potentially reduce vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in port fuel injected (PFI) engines equipped with intake variable cam timing (iVCT). Due to the cold metal temperatures, there can be significant accumulation of liquid fuel in the intake system and in the cylinder. This accumulation of liquid fuel provides potential sources for unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). Since the entire vehicle exhaust system is cold, the catalyst will not mitigate the release of unburned HCs. By advancing the intake valve timing and increasing valve overlap, liquid fuel vaporization in the intake system is enhanced thereby increasing the amount of burnable fuel in the cylinder. This increase in burnable HCs must be countered by a reduction in injector-delivered fuel via a compensator that reacts to cam movement.
Technical Paper

Transient Clunk Response of a Driveline System: Laboratory Experiment and Analytical Studies

A laboratory experiment is designed to examine the clunk phenomenon. A static torque is applied to a driveline system via the mass of an overhanging torsion bar and electromagnet. Then an applied load may be varied via attached mass and released to simulate the step down (tip-out) response of the system. Shaft torques and torsional and translational accelerations are recorded at pre-defined locations. The static torque closes up the driveline clearances in the pinion/ring (crown wheel) mesh. With release of the applied load the driveline undergoes transient vibration. Further, the ratio of preload to static load is adjusted to lead to either no-impact or impact events. Test A provides a ‘linear’ result where the contact stiffness does not pass into clearance. This test is used for confirming transient response and studying friction and damping. Test B is for mass release with sufficient applied torque to pass into clearance, allowing the study of the clunk.
Technical Paper

Transient CFD Simulations of a Bell Sprayer

A methodology is developed that incorporates high resolution CFD flowfield information and a particle trajectory simulation, aimed at addressing Paint Transfer Efficiency (PTE) for bell sprayers. Given a solid model for the bell sprayer, the CFD simulation, through automeshing, determines a high resolution Cartesian volume mesh (14-20 million cells). With specified values of the initial shaping air, transient and steady-state flow field information is obtained. A particle trajectory visualization tool called SpraySIM uses this complicated flowfield information to determine the particle trajectories of the paint particles under the influence of drag, gravity and electrostatic potential. The sensitivity of PTE on shaping air velocity, charge-to-mass ratio, potential, and particle diameter are examined.
Journal Article

Tire Tread Performance Modification Utilizing Polymeric Additives

Tire manufacturers have long grappled with the challenge of balancing the conflicting tire attributes of traction, rolling resistance, and treadwear. Improvements to one of these “magic triangle” attributes often comes at the expense of the other attributes. Recent regulations have further increased the pressure on manufacturers to produce optimized tires with minimal performance compromises. In order to meet this challenge, the tire industry is looking to new material systems beyond the traditional tire tread components. Polymeric materials beyond the base elastomers and processing oils used in tread provide opportunities to modify the physical and viscoelastic properties of tread. In this study, various polymeric materials were evaluated as additives in a model tire tread formulation. Hydrocarbon resin, high styrene resin, and thermoplastic styrene elastomers were added to the model formulation at various loading levels and through various addition strategies.
Technical Paper

Threshold Monitoring of Urea SCR Systems

To meet stringent 2010 NOx emissions, many manufacturers are expected to deploy urea selective catalytic reduction systems. Indications from ARB are that a threshold monitor must be developed to monitor their performance. The most capable monitoring technology at this time relies on NOx sensors. This paper assesses the capability of the NOx sensor as an SCR monitoring device. To this end, the NOx sensor must be able to distinguish between a marginal and a threshold catalyst with enough separation to allow for variability. We present the noise factors associated with the NOx conversion of the SCR system, and analyze what NOx sensor accuracy we need to preserve separation in the face of those noise factors. It is shown that a 1.75 threshold monitor is not feasible with current NOx sensor technology. We analyze the benefit of a partial volume monitor, and show there is no advantage unless the slope error of the NOx sensor is drastically reduced from current levels.