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Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Weld Line Factors for Thermoplastics

Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C). The results showed that different materials had various values of W-L factor.
Technical Paper

Vibration Fatigue for Chassis-Mounted, Cantilevered Components

Vehicle chassis mounted cantilevered components should meet two critical design targets: 1) NVH criterion to avoid resonance with road noise and engine vibration and 2) satisfied durability performance to avoid any incident in structure failure and dysfunction. Generally, two types of testing are performed to validate chassis mounted cantilevered component in the design process: shaker table testing and vehicle proving ground testing. Shaker table testing is a powered vibration endurance test performed with load input summarized from real proving ground data and accurate enough to replicate the physical test. The proving ground test is typically performed at critical milestones with full vehicles. Most tests are simplified lab testing to save cost and effort. CAE procedures that virtually replicate these lab tests is even more helpful in the design verification stages.
Technical Paper

Verification and Test Methodologies for Structural Aluminum Repair

The increasing use of aluminum in the design of Body In White (BIW) structures created the need to develop and verify repair methodologies specific to this substrate. Over the past century, steel has been used as the primary material in the production of automotive BIW systems. While repair methods and techniques in steel have been evolving for decades, aluminum structural repair requires special attention for such common practices as welding, mechanical fastening, and the use of adhesives. This paper outlines some of the advanced verification and testing methodologies used to develop collision repair procedures for the aluminum 2003 Jaguar XJ sedan. It includes the identification of potential failure modes found in production and customer applications, the formulation of testing methodologies, CAE verification testing and component subsystem prove-out. The objective of the testing was to develop repair methodologies that meet or exceed production system performance characteristics.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Control Software Validation for the Dual Drive Hybrid Powertrain

Through the use of hybrid technology, Ford Motor Company continues to realize enhanced vehicle fuel economy while meeting customer performance and drivability targets. As is characteristic of all Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the basis for resolving these competing requirements resides with its Vehicle System Control (VSC) strategy. This strategy implements complex high-level executive controls to coordinate and optimize the desired operational state of the major HEV powertrain subsystems. To ensure that the VSC software meets its intended functionality, a software validation process developed at Research and Advanced Engineering has been integrated as part of the vehicle controls development process. In this paper, this VSC software validation process implemented for a next generation hybrid powertrain is presented. First, an overview of the hybrid powertrain application and the VSC software architecture is introduced.
Journal Article

Vehicle Powertrain Thermal Management System Using Model Predictive Control

An advanced powertrain cooling system with appropriate control strategy and active actuators allows greater flexibility in managing engine temperatures and operating near constraints. An organized controls development process is necessary to allow comparison of multiple configurations to select the best way forward. In this work, we formulate, calibrate and validate a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for temperature regulation and constraint handling in an advanced cooling system. A model-based development process was followed; where the system model was used to develop and calibrate a gain scheduled linear MPC. The implementation of MPC for continuous systems and the modification related to implementing switching systems has been described. Multiple hardware configurations were compared with their corresponding control system in simulations. The system level requirements were translated into MPC calibration parameters for consistent comparison between multiple configurations.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Objective Metrics

Among the development phases of an automotive vehicle one can point out the definition of the main characteristics of its suspensions like for example the suspension kinematics and compliances properties. Suspension definition phase can be understood as the following scenario: given a suspension type, which hard points (geometric) and what values of stiffness for the whole system will result in a desired dynamic behavior for the vehicle as well as production feasibility. This present work intends to show the influence of some suspension properties on the global dynamic behavior of the vehicle, having as a target an efficient suspension design. In terms of global dynamic behavior this work point out some control parameters, which describe the vehicle transient and steady-state properties. Those parameters are: Yaw phase lag, understeer gradient, Steady state acceleration gain and yaw overshoot during a maneuver like brake in a turn and power-off in a curve.
Journal Article

Using an Assembly Sequencing Application to React to a Production Constraint: a Case Study

Ford Motor Company’s assembly plants build vehicles in a certain sequence. The planned sequence for the plant’s trim and final assembly area is developed centrally and is sent to the plant several days in advance. In this work we present the study of two cases where the plant changes the planned sequence to cope with production constraints. In one case, a plant pulls ahead two-tone orders that require two passes through the paint shop. This is further complicated by presence in the body shop area of a unidirectional rotating tool that allows efficient build of a sequence “A-B-C” but heavily penalizes a sequence “C-B-A”. The plant changes the original planned sequence in the body shop area to the one that satisfies both pull-ahead and rotating tool requirements. In the other case, a plant runs on lean inventories. Material consumption is tightly controlled down to the hour to match with planned material deliveries.
Technical Paper

Update on the Developments of the SAE J2334 Laboratory Cyclic Corrosion Test

The Corrosion Task Force of the Automotive/Steel Partnership has developed the SAE J2334 cyclic laboratory test for evaluating the cosmetic corrosion resistance of auto body steel sheet. [Ref. 1] Since the publishing of this test in 1997, further work has improved the precision of J2334. In this paper, the results of this work along with the revisions to the J2334 test will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Analysis of Aerodynamic Coefficients in an Automotive Wind Tunnel

This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for production vehicles in an automotive wind tunnel. The analysis uses a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique. Emphasis is placed on defining the elemental random and systematic uncertainties from the tunnel’s instrumentation, understanding how they propagate through the data reduction equations and under what conditions specific elemental error sources are or are not important, and how the approach to data reduction influences the overall uncertainties in the coefficients. The results of the analysis are used to address the issue of averaging time in the context of maintaining a maximum allowable uncertainty level. Also, a maximum error requirement in the vehicle’s installation is suggested to allow the use of rapid but approximate vehicle alignment methods without incurring errors that exceed the data uncertainty. Observed reproducibility results are presented spanning a 16 month period.
Technical Paper

Trends in Body Design

Customers’ demands and modern technology and materials developments have required a new approach to automobile body design. The modern body engineering department is made up of specialists in a wide variety of scientific and engineering skills. This paper describes the trends in modern design and explains why the modern automobile represents a composite of customer satisfaction, engineering achievement, and quality production. To round out the author’s presentation, discussions by R. F. Baird, Chrysler Corp., and H. S. Kaiser and C. E. Heeden of the General Motors Corp. are also included.
Technical Paper

Transient Dynamic Analysis of Suspension System for Component Fatigue Life Estimation

For suspension systems, fatigue and strength simulations are accomplished mostly at the component level. However, the selection of loading conditions and replication of boundary conditions at the component level may be difficult. A system level simulation eliminates most of the discrepancy between component level and vehicle level environment yielding realistic results. Further advantage of system level simulation is that the boundary conditions are limited to suspension mounting points at body or frame and the loading is limited to wheel-end or tire patch loading. This provides for a robust set of boundary constraints that are known and repeatable, and loads that are simpler and of relatively higher accuracy. Here, the nonlinear transient dynamic behavior of a suspension system along with its frame and mounting was simulated using a multibody finite element analysis (FEA).
Technical Paper

Tire Mobility Measurements: Compensation for Transducer and Mounting Effects

The measured drive-point conductance of a typical passenger car tire was seen to drop steadily for frequencies above 1000 Hz. This behavior is a-typical since SEA theory predicts such conductance should remain relatively flat for high frequencies. It was found that, one has to pay careful attention to errors introduced by the added mass of the measuring transducer and “local” effects due to contact stiffness of the tread rubber. Such effects are investigated and their contributions quantified. Compensation schemes are also developed and implemented. It is shown that, for a 20 grams transducer, the measured and corrected conductances are off by 12 dB. The effects of the local contact stiffness of the rubber at the attachment point are less significant.
Journal Article

Thermo-Viscoelastic Model for Shrinkage and Warpage Prediction During Cooling and Solidification of Automotive Blow Molded Parts

Blow moulding is one of the most important polymer processing methods for producing complex thermoplastic automotive parts. Contrary to injection molding, little attention has focused on process control and simulation of blow molding processes. Yet, there are still several problems that affect the overall success of forming these parts. Among them are thermally induced stresses, relevant shrinkage and part warpage deformations caused by inappropriate mold design and/or processing conditions. Tolerance issues are critical in automotive applications and therefore part deformation due to solidification needs to be controlled and optimized accordingly. The accurate prediction tool of part deformation due to solidification, under different cooling conditions in automotive formed parts, is important and highly suited for part designers to help achieve an efficient production.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue of Automotive Components

Modern approaches for thermal fatigue damage assessment in automotive components are discussed. Three prominent methods are reviewed, and issues with related material testing, numerical implementations and applications to general thermal cycles are presented. In summary, the chosen methods can produce good thermal fatigue life predictions. Common difficulties include first, prolonged experimental programs to determine the required material parameters, and second, significant computational times involved in analysis of realistic models and loading histories.
Technical Paper

Thermal Fatigue Analysis of Cast Aluminum Cylinder Heads

Thermal fatigue presents a new challenge in cast aluminum engine design. Accurate thermomechanical stress analysis and reliable failure criterion are the keys to a successful life prediction. It is shown that the material stress and strain behavior of cast aluminum is strongly temperature and strain rate sensitive. A unified viscoplasticity constitutive relation is thus proposed to simultaneously describe the plasticity and creep of cast aluminum components deforming at high temperatures. A fatigue failure criterion based on a damage accumulation model is introduced. Damages due to mechanical fatigue, environmental impact and creep are accounted for. The material stress and strain model and thermal fatigue model are shown to be effective in accurately capturing features of thermal fatigue by simulating a component thermal fatigue test using 3D FEA with ABAQUS and comparing the results with measured data.
Technical Paper

Thermal Conductivity Measurements in Nanofluids via the Transient Planar Source Method

The use of nanotechnology to develop advanced heat-transfer materials is a rapidly growing topic of research at facilities around the world. One class of these materials, nanofluids, has shown promise in the laboratory to dramatically improve thermal conductivity. Quantification of the thermophysical properties of these fluids is important for optimizing the design of automotive powertrains and electrical subsystems in order to produce highly efficient and robust vehicle cooling. A new technique for measuring thermal conductivity, the Transient Planar Source (TPS) method, was used for the first time to investigate the thermal conductivity of automotive coolants and their equivalent nanofluid, as a function of temperature. The results of this study indicate that the TPS method allows for rapid and repeatable measurement of thermal conductivity with an error of between 2-4%. The technique also presents several advantages over other methods which we will briefly describe.
Technical Paper

The Use of a Modified S.A.E. H-Point Machine in Assembly Plants

As part of a continuing Ford Motor Company program to improve the seating packages of production cars, a simplified in-plant method was developed to check seating variations in production vehicles. The method also provided information helpful in determining causal factors when any irregularities were found. Equipment necessary for checking was designed to be easily transported to any site.
Technical Paper

The Use of Discrete Wavelet Transform in Road Loads Signals Compression

Wavelets are a powerful mathematical tool used to multi-resolution time-frequency decomposition of signals, in order to analyze them in different scales and obtain different aspects of the information. Despite being a relatively new tool, wavelets have being applied in several areas of human knowledge, especially in signal processing, with emphasis in encoding and compression of image, video and audio. Based on a previous successful applications (FRAZIER, 1999) together a commitment to quality results, this paper evaluates the use of the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) as an compression algorithm to reduce the amount of data collected in road load signals (load history) which are used by the durability engineering teams in the automotive industry.