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Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0569
As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Mounting Robust Evaluation Methodology Utilizing Minimal Hardware Resources

2017-06-05
2017-01-1823
Powertrain mounting systems design and development involves creating and optimizing a solution using specific mount rates and evaluation over multiple operating conditions. These mount rates become the recommended “nominal” rates in the specifications. The powertrain mounts typically contain natural materials. These properties have variation, resulting in a tolerance around the nominal specification and lead to differences in noise and vibration performance. A powertrain mounting system that is robust to this variation is desired. The design and development process requires evaluation of these mounts, within tolerance, to ensure that the noise and vibration performance is consistently met. During the hardware development of the powertrain mounting system, a library of mounts that include the range of production variation is studied. However, this is time consuming.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Journal Article

Integration of Component Design Data for Automotive Turbocharger with Vehicle Fault Model Using JA6268 Methodology

2017-03-28
2017-01-1623
Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes.
Technical Paper

Innovation Flow and Metrics Essentials

2011-10-04
2011-36-0147
The innovation term has been so widely misused that the confusion observed among the companies trying to get themselves into the innovation realm is a common and natural consequence. The lack of understanding of the innovation dynamics, flow and metrics generally culminate in a non-well-thought implementation of innovation processes and policies that are usually tragic in the short term. The most common consequences are the loss of credibility of the innovation process in general among leaders and employees, and the loss of credibility of the company as an innovative company among suppliers, partners and customers, causing these companies to abandon this powerful tool and, as consequence, to limit their capabilities to compete in the future. In order to prevent this from happening, companies that were not built upon innovation will need to grow capability and change cultural priorities to match the demands of the innovation process.
Technical Paper

HELS Based Acoustic Holographic Measurements to Evaluate Structure-Borne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2281
General Motors (GM) recently purchased an acoustic holography system based on the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) methodology. Typically acoustic holography has utilized planar transformation of the Fourier acoustic equations. General Motors conducted a variety of experiments on a simple well understood structure. This enabled us to understand the setup parameters and confirm the manufacturer's claims for accuracy. Measurements on the structure were taken using the HELS based equipment and a laser vibrometer. Conclusions are drawn on how to set up the equipment for future testing on vehicles.
Journal Article

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1156
A task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee continues to pursue the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. The program is a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and is supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels, but correlations between laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. The primary objective of this project is to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates with in-service performance. In this paper the type, extent, and chemical nature of cosmetic corrosion observed in the on-vehicle exposures are compared with those from some of the commonly used laboratory tests
Technical Paper

Development of a Luxury Vehicle Acoustic Package using SEA Full Vehicle Model

2003-05-05
2003-01-1554
Interior noise has become a significant performance attribute in modern passenger vehicles and this is extremely important in the luxury market segment where a quiet interior is the price of entry. With the elimination of early prototype vehicles to reduce development costs, high frequency analytical SEA models are used to design the vehicle sound package to meet targets for interior noise quality. This function is important before representative NVH prototypes are available, and later to support parameter variation investigations that would be cost prohibitive in a hardware test. This paper presents the application of an analytical full vehicle SEA model for the development of the acoustic package of a cross over luxury utility vehicle. The development concerns addressed were airborne powertrain noise and road noise. Power flow analysis was used to identify the major noise paths to the interior of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Active Fuel Management™ Technology: Hardware Development on a 2007 GM 3.9L V-6 OHV SI Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1292
In the North American automotive market, cylinder deactivation by means of engine valve deactivation is becoming a significant enabler in reducing the Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) of large displacement engines. This allows for the continued market competitiveness of large displacement spark ignition (SI) engines that provide exceptional performance with reduced fuel consumption. As an alternative to a major engine redesign, the Active Fuel Management™ (AFM™) system is a lower cost and effective technology that provides improved fuel economy during part-load conditions. Cylinder deactivation is made possible by utilizing innovative new base engine hardware in conjunction with an advanced control system. In the GM 3.9L V-6 Over Head Valve (OHV) engine, the standard hydraulic roller lifters on the engine's right bank are replaced with deactivating hydraulic roller lifters and a manifold assembly of oil control solenoids.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

2006-10-16
2006-21-0019
Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

A Qualitative and Quantitative Aerodynamic Study of a Rotating Wheel inside a Simplified Vehicle Body and Wheel Liner Cavity

2019-04-02
2019-01-0658
As automotive OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturer) struggle to reach a balance between Design and Performance, environmental legislations continues to demand more rapid gains in vehicle efficiency. As a result, more attention is being given to the contributions of both tire and wheels. Not only tire rolling resistance, but also tire and wheel aerodynamics are being shown to be contributors to overall efficiency. To date, many studies have been done to correlate CFD simulations of rotating wheels both in open and closed wheeled environments to windtunnel results. Whereas this ensures proper predictive capabilities, little focus has been given to thoroughly explaining the physics that govern this complex environment. This study seeks to exhaustively investigate the complex interactions between the ground, body, and a rotating tire/wheel.
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