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Technical Paper

Vehicle Implementation of a GM RWD Six-Speed Integrated-Friction-Launch Automatic Transmission

2007-08-05
2007-01-3747
Friction Launch transmissions use a wet multi-plate clutch to replace the torque converter in an automatic transmission. By using one of the range clutches inside the transmission, the benefits of this integrated friction launch technology (IFL), such as reduction in mass, packaging, and cost, can be enhanced. The availability of new automatic transmissions with higher number of speeds and wider ratio spreads makes IFL technology more viable than ever before. The new GM Rear-Wheel-Drive (RWD) six-speed transmission has paved the way for a full implementation of integrated friction launch technology in a GM full size Sport-Utility Vehicle (SUV). This project focuses on both hardware and control issues with the friction launch clutch. The hardware issues include designing the clutch for launch energy, cooling, and durability.
Video

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-03-27
There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1152
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

The Design Concept of the Duramax 6600 Diesel Engine

2001-11-12
2001-01-2703
A new Diesel engine, called the Duramax 6600 (Fig.1), has been designed by Isuzu Motors (Isuzu) for an upcoming full-size General Motors (GM) pickup truck. It incorporates the latest Diesel technology in order to improve on the inherent strengths of a Diesel engine, such as fuel economy, torque and reliability, while also producing higher output, smoother driveability, and lower noise. The Duramax 6600 is an entirely new 90° V8 direct injection (DI) intercooled engine with a water-cooled turbocharger. Its fuel injection system employs a fully electronically controlled common rail system that has high-pressure injection capabilities. Isuzu had the design responsibility of the base engine, while GM Truck Group was responsible for designing the installation and packaging within the vehicle. Engine validation relied on Isuzu's proven validation process, in addition to GM Powertrain's expertise in engine validation.
Technical Paper

Study of Friction Optimization Potential for Lubrication Circuits of Light-duty Diesel Engines

2019-09-09
2019-24-0056
Over the last two decades, engine research has been mainly focused on reducing fuel consumption in view of compliance with stringent homologation targets and customer expectations. As it is well known, the objective of overall engine efficiency optimization can be achieved only through the improvement of each element of the efficiency chain, of which mechanical constitutes one of the two key pillars (together with thermodynamics). In this framework, the friction reduction for each mechanical subsystems has been one of the most important topics of modern diesel engine development. In particular, the present paper analyzes the lubrication circuit potential as contributor to the mechanical efficiency improvement, by investigating the synergistic impact of oil circuit design, oil viscosity characteristics (including new ultra-low formulations) and thermal management. For this purpose, a combination of theoretical and experimental tools were used.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Bio-Diesel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle as part of EcoCAR 2: Plugging-in to The Future

2012-09-10
2012-01-1770
With a growing need for a more efficient consumer based automotive platform, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) chose to redesign the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(PHEV). A Series architecture was chosen for its low energy consumption and high consumer acceptability when compared to the Series/Parallel-through-the-road and the Pre-Transmission designs. A fuel selection process was also completed and B20 Biodiesel was selected as the primary fuel due to lower GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions and Embry-Riddle's ability to produce biodiesel onsite using the cafeteria's discarded vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

2007-04-16
2007-01-1031
The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Internal and Near-Nozzle Flow in a Multi-Hole Gasoline Injector Under Flashing and Non-Flashing Conditions

2015-04-14
2015-01-0944
A computational and experimental study was performed to characterize the flow within a gasoline injector and the ensuing sprays. The computations included the effects of turbulence, cavitation, flash-boiling, compressibility, and the presence of non-condensible gases. The flow domain corresponded to the Engine Combustion Network's Spray G, an eight-hole counterbore injector operating in a variety of conditions. First, a rate tube method was used to measure the rate of injection, which was then used to define inlet boundary conditions for simulation. Correspondingly, injection under submerged conditions was simulated for direct comparison with experimental measurements of discharge coefficient. Next, the internal flow and external spray into pressurized nitrogen were simulated under the base spray G conditions. Finally, injection under flashing conditions was simulated, where the ambient pressure was below the vapor pressure of the fuel.
Technical Paper

Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Low-NOx Emissions in a Light-Duty CIDI Engine Using Advanced Fuels

2002-10-21
2002-01-2884
The control of NOx emissions is the greatest technical challenge in meeting future emission regulations for diesel engines. In this work, a modal analysis was performed for developing an engine control strategy to take advantage of fuel properties to minimize engine-out NOx emissions. This work focused on the use of EGR to reduce NOx while counteracting anticipated PM increases by using oxygenated fuels. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. Engine mapping consisted of sweeping parameters of greatest NOx impact, starting with OEM injection timing (including pilot injection) and EGR. The engine control strategy consisted of increased EGR and simultaneous modulation of both main and pilot injection timing to minimize NOx and PM emission indexes with constraints based on the impact of the modulation on BSFC, Smoke, Boost and BSHC.
Technical Paper

High Fuel Economy CIDI Engine for GM PNGV Program

2002-03-04
2002-01-1084
A compact, lightweight compression-ignition engine designed for high fuel economy and low emissions was developed by ISUZU for the GM PNGV vehicle. This engine was the key component in the selected parallel hybrid vehicle powertrain for the 80 mpg fuel economy target. The base hardware was derived from a 1.7 Liter, 4-cylinder engine, and a three-cylinder version was created for the PNGV application. To achieve the required high efficiency, the engine used lightweight components thus minimizing weight and friction. To reduce exhaust emissions, electromechanical actuators were used for EGR, intake throttle, and turbocharger. Through careful application of these devices and combustion development, stringent engine out exhaust emission targets were also met.
Journal Article

Gasoline Anti-Knock Index Effects on Vehicle Net Power at High Altitude

2017-03-28
2017-01-0801
Automakers are designing smaller displacement engines with higher power densities to improve vehicle fuel economy, while continuing to meet customer expectations for power and drivability. The specific power produced by the spark-ignited engine is constrained by knock and fuel octane. Whereas the lowest octane rating is 87 AKI (antiknock index) for regular gasoline at most service stations throughout the U.S., 85 AKI fuel is widely available at higher altitudes especially in the mountain west states. The objective of this study was to explore the effect of gasoline octane rating on the net power produced by modern light duty vehicles at high altitude (1660 m elevation). A chassis dynamometer test procedure was developed to measure absorbed wheel power at transient and stabilized full power operation. Five vehicles were tested using 85 and 87 AKI fuels.
Technical Paper

Gaseous Hydrogen Station Test Apparatus: Verification of Hydrogen Dispenser Performance Utilizing Vehicle Representative Test Cylinders

2005-04-11
2005-01-0002
The paper includes the development steps used in creating a station test apparatus (STA) and a description of the apparatus design. The purpose of this device is to simulate hydrogen vehicle conditions for the verification of gaseous hydrogen refueling station dispenser performance targets and hydrogen quality. This is done at the refueling station/vehicle interface (i.e. the refueling nozzle.) In addition, the device is to serve as a means for testing and developing future advanced fueling algorithms and protocols. The device is to be outfitted with vehicle representative container cylinders and sensors located inside and outside the apparatus to monitor refueling rate, ambient and internal gas temperature, pressure and weight of fuel transferred. Data is to be recorded during refueling and graphed automatically.
Journal Article

Fuel & Lubricant Effects on Stochastic Preignition

2019-01-15
2019-01-0038
In this multi-phase study, fuel and lubricant effects on stochastic preignition (SPI) were examined. First, the behavior of fuels for which SPI data had previously been collected were characterized in terms of their combustion and emissions behavior, and correlations between these characteristics and their SPI behavior were examined. Second, new SPI data was collected for a matrix of fuels that was constructed to test and confirm hypotheses that resulted from interpretation of the earlier data in the study and from data in open literature. Specifically, the extent to which the presence of heavy components in the fuel affected SPI propensity, and the extent to which flame initiation propensity affected SPI propensity, were examined. Finally, the interaction of fuels with lubricants expected to exhibit a range of SPI propensities was examined.
Technical Paper

Fast Gas Analyzer Observations of Stochastic Preignition Events

2019-04-02
2019-01-0254
The goal of this study was to generate exhaust fast gas data that could be used to identify phenomena that occur before, during, and after stochastic preignition (SPI), also called low-speed preignition (LSPI), events. Crank angle resolved measurement of exhaust hydrocarbons, NO, CO, and CO2 was performed under engine conditions prone to these events. Fuels and engine operating strategies were varied in an attempt to understand similarities and differences in SPI-related behavior that may occur between them. Several different uncommon (typically occurring in less than 1% of engine cycles) features of the fast gas data were identified, and the correlations between them and SPI events were explored. Although the thresholds used to define and identify these observations were arbitrary, they provided a practical means of identifying behavior in the fast gas data and correlating it to SPI occurrence.
Journal Article

Estimation of Elemental Composition of Diesel Fuel Containing Biodiesel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2600
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are major elements in vehicle fuels. Knowledge of fuels elemental composition is helpful in addressing its performance characteristics. Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen composition is an important parameter in engine calibration affecting vehicle performance, emissions and fuel economy. Biodiesel, a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids also known as Fatty Acid Methyl Esters(FAME), derived from vegetable oils or animal fats, has become an important commercial marketplace automotive fuel in the United States (US) and around the world over last few years. FAME biodiesels have many chemical and physical property differences compared to conventional petroleum based diesel fuels. Also, the properties of biodiesel vary based on the feedstock chosen for biodiesel production. One of the key differences between petroleum diesel fuels and biodiesel is the oxygen content.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0326
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has published and is developing standards for FCVs and hydrogen vehicles. SAE J2578 was the first document published by the working group. The document is written from an overall vehicle perspective and deals with the integration of fuel cell and hydrogen systems in the vehicle and the management of risks associated with these systems. Since the publishing of SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 regarding post-crash electrical safety and is developing SAE J2579 which deals with vehicular hydrogen systems.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0725
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 8 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. J2578 is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that it will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to revising SAE J2578 and J1766, the Working Group is also developing a new Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0011
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Single and Combined Hybrid Electrically Variable Transmission Operating Modes

2005-04-11
2005-01-1162
Electrically variable transmissions divide power between the electrical and mechanical paths using input, output, or compound split schemes. When combined with an electrical energy storage element such as a battery, these systems allow numerous fuel saving and performance benefits. This paper examines the design tradeoffs in each of the three topologies in order to balance fuel economy, system performance against requirements, and electrical component size. A general EVT analysis method is presented and used to study the fuel economy and performance sensitivity of the three configurations to motor, inverter, and battery constraints, and planetary gear ratios. To evaluate fuel economy, the three systems are assessed for each of the primary fuel economy mechanisms enabled by hybridization. To evaluate performance tradeoffs, system performance against typical vehicle performance design points is compared.
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