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Technical Paper

Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch. This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Springback Prediction Using Combined Hardening Model

The main objective of this paper is to simulate the springback using combined kinematic/isotropic hardening model. Material parameters in the hardening model are identified by an inverse method. Three-point bending test is conducted on 6022-T4 aluminum sheet. Punch stroke, punch load, bending strain and bending angle are measured directly during the tests. Bending moments are then computed from these measured data. Bending moments are also calculated based on a constitutive model. Material parameters are identified by minimizing the normalized error between two bending moments. Micro genetic algorithm is used in the optimization procedure. Stress-strain curves is generated with the material parameters found in this way, which can be used with other plastic models. ABAQUS/Standard 5.8, which has the combined isotropic/kinematic hardening model, is used to simulate draw-bend of 6022-T4 series aluminum sheet. Absolute springback angles are predicted very accurately.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Overview - Painted Aluminum Wheels

This paper discusses the recent growth in aluminum wheel popularity and the problems associated with maintaining the wheel's appearance and corrosion protection. The various options in wheel coatings are then described as well as the adverse wheel environment. Finally, the variables affecting wheel corrosion resistance are explained and the testing that is undertaken to evaluate the performance characteristics of the wheel coating.
Technical Paper

Noise and Vibration Measurement Methods for Large Diameter Single-Piece Aluminum Propeller Shafts

This paper describes recently developed test methods and instrumentation to address the specific noise and vibration measurement challenges posed by large-diameter single-piece tubular aluminum propeller (prop) shafts with high modal density. The prop shaft application described in this paper is a light duty truck, although the methods described are applicable to any rotating shaft with similar dynamic properties. To provide a practical example of the newly developed methods and instrumentation, impact FRF data were acquired in-situ for two typical prop shafts of significantly different diameter, in both rotating and stationary conditions. The example data exhibit features that are uniquely characteristic of large diameter single-piece tubular shafts with high modal density, including the particular effect of shaft rotation on the measurements.
Technical Paper

Multi-Material Topology Optimization: A Practical Method for Efficient Material Selection and Design

As conventional vehicle design is adjusted to suit the needs of all-electric, hybrid, and fuel-cell powered vehicles, designers are seeking new methods to improve system-level design and enhance structural efficiency; here, multi-material optimization is suggested as the leading method for developing these novel architectures. Currently, diverse materials such as composites, high strength steels, aluminum and magnesium are all considered candidates for advanced chassis and body structures. By utilizing various combinations and material arrangements, the application of multi-material design has helped designers achieve lightweighting targets while maintaining structural performance requirements. Unlike manual approaches, the multi-material topology optimization (MMTO) methodology and computational tool described in this paper demonstrates a practical approach to obtaining the optimum material selection and distribution of materials within a complex automotive structure.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of the UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts Vehicle Product System

A life cycle inventory (LCI) study evaluates the environmental performance of the ULSAB-AVC (UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts) vehicle product system. The LCI quantifies the inputs and outputs of each life cycle stage of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle (998 kg) over the 193,000 km service lifetime of the vehicle. The use phase of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-diesel engine variant (1031 kg) is also quantified. The data categories measured for each life cycle phase include resource and energy consumption, air and water pollutant emissions, and solid waste production. The ULSAB-AVC LCI study is based on the methods, model and data from the 1999 study by the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), a consortium within the United States Council for Automotive Research. This model was modified to represent the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle for each life cycle phase as well as the use phase of the PNGV-diesel engine variant.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Assessment of Advanced Materials for Automotive Applications

Substituting alternative materials for conventional materials in automotive applications is an important strategy for reducing environmental burdens over the entire life cycle through weight reduction. Strong, light carbon composites and lightweight metals can potentially be used for components such as body structure, chassis parts, brakes, tie rods, or instrument panel structural beams. There are also proposed uses in conventional and alternative powered vehicles for other advanced materials, including synthetic graphite, titanium, and metals coated with graphite composite, that have special strength, hardness, corrosion resistance, or conductivity properties. The approach used in this paper was to compare the environmental life cycle inventory of parts made from carbon fiber-thermoplastic composites, synthetic graphite, titanium, and graphite coated aluminum, with parts made from conventional steel or aluminum.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Curves for the AA5083 Alloy under Quick Plastic Forming Conditions

Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) were developed for the 5083 aluminum alloy at conditions simulating high temperature processes such as superplastic and quick plastic forming. Sheet samples were formed at 450 °C and at a constant strain rate of 5x10-3 s-1, by free bulging into a set of elliptical die inserts with different aspect ratios. Friction-independent formability diagrams, which distinguish between the safe and unsafe deformation zones, were constructed. Although the formability diagrams were confined to the biaxial strain region (right side quadrant of an FLD), the elliptical die insert methodology provides formability maps under conditions where traditional mechanical stretching techniques are limited.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Tests of Un-Notched and Notched Specimens and Life Prediction Using a Variable Critical Distance Method

Fatigue is one of the most common failure mechanism in engineering structures. The statistical nature of fatigue life and the stress gradient are the two challenges among many while designing any component or structure for fatigue. Fatigue lives of the identical components exhibit the considerable variation under the same loading and operating conditions due to the difference in the material micro-structures and other uncontrolled parameters. Stress concentration at the notch causes stress gradient and therefore, applying the plane specimen results for actual engineering components with notches does not give quantitatively reliable results if the stress gradient effects are not considered. The objective of the work presented here was to carry out the fatigue tests of un-notched, U and V-notch specimens which were die cast using aluminum alloy (A380) and to obtain fatigue life using a variable critical distance method which considers the stress gradient due to the notch geometry.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Acoustic and Thermal Performance of Sound Absorbers with Microperforated Aluminum Foil

Aluminum foil applied to the surface of sound absorbing materials has broad application in the automotive industry. A foil layer offers thermal insulation for components close to exhaust pipes, turbo chargers, and other heat sources in the engine compartment and underbody. It can also add physical protection for acoustic parts in water-splash or stone-impingement areas of the vehicle exterior. It is known that adding impermeable plain foil will impact the sound absorption negatively, so Microperforated Aluminum Foil (MPAF) is widely used to counteract this effect. Acoustic characteristics of MPAF can be modeled analytically, but deviation of perforation size and shape, variation of hole density, material compression, and adhesive applied to the back of the foil for the molding process can impact the acoustic and thermal insulation performance.
Technical Paper

Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Ductile Cast Iron Conrods through Different Heat Treatments

The Austempering heat treatment is a well-known solution to improve the mechanical properties of ductile cast irons, therefore being referred as 'ADI' (Austempered Ductile Iron). The improved mechanical properties of ADI's with respect to conventional ductile iron is attributed to its resulting microstructure, which contains mainly carbide-free bainite with stabilized retained austenite. More recently, ductile cast irons were submitted to another heat treatment, known as 'Quenching and Partitioning' (Q&P). In this case, the ductile cast iron is austenitized, quenched to a temperature between Mf and Ms temperatures and subsequently heated to a temperature above Ms in order to partition the carbon from the martensite to the remaining austenite. The resulting microstructure comprises mainly low carbon martensite, austenite (stabilized by the carbon partition) and carbide-free bainite. Such microstructure resulted in equal or better properties than ADI.
Journal Article

Development of an Improved Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Finished Aluminum Autobody Panels

A task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee continues to pursue the goal of establishing a standard test method for in-laboratory cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. The program is a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and is supported in part by USAMP (AMD 309) and the U.S. Department of Energy. Numerous laboratory corrosion test environments have been used to evaluate the performance of painted aluminum closure panels, but correlations between laboratory test results and in-service performance have not been established. The primary objective of this project is to identify an accelerated laboratory test method that correlates with in-service performance. In this paper the type, extent, and chemical nature of cosmetic corrosion observed in the on-vehicle exposures are compared with those from some of the commonly used laboratory tests
Technical Paper

Cell Balancing Algorithm Verification through a Simulation Model for Lithium Ion Energy Storage Systems

To support the market introduction of lithium ion energy storage systems for HEV and EREV applications, a process and tool was developed to expedite the verification of the lithium-ion cell balancing system across differing usage scenarios and cell imbalance rates. Presented is an overview of the cell imbalance analysis methodology and tool used in the development and verification of General Motors cell balancing systems. The use of this analysis methodology and tool has allowed for a cell balancing system optimization that would not have been possible with the use of actual energy storage systems because of the magnitude of lab or vehicle time required to execute the array of tests necessary to comprehend the large number of factors than can influence balancing.
Technical Paper

Calculations of Wind Tunnel Circuit Losses and Speed with Acoustic Foams

The GM Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL) was modified in 2001 to reduce the background noise level and provide a semi-anechoic test section for wind noise testing. The walls and ceiling of the test section were lined with acoustic foam and foam-filled turning vanes were installed in the corners. Portions of the wind tunnel circuit were also treated with fiberglass material covered by perforated sheet metal panels. High skin drag due to roughness of the foam surfaces, along with high blockage due to the large turning vanes, increased the wind tunnel circuit losses so that the maximum wind speed in the test section was reduced. The present study calculates the averaged total pressure losses at three locations to evaluate the reductions in skin drag and blockage from proposed modifications to the circuit, which were intended to increase the test section wind speed without compromising noise levels.
Technical Paper

Automotive Materials Engineering Challenges and Solutions for the Use of Ethanol and Methanol Blended Fuels

Economic market forces and increasing environmental awareness of gasoline have led to interest in developing alternatives to gasoline, and extending the current global supply for transportation fuels. One viable strategy is the use of alternative alcohol fuels for combustion engines, with ethanol and methanol in various concentration ranges proposed and in-use. Utilizing and citing data from this review, a comprehensive overview of the materials selection and engineering challenges facing metals, plastics and elastomers are presented. The engineering approach and solution-sets discussed will focus on production feasibility and implementation. The effects from the fuel chemistry and quality of fuel ethanol produced on the related vehicle components are discussed.