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Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

2005-05-16
2005-01-2388
Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Unifying Value Methodology and Robust Design to Achieve Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0998
The concept of product or system function is considered as described in the Taguchi System of Quality Engineering. The importance of transfer functions is also discussed and a review of conventional value analysis techniques is given. This paper proposes a combination of the principles of robust design and value methodology to enable on-target functionality and direct cost allocation early in the product development process. The discussion on integration of value analysis principles in robust design methodology is provided considering the six sigma environment.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

1995-02-01
950375
Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

2010-04-12
2010-01-0452
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Video

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-03-27
There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1152
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Analysis of Electrical Parameters for Design of Analog Circuits in Automotive Modules

2012-10-02
2012-36-0209
The intention of this paper is to discuss the importance of analysis of some electrical parameters in order to design analog circuits in electronic modules, including automotive ones. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, high performance and higher integration density, so that it explains why such analysis is crucial to achieve better performances and meet the desired results.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

Technical Challenges in Implementing New Electrical Features on Existing Vehicle Architecture

2013-04-08
2013-01-1229
Currently, OEMs worldwide are emphasizing more upon development and implementation of new electrical features on existing vehicles [3]. However, development and implementation of new electrical features on existing vehicle platforms create architectural as well as packaging challenges. These challenges are augmented due to following: the need to implement such features across different body styles of vehicles that are based on same or different architectures different requirement for a feature based upon market requirement This paper analyzes these challenges to help in providing design solutions for successful implementation of new features as per following requirements: 1 Provide optimum design to have low cost and high quality for existing vehicle platforms 2 Provide spare capacity while designing new vehicles or architectures
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

2019-06-05
2019-01-1521
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Softening and Rupture in Multilayered Fuel Tank Material

2019-11-21
2019-28-2557
Multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) fuel tanks are increasingly being used in automobiles due to advantages such as shape flexibility, low weight and corrosion resistance. Though, HDPE fuel tanks are perceived to be safer as compared to metallic tanks, the material properties are influenced by service temperature. At higher temperatures (more than 80oC), plastic fuel tanks can soften, sag and eventually spill out the fuel, while the extreme cold (less than -20°C) can lead to potential cracking problems. Damage may also occur due to accidental drop while handling or due to an impact from a flying shrapnel. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the plastic fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases.
Technical Paper

Self-Expressive & Self-Healing Closures Hardwares for Autonomous & Shared Mobility

2019-11-21
2019-28-2525
Shared Mobility is changing mobility trends of Automotive Industry and its one of the Disruptions. The current vehicle customer usage and life of components are designed majorly for personal vehicle and with factors that comprehend usage of shared vehicles. The usage pattern for customer differ between personal vehicle, shared vehicle & Taxi. In the era of Autonomous and Shared mobility systems, the customer usage and expectation of vehicle condition on each & every ride of vehicle will be a vehicle in good condition on each ride. The vehicle needs systems that will guide or fix the issues on its own, to improve customer satisfaction. We also need a transformation in customer behavior pattern to use shared mobility vehicle as their personal vehicle to improve the life of vehicle hardwares & reduce warranty cost. We will be focusing on Vehicle Closure hardware & mechanisms as that will be the first and major interaction point for customers in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

2019-01-09
2019-26-0049
Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Overview - Painted Aluminum Wheels

1986-12-08
862022
This paper discusses the recent growth in aluminum wheel popularity and the problems associated with maintaining the wheel's appearance and corrosion protection. The various options in wheel coatings are then described as well as the adverse wheel environment. Finally, the variables affecting wheel corrosion resistance are explained and the testing that is undertaken to evaluate the performance characteristics of the wheel coating.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Based System Model for Early Stage Hybrid/Electric Vehicle HV Battery Design

2017-01-10
2017-26-0095
Vehicle electrification is driven globally due to the increased concerns on carbon emissions. But the challenges in customer acceptance remains esp. in relation to vehicle costs. Virtual simulations can help in cutting down product development cost and enable faster launch of new vehicles. An early stage system model based design iterations can help in cutting down the product development costs and building more robust products. In the current paper, we develop and analyze a battery pack system model for early phase design. We extend a previously developed system model to include critical physics like sub-component level multiphysics for electrical joint integrity. Also, we demonstrate an integration of 3D FEM & system model for improving the accuracy of joint temperature predictions during charging and/or discharging. A typical High Voltage (HV) battery system comprises of battery modules (Li-ion cells, cooling channels, structural frames, interconnect boards) and HV bus bars.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Human Response From Vehicle Performance Characteristics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2002-05-07
2002-01-1570
This study investigates a methodology in which the general public's subjective interpretation of vehicle handling and performance can be predicted. Several vehicle handling measurements were acquired, and associated metrics calculated, in a controlled setting. Human evaluators were then asked to drive and evaluate each vehicle in a winter driving school setting. Using the acquired data, multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques were used to create and refine mathematical models of human subjective responses. It is shown that artificial neural networks, which have been trained with the sets of objective and subjective data, are both more accurate and more robust than multiple linear regression models created from the same data.
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