Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Journal Article

Well-to-Wheels Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants of Dimethyl Ether from Natural Gas and Renewable Feedstocks in Comparison with Petroleum Gasoline and Diesel in the United States and Europe

2016-10-17
2016-01-2209
Dimethyl ether (DME) is an alternative to diesel fuel for use in compression-ignition engines with modified fuel systems and offers potential advantages of efficiency improvements and emission reductions. DME can be produced from natural gas (NG) or from renewable feedstocks such as landfill gas (LFG) or renewable natural gas from manure waste streams (MANR) or any other biomass. This study investigates the well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and emissions of five DME production pathways as compared with those of petroleum gasoline and diesel using the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL).
Technical Paper

Weight Reduction Workshops “Saving Weight and Saving Money”

2002-03-04
2002-01-0364
Identifying weight reduction ideas is not difficult in the engineering world today. The difficulty is implementation! Typically Product System Teams generate long lists of weight reduction roadmap ideas, but never have time to deliver. Engineers today are too busy to run dual path programs. ‘Roadmap’ ideas sit on an opportunities list until they are “out of time” and then “fall off” the list. This paper will describe a Weight Reduction Workshop process implemented at Ford Motor Company which drives weight reduction ideas into program assumptions early in the definition of a product program. The weight reduction workshop results are: Weight Reduction Ideas Recommended Variable Cost & Investment Estimates Weight savings Cost per pound of weight saved Technical confidence Work plan for each recommended idea Ideas are also evaluated against all the program's sub-attribute requirements to insure the design functions of the component are not compromised.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization, Separation, and Synthesis Tools for Sound Quality of Impulsive Noises

2003-05-05
2003-01-1527
Recent applied mathematics research on the properties of the invertible shift-invariant discrete wavelet transform has produced new ways to visualize, separate, and synthesize impulsive sounds, such as thuds, slaps, taps, knocks, and rattles. These new methods can be used to examine the joint time-frequency characteristics of a sound, to select individual components based on their time-frequency localization, to quantify the components, and to synthesize new sounds from the selected components. The new tools will be presented in a non-mathematical way illustrated by two real-life sound quality problems, extracting the impulsive components of a windshield wiper sound, and analyzing a door closing-induced rattle.
Technical Paper

Wavelet-Based Visualization of Impulsive and Transient Sounds in Stationary Background Noise

2001-04-30
2001-01-1475
Scalograms based on shift-invariant orthonormal wavelet transforms can be used to analyze impulsive and transient sounds in the presence of more stationary sound backgrounds, such as wind noise or drivetrain noise. The visual threshold of detection for impulsive features on the scalogram (signal energy content vs. time and frequency,) is shown to be similar to the audible threshold of detection of the human auditory system for the corresponding impulsive sounds. Two examples of impulsive sounds in a realistic automotive sound background are presented: automotive interior rattle in a vehicle passenger compartment, and spark knock recorded in an engine compartment.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Verification and Test Methodologies for Structural Aluminum Repair

2003-03-03
2003-01-0570
The increasing use of aluminum in the design of Body In White (BIW) structures created the need to develop and verify repair methodologies specific to this substrate. Over the past century, steel has been used as the primary material in the production of automotive BIW systems. While repair methods and techniques in steel have been evolving for decades, aluminum structural repair requires special attention for such common practices as welding, mechanical fastening, and the use of adhesives. This paper outlines some of the advanced verification and testing methodologies used to develop collision repair procedures for the aluminum 2003 Jaguar XJ sedan. It includes the identification of potential failure modes found in production and customer applications, the formulation of testing methodologies, CAE verification testing and component subsystem prove-out. The objective of the testing was to develop repair methodologies that meet or exceed production system performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication using AppLink

2015-09-22
2015-36-0271
With the increasing number of cars on the street, the exchange of information between those cars becomes essential to improve the driving skills of each driver, resulting in a safer, intelligent and more dynamic traffic. The task now is to make it accessible for everyone. One possible and cheap way to solve this issue is to seek possibilities on free technologies within market trends. Using the smartphone platforms, which holds a high level of embedded technologies, becoming a global communication device even to interpersonal and to social networks, and AppLink Development Kit for smartphones and vehicles integration, this paper will cover aspects about the integration of the kit to an database application based on the cloud, enabling real-time interaction between two cars. Making possible to a driver have access to information and current status of other cars to aid ones life on heavy traffic.
Technical Paper

Vehicle System Controls for a Series Hybrid Powertrain

2011-04-12
2011-01-0860
Ford Motor Company has investigated a series hybrid electric vehicle (SHEV) configuration to move further toward powertrain electrification. This paper first provides a brief overview of the Vehicle System Controls (VSC) architecture and its development process. The paper then presents the energy management strategies that select operating modes and desired powertrain operating points to improve fuel efficiency. The focus will be on the controls design and optimization in a Model-in-the-Loop environment and in the vehicle. Various methods to improve powertrain operation efficiency will also be presented, followed by simulation results and vehicle test data. Finally, opportunities for further improvements are summarized.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Control Software Validation for the Dual Drive Hybrid Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-0736
Through the use of hybrid technology, Ford Motor Company continues to realize enhanced vehicle fuel economy while meeting customer performance and drivability targets. As is characteristic of all Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the basis for resolving these competing requirements resides with its Vehicle System Control (VSC) strategy. This strategy implements complex high-level executive controls to coordinate and optimize the desired operational state of the major HEV powertrain subsystems. To ensure that the VSC software meets its intended functionality, a software validation process developed at Research and Advanced Engineering has been integrated as part of the vehicle controls development process. In this paper, this VSC software validation process implemented for a next generation hybrid powertrain is presented. First, an overview of the hybrid powertrain application and the VSC software architecture is introduced.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Paint Radiation Properties and Affect on Vehicle Soak Temperature, Climate Control System Load, and Fuel Economy

2005-04-11
2005-01-1880
Vehicle thermal loads in sunny climates are strongly influenced by the absorption of solar thermal energy. Reduction of the absorptivity in the near infrared (IR) spectrum would decrease vehicle soak temperatures, reduce air conditioning power consumption and not affect the vehicle visible spectrum radiation properties (color). The literature [1] indicates that paint formulations with carbon-black pigment removed or reduced can be made to be reflective to near infrared frequencies. Experiments indicated that the reflectivity can be improved with existing basecoats and primers. Experiments and numerical simulations indicate that vehicle soak temperatures can be reduced by over 2 °C with existing basecoats and primers.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Objective Metrics

2003-11-18
2003-01-3631
Among the development phases of an automotive vehicle one can point out the definition of the main characteristics of its suspensions like for example the suspension kinematics and compliances properties. Suspension definition phase can be understood as the following scenario: given a suspension type, which hard points (geometric) and what values of stiffness for the whole system will result in a desired dynamic behavior for the vehicle as well as production feasibility. This present work intends to show the influence of some suspension properties on the global dynamic behavior of the vehicle, having as a target an efficient suspension design. In terms of global dynamic behavior this work point out some control parameters, which describe the vehicle transient and steady-state properties. Those parameters are: Yaw phase lag, understeer gradient, Steady state acceleration gain and yaw overshoot during a maneuver like brake in a turn and power-off in a curve.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Deep Data: A Case Study in Robust Scalable Data Collection

2017-03-28
2017-01-1651
Onboard, embedded cellular modems are enabling a range of new connectivity features in vehicles and rich, real-time data set transmissions from a vehicle’s internal network up to a cloud database are of particular interest. However, there is far too much information in a vehicle’s electrical state for every vehicle to upload all of its data in real-time. We are thus concerned with which data is uploaded and how that data is processed, structured, stored, and reported. Existing onboard data processing algorithms (e.g. for DTC detection) are hardcoded into critical vehicle firmware, limited in scope and cannot be reconfigured on the fly. Since many use cases for vehicle data analytics are still unknown, we require a system which is capable of efficiently processing and reporting vehicle deep data in real-time, such that data reporting can be switched on/off during normal vehicle operation, and that processing/reporting can be reconfigured remotely.
Technical Paper

Variable Cam Timing (VCT) Knock Root Cause Analysis and Failure Mode Prevention

2019-01-18
2019-01-5003
Knock in the Camshaft Torque Actuated (CTA) in the Variable Cam Timing (VCT) engine can be a NVH issue and a source of customer complaint. The knock noise usually occurs during hot idle when the VCT phaser is in the locked position and the locking pin is engaged. During a V8 engine development at Ford, the VCT knock noise was observed during hot idle run. In this paper investigation leading to the identification of the root cause through both test and the CAE simulation is presented. The key knock contributors involving torque and its rate of change in addition to the backlash level are discussed. A CAE metric to assess knock occurrence potential for this NVH failure mode is presented. Finally a new design feature in terms of locking pinhole positioning to mitigate or eliminate the knock is discussed.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Technical Paper

Utilizing Public Vehicle Travel Survey Data Sets for Vehicle Driving Pattern and Fuel Economy Studies

2017-03-28
2017-01-0232
Realistic vehicle fuel economy studies require real-world vehicle driving behavior data along with various factors affecting the fuel consumption. Such studies require data with various vehicles usages for prolonged periods of time. A project dedicated to collecting such data is an enormous and costly undertaking. Alternatively, we propose to utilize two publicly available vehicle travel survey data sets. One is Puget Sound Travel Survey collected using GPS devices in 484 vehicles between 2004 and 2006. Over 750,000 trips were recorded with a 10-second time resolution. The data were obtained to study travel behavior changes in response to time-and-location-variable road tolling. The other is Atlanta Regional Commission Travel Survey conducted for a comprehensive study of the demographic and travel behavior characteristics of residents within the study area.
Technical Paper

Using Virtual Seat Prototyping to Understand the Influence of Craftsmanship on Safety, and Seating Comfort

2011-04-12
2011-01-0805
Traditional automotive seat development has relied on a series of physical prototypes that are evaluated and refined in an iterative fashion. Costs are managed by sharing prototypes across multiple attributes. To further manage costs, many OEMs and Tier 1s have, over the past decade, started to investigate various levels of virtual prototyping. The change, which represents a dramatic paradigm shift, has been slow to materialize since virtual prototyping has not significantly reduced the required number of physical prototypes. This is related to the fact virtual seat prototyping efforts have been focused on only selected seat attributes - safety / occupant positioning and mechanical comfort are two examples. This requires that physical prototypes still be built for seat attributes like craftsmanship, durability, and thermal comfort.
Journal Article

Using DCOV Methodology for Virtual Hydrogen Concentration Sensor Development (for use in the fuel cell electric vehicle)

2009-04-20
2009-01-0568
Accounting for more than 90% of the molecules and more than 75% of the mass [1], hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Due to the small molecule size and high buoyancy, it is not available in it’s free form on Earth. In recent years, hydrogen has gained the attention of the automotive industry [2–12] as an environmentally friendly alternative fuel. As a fuel, hydrogen is unique - it is odorless, colorless, tasteless, and burns invisibly in sunlight. Detection solutions such as the odorants used in natural gas are not yet feasible for automotive hydrogen because the available additives can poison the fuel cell catalyst. Additionally, the lower flammability limit of hydrogen is lower, and the flammability range wider, than fuels such as gasoline [13]. Hydrogen detection and its concentration measurement is usually done using hydrogen concentration sensors [13].
Technical Paper

Using Camless Valvetrain for Air Hybrid Optimization

2003-03-03
2003-01-0038
The air-hybrid engine absorbs the vehicle kinetic energy during braking, puts it into storage in the form of compressed air, and reuses it to assist in subsequent vehicle acceleration. In contrast to electric hybrid, the air hybrid does not require a second propulsion system. This approach provides a significant improvement in fuel economy without the electric hybrid complexity. The paper explores the fuel economy potential of an air hybrid engine by presenting the modeling results of a 2.5L V6 spark-ignition engine equipped with an electrohydraulic camless valvetrain and used in a 1531 kg passenger car. It describes the engine modifications, thermodynamics of various operating modes and vehicle driving cycle simulation. The air hybrid modeling projected a 64% and 12% of fuel economy improvement over the baseline vehicle in city and highway driving respectively.
X