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Technical Paper

Two-Shot and Overmolding Technology for Automotive Applications Using Engineering Thermoplastics

2002-03-04
2002-01-0274
There are a multitude of opportunities to utilize two-shot or overmolding technology in the automotive industry. Two-shot or overmolding a thermoplastic elastomer onto a rigid substrate can produce visually appealing, high quality parts. In addition, use of this technology can offer the molder significant reductions in labor and floor space consumption as well as a reduction in system cost. Traditionally, two-shot applications were limited to olefinbased TPE's and substrates, which often restricted rigidity, structure and gloss levels. With the development of thermoplastic elastomers that bond to engineering thermoplastics, two-shot molding can now produce parts that require higher heat, higher gloss and greater structural rigidity. This paper will outline engineering thermoplastics that bond with these new elastomers, discuss potential applications, and review circumstances that offer the best opportunity to call upon the advantages of two-shot and overmolding technology.
Technical Paper

Trends Driving Design and Materials Changes in the Instrument Panel System

1997-02-24
970445
The instrument panel (IP) is one of the largest, most complex, and visible components of the vehicle interior, and like most other major systems in passenger cars and light trucks, it has undergone considerable aesthetic and functional changes over the past decade. This is because a number of design, engineering, and manufacturing trends have been driving modifications in both the role of these systems and the materials used to construct them since the mid- '80s. This paper will trace the recent evolution of IP systems in terms of the trends affecting both design and materials usage. Specific commercial examples will be used to illustrate these changes.
Technical Paper

Structural Analysis of Snap-Finger Performance in Automotive Connectors

1990-02-01
900078
The increased demands of today's complex automotive connector designs have led to the development of engineering structural analysis tools which address the performance issues of the connector's snap-finger. In designs where hand calculations were once considered the norm in evaluating snap-finger performance, the analysis tools have evolved into the use of finite element techniques which address the high nonlinearity issues of snap-finger disassembly and terminal pull out strength. The structural analysis approaches developed investigate the connector snap-finger performance in reinforced engineering thermoplastics while incorporating the effects of geometric and material nonlinearity in the results. The techniques developed allow for the evaluation of snap-finger performance of prospective connector designs before expensive tooling and prototyping is initiated, providing the benefits of limited tool rework and decreased product development time.
Technical Paper

Rationalizing Gas-Assist Injection Molding Processing Conditions

1995-02-01
950562
Gas-assist injection molding is a relatively new process. It is an extension of conventional injection molding and allows molders to make larger parts having projected areas or cross sectional geometries not previously possible using existing equipment. However, controlling the injection of the gas has been a concern. The plastics industry is attempting to establish logical techniques to set up and rationalize processing conditions for the method. Although gas injection equipment permits a number of adjustments, an optimum processing window must be established to provide control and repeatability of the process to mold consistent, acceptable parts. This paper describes a strategy and equipment for rationalizing and accurately controlling gas injection processing conditions that are applicable regardless of the type of molding machine or processing license a molder is using.
Technical Paper

Predictive Weathering Tool for Color Formula Development

2003-03-03
2003-01-0798
A model has been developed and implemented at GE Plastics that predicts a material's color shift when weathered. The material's color shift is due to the summation of color shifts from each individual component. By individually measuring the change in each component's optical coefficients upon weathering and using a multiple light scattering model, one can predict the color shift of a material composed of mixtures of these components. The model has been shown to have a standard deviation of 0.4 to 0.9 when predicting color shifts E*, for PC-polyester copolymers, ABS, and ABS/PC blends using an automotive exterior test, SAE J1885, ASTM D 4674, and ASTM D 4459.
Technical Paper

Moldfilling Analyses: When to Use Them, What They Tell You

1999-03-01
1999-01-0279
Engineering thermoplastics are increasingly being used in automotive applications; many of whose designs are very complex and can pose unique challenges in manufacturing. To help products reach market faster, with better quality and lower cost, use of predictive engineering methods is becoming increasingly common. The purpose of this paper is to review a specific predictive tool: moldfilling analysis. This paper will outline the technology, what is required to use it properly, what issues the technology is capable of addressing, and what other tools are available for addressing advanced issues.
Technical Paper

Managing Thermal Growth for Large Class “A” Polymer Body Panel Closure Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0276
The history behind Polymer Class “A” Body Panels for automotive applications is very interesting. The driving factors behind these applications have not changed significantly over the past sixty years. Foremost among these factors is the need for corrosion and dent resistance. Beginning with Saturn in 1990, interest in polymer body panels grew and continues to grow up to the present day, with every new global application. Today, consumers and economic factors drive the industry trend towards plastic body panels. These include increased customization and fuel economy on the consumer side. Economic factors such as lower unit build quantities, reduced vehicle mass, investment cost, and tooling lead times influence material choice for industry. The highest possible performance, and fuel economy, at the lowest price have always been a goal.
Technical Paper

I-Section Bumper with Improved Impact Performance from New Mineral-Filled Glass Mat Thermoplastic (GMT) Composite

1999-03-01
1999-01-1014
The I-Section bumper design has evolved over the past 10 years into a lightweight, low cost, high performance alternative to traditional bumper beams. Initial I-Section Bumpers were developed with 40% Chopped fiberglass GMT. Through the development of lower cost Mineral-Filled/Chopped fiberglass GMT, improved static load and dynamic impact performance results have been achieved in I-Section Bumper Designs.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Finite-Element Analysis to Free-Motion Head-Form Testing for FMVSS 201U Impact Legislation

1997-02-24
970163
Automotive engineers and designers are working to develop pillar-trim concepts that will comply with the upper interior head-impact legislation, FMVSS 201U. However, initial development cycles have been long and repetitive. A typical program consists of concept development, tool fabrication, prototype molding, and impact testing. Test results invariably lead to tool revisions, followed by further prototypes, and still more impact testing. The cycle is repeated until satisfactory parts are developed - a process which is long (sometimes in excess of 1 year) and extremely labor intensive (and therefore expensive). Fortunately, the use of finite-element analysis (FEA) can greatly reduce the concept-to-validation time by incorporating much of the prototype and impact evaluations into computer simulations. This paper describes both the correlation and validation of an FEA-based program to physical free-motion head-form testing and the predictive value of this work.
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