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Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

2019-06-05
2019-01-1560
In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Implementation of a GM RWD Six-Speed Integrated-Friction-Launch Automatic Transmission

2007-08-05
2007-01-3747
Friction Launch transmissions use a wet multi-plate clutch to replace the torque converter in an automatic transmission. By using one of the range clutches inside the transmission, the benefits of this integrated friction launch technology (IFL), such as reduction in mass, packaging, and cost, can be enhanced. The availability of new automatic transmissions with higher number of speeds and wider ratio spreads makes IFL technology more viable than ever before. The new GM Rear-Wheel-Drive (RWD) six-speed transmission has paved the way for a full implementation of integrated friction launch technology in a GM full size Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV). This project focuses on both hardware and control issues with the friction launch clutch. The hardware issues include designing the clutch for launch energy, cooling, and durability.
Technical Paper

Validation and Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS in Automotive Design

1999-03-01
1999-01-1270
This paper describes the validation of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic vehicle evaluation. At GM NAO, the model’s capability to correctly predict position and posture in vehicle CAD environments was tested. H- and Eye point locations between RAMSIS manikins and their human counterparts were compared. At GM/SAAB the model’s postural discomfort predictability was evaluated. Changes in postural discomfort predictions of the RAMSIS manikins were compared to that of the human subjects when they evaluated two different driving buck conditions. We concluded that RAMSIS has good position, posture and postural discomfort prediction capabilities and is a useful CAD ergonomic evaluation and design tool for vehicle interiors.
Technical Paper

Using the Hybrid FE-SEA Method to Predict and Diagnose Component Transmission Loss

2007-05-15
2007-01-2172
This paper investigates the application of the Hybrid FE-SEA method to the prediction of the Transmission Loss (TL) of a front-of-dash component. SEA subsystems are used to represent the source and receiving chambers of a TL test suite and an FE structural subsystem is used to represent the dash component. The potential advantages of the Hybrid FE-SEA method for this application are that: (i) it can provide detailed narrowband predictions of the radiation efficiency and TL of a given component across a broad frequency range and (ii) the computational cost of the approach is typically several orders of magnitude less than that of traditional low frequency FE/BEM/IEM methods. The approach is also potentially well suited to existing analysis processes since information from detailed component level models can be used to update and refine targets obtained from system level SEA models (the use of a common environment for such models simplifies model management).
Technical Paper

Using OCTO SOI nMOSFET to Handle High Current for Automotive Modules

2012-10-02
2012-36-0211
This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

2005-05-16
2005-01-2388
Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Trajectory-Tracking Control for Autonomous Driving Considering Its Stability with ESP

2018-08-07
2018-01-1639
With rapid increase of vehicles on the road, safety concerns have become increasingly prominent. Since the leading cause of many traffic accidents is known to be by human drivers, developing autonomous vehicles is considered to be an effective approach to solve the problems above. Although trajectory tracking plays one of the most important roles on autonomous driving, handling the coupling between trajectory-tracking control and ESP under certain driving scenarios remains to be challenging. This paper focuses on trajectory-tracking control considering the role of ESP. A vehicle model is developed with two degrees of freedom, including vehicle lateral, and yaw motions. Based on the proposed model, the vehicle trajectory is separated into both longitudinal and lateral motion. The coupling effect of the vehicle and ESP is analyzed in the paper. The lateral trajectory-tracking algorithm is developed based on the preview follower theory.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

2010-04-12
2010-01-0452
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1152
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Analysis of Electrical Parameters for Design of Analog Circuits in Automotive Modules

2012-10-02
2012-36-0209
The intention of this paper is to discuss the importance of analysis of some electrical parameters in order to design analog circuits in electronic modules, including automotive ones. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, high performance and higher integration density, so that it explains why such analysis is crucial to achieve better performances and meet the desired results.
Technical Paper

The Immersed Boundary CFD Approach for Complex Aerodynamics Flow Predictions

2007-04-16
2007-01-0109
Standard CFD methods require a mesh that fits the boundaries of the computational domain. For a complex geometry the generation of such a grid is time-consuming and often requires modifications to the model geometry. This paper evaluates the Immersed Boundary (IB) approach which does not require a boundary-conforming mesh and thus would speed up the process of the grid generation. In the IB approach the CAD surfaces (in Stereo Lithography -STL- format) are used directly and this eliminates the surface meshing phase and also mitigates the process of the CAD cleanup. A volume mesh, consisting of regular, locally refined, hexahedrals is generated in the computational domain, including inside the body. The cells are then classified as fluid, solid and interface cells using a simple ray-tracing scheme. Interface cells, correspond to regions that are partially fluid and are intersected by the boundary surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Racetrack / High Energy Driving on Brake Caliper Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0472
It is well understood that conditions encountered during racetrack driving are amongst the most severe to which vehicle braking systems can be subjected. High braking pressure is combined with enormous energy input and high temperatures for multiple braking events. Brake fade, degradation of brake pedal feel, and brake lining taper/overall wear are common results of racetrack usage. This paper focuses on how racetrack and high energy driving-type conditioning affects the performance of the brake caliper - in particular, its ability to maintain an even pressure distribution at all of its interfaces (pad to rotor, piston to pad backing plate, and housing to pad backing plate).
Technical Paper

The Design Concept of the Duramax 6600 Diesel Engine

2001-11-12
2001-01-2703
A new Diesel engine, called the Duramax 6600 (Fig.1), has been designed by Isuzu Motors (Isuzu) for an upcoming full-size General Motors (GM) pickup truck. It incorporates the latest Diesel technology in order to improve on the inherent strengths of a Diesel engine, such as fuel economy, torque and reliability, while also producing higher output, smoother driveability, and lower noise. The Duramax 6600 is an entirely new 90° V8 direct injection (DI) intercooled engine with a water-cooled turbocharger. Its fuel injection system employs a fully electronically controlled common rail system that has high-pressure injection capabilities. Isuzu had the design responsibility of the base engine, while GM Truck Group was responsible for designing the installation and packaging within the vehicle. Engine validation relied on Isuzu's proven validation process, in addition to GM Powertrain's expertise in engine validation.
Technical Paper

Target Detection Distances and Driver Performance with Swiveling HID Headlamps

2004-05-10
2004-01-2258
Twent-two participants of varying ages detected roadside targets in two consecutive dynamic evaluations of a horizontally swiveling headlamp vehicle and a vehicle with the same headlamps that did not swivel. Participants detected targets as they drove unlighted low-speed public roads. Scenarios encountered were intersection turns, and curves with approximate radii of 70-90m, 120-140m, 170-190m, and 215-220m. Results from the first study found improved detection distances from the swiveling headlamps in left curves, but unexpectedly decreased detection distances in larger radius right hand curves. The swiveling algorithm was altered for the second study, and the headlamps used did not have the same beam pattern as in the first study. Results from the second study again found improved detection distances from the swiveling headlamps while in the larger radius right hand curves fixed and swivel were not statistically different.
Technical Paper

Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0056
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern Diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

2017-11-07
2017-36-0195
Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Using Combined Hardening Model

2000-10-03
2000-01-2659
The main objective of this paper is to simulate the springback using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by an inverse method. Three-point bending test is conducted on 6022-T4 aluminum sheet. Punch stroke, punch load, bending strain and bending angle are measured directly during the tests. Bending moments are then computed from these measured data. Bending moments are also calculated based on a constitutive model. Material parameters are identified by minimizing the normalized error between two bending moments. Micro genetic algorithm is used in the optimization procedure. Stress-strain curves is generated with the material parameters found in this way, which can be used with other plastic models. ABAQUS/Standard 5.8, which has the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate draw-bend of 6022-T4 series aluminum sheet. Absolute springback angles are predicted very accurately.
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

2019-06-05
2019-01-1521
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Diesel Engines Cold-Start

2003-03-03
2003-01-0080
Diesel engine cold-start problems include long cranking periods, hesitation and white smoke emissions. A better understanding of these problems is essential to improve diesel engine cold-start. In this study computer simulation model is developed for the steady state and transient cold starting processes in a single-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The model is verified experimentally and utilized to determine the key parameters that affect the cranking period and combustion instability after the engine starts. The behavior of the fuel spray before and after it impinges on the combustion chamber walls was analyzed in each cycle during the cold-start operation. The analysis indicated that the accumulated fuel in combustion chamber has a major impact on engine cold starting through increasing engine compression pressure and temperature and increasing fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period.
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