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Technical Paper

Weathering of Black Plastics for Automotive Exteriors

Ten mold-in-color black polymers were evaluated for exterior weathering in an attempt to improve the specifications for exterior mold-in-color plastics to meet five year durability for a 95th percentile sunbelt customer. Four different weathering methods were utilized including Arizona exposure, Florida exposure, and Xenon arc exposures per the GMNA and the GM Europe methods. Colorfastness, gloss retention and other material property changes due to weathering were measured and analyzed against two GM durability standards. For the appearance attributes, correlations between actual exposure and accelerated exposure were attempted. Test results before and after polishing were also analyzed. Finally, in addition to comparing the performance of the ten polymers, the four weathering methods are compared and discussed with recommendations for the preferred testing regimen.
Journal Article

Virtual Tire Data Influence on Vehicle Level Handling Performance

This study presents the comparison of vehicle handling performance results obtained using physical test tire data and a tire model developed by means of Finite Element Method. Real tires have been measured in laboratory to obtain the tire force and moment curves in terms of lateral force and align torque as function of tire slip angle and vertical force. The same tire construction has been modeled with Finite Element Method and explicit formulation to generate the force and moment response curves. Pacejka Magic Formula tire response models were then created to represent these curves from both physical and virtual tires. In the sequence, these tire response models were integrated into a virtual multibody vehicle model developed to assess handling maneuvers.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments.
Journal Article

Vehicle-Level EMC Modeling for HEV/EV Applications

Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is becoming more important in power converters and motor drives as seen in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to achieve higher reliability of the vehicle and its components. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the electronic components for a vehicle are evaluated and validated at a component-level test bench; however, it is sometimes observed that the EMI level of the components can be changed in a vehicle-level test due to differences in the vehicle's configuration (cable routing, connecting location etc.). In this presentation, a vehicle-level EMC simulation methodology is introduced to estimate radiated emissions from a vehicle. The comparison between the simulation and measurement results is also presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Implementation of a GM RWD Six-Speed Integrated-Friction-Launch Automatic Transmission

Friction Launch transmissions use a wet multi-plate clutch to replace the torque converter in an automatic transmission. By using one of the range clutches inside the transmission, the benefits of this integrated friction launch technology (IFL), such as reduction in mass, packaging, and cost, can be enhanced. The availability of new automatic transmissions with higher number of speeds and wider ratio spreads makes IFL technology more viable than ever before. The new GM Rear-Wheel-Drive (RWD) six-speed transmission has paved the way for a full implementation of integrated friction launch technology in a GM full size Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV). This project focuses on both hardware and control issues with the friction launch clutch. The hardware issues include designing the clutch for launch energy, cooling, and durability.
Technical Paper

Validation and Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS in Automotive Design

This paper describes the validation of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic vehicle evaluation. At GM NAO, the model’s capability to correctly predict position and posture in vehicle CAD environments was tested. H- and Eye point locations between RAMSIS manikins and their human counterparts were compared. At GM/SAAB the model’s postural discomfort predictability was evaluated. Changes in postural discomfort predictions of the RAMSIS manikins were compared to that of the human subjects when they evaluated two different driving buck conditions. We concluded that RAMSIS has good position, posture and postural discomfort prediction capabilities and is a useful CAD ergonomic evaluation and design tool for vehicle interiors.
Technical Paper

Using the Hybrid FE-SEA Method to Predict and Diagnose Component Transmission Loss

This paper investigates the application of the Hybrid FE-SEA method to the prediction of the Transmission Loss (TL) of a front-of-dash component. SEA subsystems are used to represent the source and receiving chambers of a TL test suite and an FE structural subsystem is used to represent the dash component. The potential advantages of the Hybrid FE-SEA method for this application are that: (i) it can provide detailed narrowband predictions of the radiation efficiency and TL of a given component across a broad frequency range and (ii) the computational cost of the approach is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of traditional low frequency FE/BEM/IEM methods. The approach is also potentially well suited to existing analysis processes since information from detailed component level models can be used to update and refine targets obtained from system level SEA models (the use of a common environment for such models simplifies model management).
Technical Paper

Using OCTO SOI nMOSFET to Handle High Current for Automotive Modules

This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Unifying Value Methodology and Robust Design to Achieve Design for Six Sigma

The concept of product or system function is considered as described in the Taguchi System of Quality Engineering. The importance of transfer functions is also discussed and a review of conventional value analysis techniques is given. This paper proposes a combination of the principles of robust design and value methodology to enable on-target functionality and direct cost allocation early in the product development process. The discussion on integration of value analysis principles in robust design methodology is provided considering the six sigma environment.
Technical Paper

Un-Controlled Generation Modelling and Analysis for Hybrid Vehicles

Interior permanent magnet machines are being widely used in hybrid vehicles owing to their compact size and high power density. Vehicle level application requires the motor to operate at high speed beyond the base speed of the motor. This is accomplished through flux weakening control. Nonfunctioning of inverter switches and/or gate driver circuit during flux weakening could give rise to a potential fault scenario called Un-Controlled Generation (UCG). This paper gives a detailed background of UCG and its impact on the high voltage and propulsion systems. In further sections the details related to modelling and analysis of UCG will be discussed. Finally, the paper will conclude with simulation results and comparison of the results with motor dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

Trends in Bus Guardian for Automotive Communication - CAN, TTP/C and Flexray

Safety critical systems are taking demands on automotive systems where the distributed embedded system needs a communication system with properties of fault tolerant real-time communication. In order to increase reliability of systems with serial communication, a device called bus guardian can be added on physical layer to perform management of schedules and data independently from the communication controller, monitoring timing and sending signals of bus status notifying error occurrences to the host. The goal of this paper is to present and perform a comparative analysis of different strategies of bus guardian used in CAN, TTP/C and Flexray protocols, applied in safety critical system in automobile domain. A comparison was carried out to describe the properties and application for each protocol.
Technical Paper

Trajectory-Tracking Control for Autonomous Driving Considering Its Stability with ESP

With rapid increase of vehicles on the road, safety concerns have become increasingly prominent. Since the leading cause of many traffic accidents is known to be by human drivers, developing autonomous vehicles is considered to be an effective approach to solve the problems above. Although trajectory tracking plays one of the most important roles on autonomous driving, handling the coupling between trajectory-tracking control and ESP under certain driving scenarios remains to be challenging. This paper focuses on trajectory-tracking control considering the role of ESP. A vehicle model is developed with two degrees of freedom, including vehicle lateral, and yaw motions. Based on the proposed model, the vehicle trajectory is separated into both longitudinal and lateral motion. The coupling effect of the vehicle and ESP is analyzed in the paper. The lateral trajectory-tracking algorithm is developed based on the preview follower theory.
Technical Paper

Tonal Annoyance Metric Development for Automotive Electric Vehicles

Historical metrics intended to drive the development of vehicle powertrains have focused on sounds that are characteristic of IC engines. The interior noise contribution of the propulsion system in electric vehicles has significantly more tonal noise (and much less impulsive and broadband noise) than their IC engine counterparts. This tonal noise is not adequately represented by current propulsion systems metrics. While metrics exist today that were developed to represent the presence of tones in sounds most have focused on the level aspect of the tones relative to the surrounding noise or masking level, some examples include tonality, tone-to-noise ratio, and prominence ratio. A secondary, but also important aspect of tones is the annoyance as a function of frequency. This paper will highlight the development of a tonal annoyance weighting curve that can be used to account for the frequency aspect of tonal annoyance relative to electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Technical Paper

The influence of forward up vision on driver visibility

During the early phase of vehicle development, one of the key design attributes to consider is visibility for the driver. Visibility is the ability to see the surrounding environment as one is driving. This need should drive the vehicle design enabling a move favorable view for the driver. Certain vehicle characteristics such as the size of windshield and the design of the pillar influence the perception of visibility for the driver. One specific characteristic influencing satisfaction is forward up vision, which is the subject of this paper. The objective of this project was to analyze the influence of forward up vision on driver satisfaction under real world driving conditions. Other influences such as the positon of the occupant in the seat was also studied. This study was supported by research, statistical data analysis and dynamic clinics.

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.