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Technical Paper

Weathering of Black Plastics for Automotive Exteriors

2003-03-03
2003-01-1191
Ten mold-in-color black polymers were evaluated for exterior weathering in an attempt to improve the specifications for exterior mold-in-color plastics to meet five year durability for a 95th percentile sunbelt customer. Four different weathering methods were utilized including Arizona exposure, Florida exposure, and Xenon arc exposures per the GMNA and the GM Europe methods. Colorfastness, gloss retention and other material property changes due to weathering were measured and analyzed against two GM durability standards. For the appearance attributes, correlations between actual exposure and accelerated exposure were attempted. Test results before and after polishing were also analyzed. Finally, in addition to comparing the performance of the ten polymers, the four weathering methods are compared and discussed with recommendations for the preferred testing regimen.
Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

2019-06-05
2019-01-1560
In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments.
Technical Paper

Validation and Application of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS in Automotive Design

1999-03-01
1999-01-1270
This paper describes the validation of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic vehicle evaluation. At GM NAO, the model’s capability to correctly predict position and posture in vehicle CAD environments was tested. H- and Eye point locations between RAMSIS manikins and their human counterparts were compared. At GM/SAAB the model’s postural discomfort predictability was evaluated. Changes in postural discomfort predictions of the RAMSIS manikins were compared to that of the human subjects when they evaluated two different driving buck conditions. We concluded that RAMSIS has good position, posture and postural discomfort prediction capabilities and is a useful CAD ergonomic evaluation and design tool for vehicle interiors.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0444
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Using Combined Hardening Model

2000-10-03
2000-01-2659
The main objective of this paper is to simulate the springback using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by an inverse method. Three-point bending test is conducted on 6022-T4 aluminum sheet. Punch stroke, punch load, bending strain and bending angle are measured directly during the tests. Bending moments are then computed from these measured data. Bending moments are also calculated based on a constitutive model. Material parameters are identified by minimizing the normalized error between two bending moments. Micro genetic algorithm is used in the optimization procedure. Stress-strain curves is generated with the material parameters found in this way, which can be used with other plastic models. ABAQUS/Standard 5.8, which has the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate draw-bend of 6022-T4 series aluminum sheet. Absolute springback angles are predicted very accurately.
Technical Paper

Simulating Complex Automotive Assembly Tasks using the HUMOSIM Framework

2009-06-09
2009-01-2279
Efficient methods for simulating operators performing part handling tasks in manufacturing plants are needed. The simulation of part handling motions is an important step towards the implementation of virtual manufacturing for the purpose of improving worker productivity and reducing injuries in the workplace. However, industrial assembly tasks are often complex and involve multiple interactions between workers and their environment. The purpose of this paper is to present a series of industrial simulations using the Human Motion Simulation Framework developed at the University of Michigan. Three automotive assembly operations spanning scenarios, such as small and large parts, tool use, walking, re-grasping, reaching inside a vehicle, etc. were selected.
Technical Paper

Self-Tuning PID Design for Slip Control of Wedge Clutches

2017-03-28
2017-01-1112
The wedge clutch takes advantages of small actuation force/torque, space-saving and energy-saving. However, big challenge arises from the varying self-reinforced ratio due to the varying friction coefficient inevitably affected by temperature and wear. In order to improve the smoothness and synchronization time of the slipping process of the wedge clutch, this paper proposes a self-tuning PID controller based on Lyapunov principle. A new Lyapunov function is developed for the wedge clutch system. Simulation results show that the self-tuning PID obtains much less error than the conventional PID with fixed gains. Moreover, the self-tuning PID is more adaptable to the variation of the friction coefficient for the error is about 1/5 of the conventional PID.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0666
In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.
Technical Paper

Posture and Position Validation of the 3-D CAD Manikin RAMSIS for Use in Automotive Design at General Motors

1999-05-18
1999-01-1899
This paper describes the validation of RAMSIS, a 3-D CAD human model for ergonomic vehicle evaluation at General Motors (GM). The model’s capability to correctly predict position and posture in vehicle CAD environments was tested. H- and Eye point locations between RAMSIS manikins and their human counterparts were compared. We concluded that RAMSIS has good position and posture prediction capabilities and is a useful CAD ergonomic evaluation and design tool for vehicle interiors.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Overview - Painted Aluminum Wheels

1986-12-08
862022
This paper discusses the recent growth in aluminum wheel popularity and the problems associated with maintaining the wheel's appearance and corrosion protection. The various options in wheel coatings are then described as well as the adverse wheel environment. Finally, the variables affecting wheel corrosion resistance are explained and the testing that is undertaken to evaluate the performance characteristics of the wheel coating.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Measurement Methods for Large Diameter Single-Piece Aluminum Propeller Shafts

2017-06-05
2017-01-1775
This paper describes recently developed test methods and instrumentation to address the specific noise and vibration measurement challenges posed by large-diameter single-piece tubular aluminum propeller (prop) shafts with high modal density. The prop shaft application described in this paper is a light duty truck, although the methods described are applicable to any rotating shaft with similar dynamic properties. To provide a practical example of the newly developed methods and instrumentation, impact FRF data were acquired in-situ for two typical prop shafts of significantly different diameter, in both rotating and stationary conditions. The example data exhibit features that are uniquely characteristic of large diameter single-piece tubular shafts with high modal density, including the particular effect of shaft rotation on the measurements.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization: A Practical Method for Efficient Material Selection and Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0809
As conventional vehicle design is adjusted to suit the needs of all-electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell powered vehicles, designers are seeking new methods to improve system-level design and enhance structural efficiency; here, multi-material optimization is suggested as the leading method for developing these novel architectures. Currently, diverse materials such as composites, high strength steels, aluminum and magnesium are all considered candidates for advanced chassis and body structures. By utilizing various combinations and material arrangements, the application of multi-material design has helped designers achieve lightweighting targets while maintaining structural performance requirements. Unlike manual approaches, the multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) methodology and computational tool described in this paper demonstrates a practical approach to obtaining the optimum material selection and distribution of materials within a complex automotive structure.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization for Crashworthiness Using Hybrid Cellular Automata

2019-04-02
2019-01-0826
Structures with multiple materials have now become one of the perceived necessities for automotive industry to address vehicle design requirements such as light-weight, safety, and cost. The objective of this study is to develop a design methodology for multi-material structures accountable for vehicle crash durability. The heuristic topology synthesis approach of Hybrid Cellular Automaton (HCA) framework is implemented to generate multi-material structures with the constraint on the volume fraction of the final design. The HCA framework is integrated with ordered-SIMP (solid isotropic material with penalization) interpolation, artificial material library, as well as statistical analysis of material distribution data to ensure a smooth transition between multiple practical materials during the topology synthesis.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization and Multi-Material Selection in Design

2019-04-02
2019-01-0843
As automakers continue to develop new lightweight vehicles, the application of multi-material parts, assemblies and systems is needed to enhance overall performance and safety of new and emerging architectures. To achieve these goals conventional material selection and design strategies may be employed, such as standard material performance indices or full-combinatorial substitution studies. While these detailed processes exist, they often succeed at only suggesting one material per component, and cannot consider a clean-slate design; here, multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) is suggested as an effective computational tool for performing large-scale combined multi-material selection and design. Unlike previous manual methods, MMTO provides an efficient method for simultaneously determining material existence and distribution within a predefined design domain from a library of material options.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

2007-04-16
2007-01-1031
The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of the UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts Vehicle Product System

2003-10-27
2003-01-2838
A life cycle inventory (LCI) study evaluates the environmental performance of the ULSAB-AVC (UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts) vehicle product system. The LCI quantifies the inputs and outputs of each life cycle stage of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle (998 kg) over the 193,000 km service lifetime of the vehicle. The use phase of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-diesel engine variant (1031 kg) is also quantified. The data categories measured for each life cycle phase include resource and energy consumption, air and water pollutant emissions, and solid waste production. The ULSAB-AVC LCI study is based on the methods, model and data from the 1999 study by the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), a consortium within the United States Council for Automotive Research. This model was modified to represent the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle for each life cycle phase as well as the use phase of the PNGV-diesel engine variant.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of Advanced Materials for Automotive Applications

2000-04-26
2000-01-1486
Substituting alternative materials for conventional materials in automotive applications is an important strategy for reducing environmental burdens over the entire life cycle through weight reduction. Strong, light carbon composites and lightweight metals can potentially be used for components such as body structure, chassis parts, brakes, tie rods, or instrument panel structural beams. There are also proposed uses in conventional and alternative powered vehicles for other advanced materials, including synthetic graphite, titanium, and metals coated with graphite composite, that have special strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, or conductivity properties. The approach used in this paper was to compare the environmental life cycle inventory of parts made from carbon fiber-thermoplastic composites, synthetic graphite, titanium, and graphite coated aluminum, with parts made from conventional steel or aluminum.
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