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Journal Article

Truck Utility & Functionality in the GM 2-Mode Hybrid

The present production General Motors 2-Mode Hybrid system for full-size SUVs and pickup trucks integrates truck utility functions with a full hybrid system. The 2-mode hybrid system incorporates two electro-mechanical power-split operating modes with four fixed-gear ratios. The combination provides fuel savings from electric assist, regenerative braking and low-speed electric vehicle operation. The combination of two power-split modes reduces the amount of mechanical power that is converted to electric power for continuously variable transmission operation, meeting the utility required for SUVs and trucks. This paper describes how fuel economy functionality was blended with full-size truck utility functions. Truck functions described include: Manual Range Select, Cruise Control, 4WD-Low and continuous high load operation.
Technical Paper

The Algebraic Design of Transmissions & EVTs

This paper describes the creation of novel transmission mechanisms using algebraic design techniques. The objective is to create novel arrangements comprised of one or more planetary gear sets, a pair of motor-generators and several torque-transmitting mechanisms (clutches and brakes). The algebraic design procedure represents the planetary gear sets, fixed interconnections, clutches/brakes, and motor-generator sets as algebraic constraints. Appropriate subsets of constraint equations are solved to identify viable transmission mechanism designs. We have used the above design approach to create several novel candidate multi-speed transmissions as well as EVT concepts. The main benefit of the algebraic design procedure is that it allows the designer to systematically generate and assess novel designs.
Technical Paper

Sound Power Measurement in a Semi-Reverberant, Volume Deficient Chamber

Sound power can be determined using a variety of methods, but precision methods require the volume of the noise source to be less than 1% of the chamber volume leading to relatively large test chambers. Automotive torque converter performance and noise testing is completed in an enclosed metallic test fixture which inhibits the use of precision methods due to volume and space limitations. This paper describes a new method developed to accurately determine sound power of an automotive torque converter in a relatively small enclosure through characterization of the test environment. The test environment was characterized using two reference noise sources designed to represent torque converter noise output and physical geometry. Sound pressure levels of the sources were measured at multiple microphone locations and at three source amplitude levels to characterize the environment.
Technical Paper

Prospects for Future Non-Manual Transmissions Developments for Vehicle Applications in Brazil

The purpose of this paper is to present the origins and the technology of the different types of non-manual transmissions systems currently available and the wide potential to incorporate such technologies to the vehicles made in Brazil. The Brazilian market is experiencing a huge increase in automated and automatic transmissions vehicles share, and the OEMs are adopting different strategies to offer competitive products with affordable prices to enter in this segment. Many different alternatives are available, and there is no obvious winner. This paper will describe the concepts, the architecture and the operations of such systems and point out the pros and cons of each one.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Drivability Assessment of a Single-Motor Strong Hybrid at Engine Start

Using a clutch to disconnect and shut-off the engine when engine power is not required, the single-motor strong hybrid has the potential for significant fuel economy improvement with reduced costs and less system complexity. However, it is a challenge for the single-motor strong hybrid to maintain acceptable drivability at engine start since it requires diverting motor torque through a slipping clutch to start the engine. In this study, dynamic simulations of the hybrid transmission driveline with hydraulic and motor controls have been employed to assess the feasibility of the single-motor strong hybrid, to address drivability issues specific to this hybrid architecture at engine start, and to develop control methods to manage driveline disturbances to an acceptable level.
Technical Paper

General Motors “VTi” Electronic Continuously Variable Transaxle

The VT25-E transmission introduced by General Motors for the 2002 model year is the first variant of GM VTi variable transmission family. The VTi is an electronically controlled Continuously Variable Transaxle (CVT). It is the first North American, high volume production CVT. This CVT enables fuel economy improvements over traditional step gear transmissions, with an improved packaging, wider ratio spread, neutral idle and complete absence of shifts for driver comfort. The VT25-E utilizes a controlled slip converter clutch in conjunction with electronically scheduled ratios and an integrated electronic throttle control to operate the powertrain at its most efficient level. A dual-lobed fixed displacement vane pump and jet nozzle filter arrangement provide the source pressure to a multi-tiered hydraulic control system. The multi-tiered hydraulic control system helps to achieve the precise control necessary to meet the durability requirements of this demanding market.
Technical Paper

General Motors 4T65-E Electronic Four-Speed Automatic Transaxle

The 4T65-E transmission produced by General Motors is the third evolution of GM's original 4-speed F.W.D. automatic. This most recent redesign introduced for the 1997 model year meets new corporate goals for fuel economy and reduced noise, along with the ability to adjust shift character to meet the brand image of the various nameplates. Improving fuel economy and cooling at increased engine power levels was enabled by designing a larger diameter torque converter with the aid of 3-D modeling. The new converter has reduced internal leakage and incorporates a controlled slip clutch. Improvements in NVH have been achieved through a revised oil pump design and the use of the new phased drive chain, made affordable by the joint development of powdered metal technology required for the unique sprocket design.

Dynamic Analysis and Control System Design of Automatic Transmissions

While the basic working principle and the mechanical construction of automatic transmissions has not changed significantly, increased requirements for performance, fuel economy, and drivability, as well as the increasing number of gears has made it more challenging to design the systems that control modern automatic transmissions. New types of transmissions—continuously variable transmissions (CVT), dual clutch transmissions (DCT), and hybrid powertrains—have presented added challenges. Gear shifting in today’s automatic transmissions is a dynamic process that involves synchronized torque transfer from one clutch to another, smooth engine speed change, engine torque management, and minimization of output torque disturbance. Dynamic analysis helps to understand gear shifting mechanics and supports creation of the best design for gear shift control systems in passenger cars, trucks, buses, and commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating for a Switching Roller Finger Follower

An advanced variable valve actuation system is developed that requires a coating with high stress loading capability on the sliding interfaces to enable compact packaging solutions for gasoline passenger car applications. The valvetrain system consists of a switching roller bearing finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve. The SRFF contains two slider pads and a single roller to provide discrete variable valve lift capability on the intake valves. These components are installed on a four cylinder gasoline engine. The motivation for designing this type of variable valve actuation system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during partial load engine operation. This paper addresses the technology developed to utilize a Diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on the slider pads of the SRFF.
Journal Article

Characterizing the Onset of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle Part II: Analytical Results

Lumped parameter analysis is a simple and commonly used technique for performing torsional analysis or design parameter sensitivity studies on automotive powertrains and drivelines. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the application of lumped parameter analysis to manual transmission gear rattle. A representative model is developed for a FWD manual transmission, as operated in a dynamometer test cell. Once validated by experimental data, the model is used to investigate the influence on gear rattle of parameters not readily modified or controlled during hardware evaluations. A sinusoidal torque is used to excite the system, and a signal processing technique similar to that derived in Part I of this two part paper is used to identify the inception of gear rattle. Functional relations for torque losses associated with shafts, gears, seals, lubricating oil flow and bearing clearances as a function of basic design parameters are included within the model.
Journal Article

Characterizing the Onset of Manual Transmission Gear Rattle Part I: Experimental Results

The objective of this investigation is to characterize the ability of loose gears to resist rattle in a manual transmission driven by an internal combustion engine. A hemi-anechoic transmission dynamometer test cell with the capability to produce torsional oscillations is utilized to initiate gear rattle in a front wheel drive (FWD) manual transmission, for a matrix of operating loads and selected gear states. A signal processing technique is derived herein to identify onset of gear rattle resulting from a standardized set of measurements. Gear rattle was identified by a distinct change in noise and vibration measures, and correlated to gear oscillations by a computed quantity referred to as percent deviation in normalized gear speed. An angular acceleration rattle threshold is defined based upon loose gear inertia and drag torque. The effects of mean speed, mean and dynamic torque, and gear state on the occurrence of loose gear rattle are reported.
Technical Paper

Characterizing the Effect of Automotive Torque Converter Design Parameters on the Onset of Cavitation at Stall

This paper details a study of the effects of multiple torque converter design and operating point parameters on the resistance of the converter to cavitation during vehicle launch. The onset of cavitation is determined by an identifiable change in the noise radiating from the converter during operation, when the collapse of cavitation bubbles becomes detectable by nearfield acoustical measurement instrumentation. An automated torque converter dynamometer test cell was developed to perform these studies, and special converter test fixturing is utilized to isolate the test unit from outside disturbances. A standard speed sweep test schedule is utilized, and an analytical technique for identifying the onset of cavitation from acoustical measurement is derived. Effects of torque converter diameter, torus dimensions, and pump and stator blade designs are determined.