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Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology for Reducing Rattle in Structural Components

Squeak and rattle has become a primary source of undesired noise in automobiles due to the continual diminishment of engine, power train and tire noise levels. This article presents a finite-element-based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of vehicle components. For implementation purposes, it has been applied to study the rattle of a glove compartment latch and corner rubber bumpers. Results from the glove compartment study are summarized herein. Extensions to other rattle problems are also highlighted.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Fuel Properties of Non-Petroleum Fuels on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

A single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine was used to evaluate the emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay of non-petroleum liquid fuels derived from coal, shale, and tar sands. Correlations were made relating fuel properties with exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay. The results of the correlation study showed that the indicated fuel consumption, ignition delay, and CO emissions significantly correlated with the H/C ratio, specific gravity, heat of combustion, aromatics and saturates content, and cetane number, Multiple fuel properties were necessary to correlate the hydrocarbon emissions. The NOx emissions did not correlate well with any fuel property. Because these fuels from various resources were able to correlate succesfully with many of the fuel properties suggests that the degree of refinement or the chemical composition of the fuel is a better predictor of its performance than its resource.
Technical Paper

A Development Process to Improve Vehicle Sound Quality

Vehicle sound quality has become an important basic performance requirement. Traditionally, automobile noise studies were focused on quietness. It is now necessary for the automobile to be more than quiet. The sound must be pleasing. This paper describes a development process to improve both vehicle noise level and sound quality. Formal experimental design techniques were utilized to quantify various hardware effects. A-weighted sound pressure level, Speech Intelligibility, and Composite Rating of Preference were the three descriptors used to characterize the vehicle's sound quality. Engineering knowledge augmented with graphical and statistical techniques were utilized during data analysis. The individual component contributions to each of the sound quality descriptors were also quantified in this study.
Technical Paper

A Dynamometer Study of Off-Cycle Exhaust Emissions - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

Four vehicle fleets, consisting of 3 to 4 vehicles each, were emission tested on a 48″ roll chassis dynamometer using both the FTP urban dynamometer driving cycle and the REP05 driving cycle. The REP05 cycle was developed to test vehicles under high speed and high load conditions not included in the FTP. The vehicle fleets consisted of 1989 light-duty gasoline vehicles, 1992-93 limited production FFV/VFV methanol vehicles, 1992-93 compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles and their gasoline counterparts, and a 1992 production and two prototype ethanol FFV/VFV vehicles. All vehicles (except the dedicated CNG vehicles) were tested using Auto/Oil AQIRP fuels A and C2. Other fuels used were M85 blended from A and C2, E85 blended from C1, which is similar to C2 but without MTBE, and four CNG fuels representing the range of in-use CNG fuels. In addition to bag measurements, tailpipe exhaust concentration and A/F data were collected once per second throughout every test.
Technical Paper

A Feedgas HC Emission Model for SI Engines Including Partial Burn Effects

A model is presented which incorporates the key mechanisms in the formation and reduction of unburned HC emissions from spark ignited engines. The model includes the effects of piston crevice volume, oil layer absorption / desorption, partial burns, and in-cylinder and exhaust port oxidation. The mechanism for the filling and emptying of the piston crevice takes into account the location of the flame front so that the flow of both burned gas and unburned gas is recognized. Oxidation of unburned fuel is calculated with a global, Arrhenius-type equation. A newly developed submodel is included which calculates the amount of unburned fuel to be added to the cylinder as a result of partial burns. At each crankangle, the submodel compares the rate of change of the burned gas volume to the rate of change of the cylinder volume.
Technical Paper

A Flow Network Approach to Vehicle Underhood Heat Transfer Problem

A flow network method was developed to predict the underhood temperature distribution of an automobile. The method involves the solution of simplified energy and momentum equations of the air flow in control volumes defined by subdividing the air space between the surfaces of the underhood components and the front-end geometry. The control volumes are interconnected by ducts with branches and bends to form a flow network. Conservation of mass and momentum with appropriate pressure-loss coefficients leads to a system of algebraic equations to be solved for the flow rates through each volume. The computed flow rates are transferred to a thermal model to calculate the temperatures of the air and the major vehicle components that affect the underhood environment. The method was applied to a 1986 3.0L Taurus and compared with vehicle experiments conducted in a windtunnel.
Technical Paper

A Gasoline Engine Cycle that Permits High Expansion Operation with Reduced Part Load Throttling Losses by Modulating Charge Mass and Temperature

A four-stroke, spark-ignition engine is described that seeks to achieve high expansion ratio and low throttling losses at light load, whilst retaining good knock resistance at full load operation and without the need for expensive mechanical changes to the engine. The engine does, however, incorporate a second inlet (transfer) valve and associated transfer port linked to the intake port. The timing of the transfer valve is different from that of the main inlet valve. Load modulation is achieved by control of the gas outflow from the transfer port. A computer model of the engine is first validated against measured data from a conventional engine. Comparisons are made of incylinder pressure at part load conditions, total air flowrate through the engine and intake port air velocities as a function of crank angle position.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

A Generic Methodology for Chamber Flame Geometry Modeling

Combustion flame geometry calculation is a critical task in the design and analysis of combustion engine chamber. Combustion flame directly influences the fuel economy, engine performance and efficiency. Currently, many of the flame geometry calculation methods assume certain specific chamber and piston top shapes and make some approximations to them. Even further, most methods can not handle multiple spark plug set-ups. Consequently, most of the current flame geometry calculation methods do not give accurate results and have some built-in limitations. They are particularly poor for adapting to any kind of new chamber geometry and spark plug set-up design. This report presents a novel methodology which allows the accurate calculation of flame geometry regardless of the chamber geometry and the number of spark plugs. In this methodology, solid models are used to represent the components within the chamber and unique attributes (colors) are attached respectively to these components.
Technical Paper

A Heavy Truck Cab Suspension for Improved Ride

This paper presents a simplified concept of the cab-over-engine tractor ride problem. It discusses ways ride can be improved and the reasons cab suspension was chosen as the preferred solution. It describes the Ford CL-9000 cab suspension, explains why it improves ride and includes some data to indicate the benefits that are realized.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Quantification of Front Disc Brake Squeal

A subjective in-vehicle evaluation system is generally used to evaluate brake noise. This approach is quite dependent on analysis procedure, individual hearing abilities, individual tolerance level to the noise, the vehicle condition, road conditions and weather conditions. Due to the resultant subjective rating's dependence on these non-controllable factors, it was decided to develop an empirical laboratory technique using the brake dynamometer with sensitive noise measuring equipment to collect sufficient data on brake noise to allow engineers to study brake noise problems.
Technical Paper

A Model to Simulate the Behavior Automotive Thermostat

Computer simulation of the behavior of the automotive cooling system is becoming increasingly common, so as to reduce the dependency on costly testing. The simulation of transient cooling system behavior has become easier with the use of 1-D simulation tools. However, accurate prediction of transient coolant temperature after thermostat operation has been limited by the difficulty in accurately modeling the behavior of the automotive thermostat. Physical models of the thermostat are often inaccurate due to the complexity of the thermostat. Therefore an empirical model has been developed, which can be used to model any automotive thermostat, once a few simple tests have been conducted on the part. This thermostat model can be used in conjunction with a 1-D flow simulation tool to predict coolant transient temperature response during thermostat operation.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Technical Paper

A Multinational Approach to European Environmental Concerns

European legislation covering noise, smoke emission and industrial pollution, all seeking to improve the environment are not addressed in this paper, which takes only exhaust emission and fuel complexity as its subjects. It describes how this complexity can inhibit the development capacity, thus restricting the model offering of a major european automobile manufacturer. The paper concludes that general benefit would be derived from genuine pan european emission legislation, particularly if that legislation was established at levels of control that allowed the development and use of modern engine technology.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.