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Technical Paper

The Design Concept of the Duramax 6600 Diesel Engine

2001-11-12
2001-01-2703
A new Diesel engine, called the Duramax 6600 (Fig.1), has been designed by Isuzu Motors (Isuzu) for an upcoming full-size General Motors (GM) pickup truck. It incorporates the latest Diesel technology in order to improve on the inherent strengths of a Diesel engine, such as fuel economy, torque and reliability, while also producing higher output, smoother driveability, and lower noise. The Duramax 6600 is an entirely new 90° V8 direct injection (DI) intercooled engine with a water-cooled turbocharger. Its fuel injection system employs a fully electronically controlled common rail system that has high-pressure injection capabilities. Isuzu had the design responsibility of the base engine, while GM Truck Group was responsible for designing the installation and packaging within the vehicle. Engine validation relied on Isuzu's proven validation process, in addition to GM Powertrain's expertise in engine validation.
Technical Paper

Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-duty Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0056
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Diesel Engines Cold-Start

2003-03-03
2003-01-0080
Diesel engine cold-start problems include long cranking periods, hesitation and white smoke emissions. A better understanding of these problems is essential to improve diesel engine cold-start. In this study computer simulation model is developed for the steady state and transient cold starting processes in a single-cylinder naturally aspirated direct injection diesel engine. The model is verified experimentally and utilized to determine the key parameters that affect the cranking period and combustion instability after the engine starts. The behavior of the fuel spray before and after it impinges on the combustion chamber walls was analyzed in each cycle during the cold-start operation. The analysis indicated that the accumulated fuel in combustion chamber has a major impact on engine cold starting through increasing engine compression pressure and temperature and increasing fuel vapor concentration in the combustion chamber during the ignition delay period.
Journal Article

Modeling and Analysis of a Turbocharged Diesel Engine with Variable Geometry Compressor System

2011-09-11
2011-24-0123
In order to increase the efficiency of automotive turbochargers at low speed without compromising the performance at maximum boost conditions, variable geometry compressor (VGC) systems, based on either variable inlet guide vanes or variable geometry diffusers, have been recently considered as a future design option for automotive turbochargers. This work presents a modeling, analysis and optimization study for a Diesel engine equipped with a variable geometry compressor that help understand the potentials of such technology and develop control algorithms for the VGC systems,. A cycle-averaged engine system model, validated on experimental data, is used to predict the most important variables characterizing the intake and exhaust systems (i.e., mass flow rates, pressures, temperatures) and engine performance (i.e., torque, BMEP, volumetric efficiency), in steady-state and transient conditions.
Technical Paper

High Fuel Economy CIDI Engine for GM PNGV Program

2002-03-04
2002-01-1084
A compact, lightweight compression-ignition engine designed for high fuel economy and low emissions was developed by ISUZU for the GM PNGV vehicle. This engine was the key component in the selected parallel hybrid vehicle powertrain for the 80 mpg fuel economy target. The base hardware was derived from a 1.7 Liter, 4-cylinder engine, and a three-cylinder version was created for the PNGV application. To achieve the required high efficiency, the engine used lightweight components thus minimizing weight and friction. To reduce exhaust emissions, electromechanical actuators were used for EGR, intake throttle, and turbocharger. Through careful application of these devices and combustion development, stringent engine out exhaust emission targets were also met.
Journal Article

Functional Requirements to Exceed the 100 kW/l Milestone for High Power Density Automotive Diesel Engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0072
The paper describes the challenges and results achieved in developing a new high-speed Diesel combustion system capable of exceeding the imaginative threshold of 100 kW/l. High-performance, state-of-art prototype components from automotive diesel technology were provided in order to set-up a single-cylinder research engine demonstrator. Key design parameters were identified in terms boost, engine speed, fuel injection pressure and injector nozzle flow rates. In this regard, an advanced piezo injection system capable of 3000 bar of maximum injection pressure was selected, coupled to a robust base engine featuring ω-shaped combustion bowl and low swirl intake ports. The matching among the above-described elements has been thoroughly examined and experimentally parameterized.
Technical Paper

Enabling Powertrain Variants through Efficient Controls Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-1160
The paper examines how the issue of lengthy development times can be mitigated by adopting a multivariable physics based control method for the development and deployment of complex engine control algorithms required for modern diesel engines equipped with Lean NOx Trap aftertreatment technology. The proposed approach facilitates manufacturers to consider lower cost powertrain configurations for selected markets while maintaining higher performance configurations for other markets. The contribution includes on-engine results from joint work between General Motors and Honeywell. The Honeywell OnRAMP Design Suite which applies model predictive control techniques was used for model identification, control design (using model predictive control) and its calibration. With no prior work on the engine this process of calibrating an engine model and achieving transient drive cycle control on the engine required ten days in the test cell and five days of offline work using the OnRAMP software.
Technical Paper

Balancing Hydraulic Flow and Fuel Injection Parameters for Low Emission and High-Efficiency Automotive Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0111
The introduction of new light-duty vehicle emission limits to comply under real driving conditions (RDE) is pushing the diesel engine manufacturers to identify and improve the technologies and strategies for further emission reduction. The latest technology advancements on the after-treatment systems have permitted to achieve very low emission conformity factors over the RDE, and therefore, the biggest challenge of the diesel engine development is maintaining its competitiveness in the trade-off “CO2-system cost” in comparison to other propulsion systems. In this regard, diesel engines can continue to play an important role, in the short-medium term, to enable cost-effective compliance of CO2-fleet emission targets, either in conventional or hybrid propulsion systems configuration. This is especially true for large-size cars, SUVs and light commercial vehicles.
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