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Technical Paper

Unifying Value Methodology and Robust Design to Achieve Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0998
The concept of product or system function is considered as described in the Taguchi System of Quality Engineering. The importance of transfer functions is also discussed and a review of conventional value analysis techniques is given. This paper proposes a combination of the principles of robust design and value methodology to enable on-target functionality and direct cost allocation early in the product development process. The discussion on integration of value analysis principles in robust design methodology is provided considering the six sigma environment.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

1995-02-01
950375
Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

2010-04-12
2010-01-0452
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Racetrack / High Energy Driving on Brake Caliper Performance

2006-04-03
2006-01-0472
It is well understood that conditions encountered during racetrack driving are amongst the most severe to which vehicle braking systems can be subjected. High braking pressure is combined with enormous energy input and high temperatures for multiple braking events. Brake fade, degradation of brake pedal feel, and brake lining taper/overall wear are common results of racetrack usage. This paper focuses on how racetrack and high energy driving-type conditioning affects the performance of the brake caliper - in particular, its ability to maintain an even pressure distribution at all of its interfaces (pad to rotor, piston to pad backing plate, and housing to pad backing plate).
Technical Paper

The Development and Implementation of an Engine Off Natural Vacuum Test for Diagnosing Small Leaks in Evaporative Emissions Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0719
This paper discusses an approach to detecting small leaks in an automobile's evaporative emissions systems that is a technique based upon ideal gas laws. It does this by monitoring pressure in the system while the vehicle's engine is off. This low cost solution can be easily implemented on General Motors vehicles using existing components. The topics covered in this paper include details on the background of the problem and the technique, the underlying thermodynamics of the technique, a description of the algorithm, testing and data collection considerations.
Technical Paper

Technical Challenges in Implementing New Electrical Features on Existing Vehicle Architecture

2013-04-08
2013-01-1229
Currently, OEMs worldwide are emphasizing more upon development and implementation of new electrical features on existing vehicles [3]. However, development and implementation of new electrical features on existing vehicle platforms create architectural as well as packaging challenges. These challenges are augmented due to following: the need to implement such features across different body styles of vehicles that are based on same or different architectures different requirement for a feature based upon market requirement This paper analyzes these challenges to help in providing design solutions for successful implementation of new features as per following requirements: 1 Provide optimum design to have low cost and high quality for existing vehicle platforms 2 Provide spare capacity while designing new vehicles or architectures
Technical Paper

Statistical Model to Predict Air Side Pressure Drop for Heat Exchangers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0081
In a typical ground vehicle, airflow enters engine compartment through grille and carries heat from the engine, cabin and other auxiliaries through heat exchangers such as radiator, condenser, oil cooler and charge air cooler respectively. The amount of airflow entering the engine compartment is governed by their individual resistances, the grille and engine compartment resistances. Also, this flow adds to drag and deteriorates overall aerodynamic efficiency. It is known as cooling drag which contributes to 8 to 12 percent of overall drag. Aerodynamics and Front End Air Flow (FEAF) development happens through CFD and it demands accurate heat exchanger pressure drop data which is usually obtained from supplier at very early stages of a vehicle development. Historically, this data is found to have significant variations compared to in-house test data.
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

2019-06-05
2019-01-1521
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Softening and Rupture in Multilayered Fuel Tank Material

2019-11-21
2019-28-2557
Multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) fuel tanks are increasingly being used in automobiles due to advantages such as shape flexibility, low weight and corrosion resistance. Though, HDPE fuel tanks are perceived to be safer as compared to metallic tanks, the material properties are influenced by service temperature. At higher temperatures (more than 80oC), plastic fuel tanks can soften, sag and eventually spill out the fuel, while the extreme cold (less than -20°C) can lead to potential cracking problems. Damage may also occur due to accidental drop while handling or due to an impact from a flying shrapnel. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the plastic fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases.
Technical Paper

Self-Expressive & Self-Healing Closures Hardwares for Autonomous & Shared Mobility

2019-11-21
2019-28-2525
Shared Mobility is changing mobility trends of Automotive Industry and its one of the Disruptions. The current vehicle customer usage and life of components are designed majorly for personal vehicle and with factors that comprehend usage of shared vehicles. The usage pattern for customer differ between personal vehicle, shared vehicle & Taxi. In the era of Autonomous and Shared mobility systems, the customer usage and expectation of vehicle condition on each & every ride of vehicle will be a vehicle in good condition on each ride. The vehicle needs systems that will guide or fix the issues on its own, to improve customer satisfaction. We also need a transformation in customer behavior pattern to use shared mobility vehicle as their personal vehicle to improve the life of vehicle hardwares & reduce warranty cost. We will be focusing on Vehicle Closure hardware & mechanisms as that will be the first and major interaction point for customers in vehicle.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0666
In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.
Video

Real time Renewable Energy Availability for EV Charging

2012-03-29
Battery Electric Vehicles and Extended Range Electric Vehicles, like the Chevrolet Volt, can use electrical energy from the Grid to meet the majority of a driver�s transportation needs. This has the positive societal effects of displace petroleum consumption and associated pollutants from combustion on a well to wheels basis, as well as reduced energy costs for the driver. CO2 may also be lower, but this depends upon the nature of the grid energy generation. There is a mix of sources � coal-fired, gas -fired, nuclear or renewables, like hydro, solar, wind or biomass for grid electrical energy. This mix changes by region, and also on the weather and time of day. By monitoring the grid mix and communicating it to drivers (or to their vehicles) in real-time, electrically driven vehicles may be recharged to take advantage of the lowest CO2, and potentially lower cost charging opportunities.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Preliminary Design of a Bio-Diesel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle as part of EcoCAR 2: Plugging-in to The Future

2012-09-10
2012-01-1770
With a growing need for a more efficient consumer based automotive platform, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) chose to redesign the 2013 Chevrolet Malibu as a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(PHEV). A Series architecture was chosen for its low energy consumption and high consumer acceptability when compared to the Series/Parallel-through-the-road and the Pre-Transmission designs. A fuel selection process was also completed and B20 Biodiesel was selected as the primary fuel due to lower GHG (Greenhouse Gases) emissions and Embry-Riddle's ability to produce biodiesel onsite using the cafeteria's discarded vegetable oil.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

2019-01-09
2019-26-0049
Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Overview - Painted Aluminum Wheels

1986-12-08
862022
This paper discusses the recent growth in aluminum wheel popularity and the problems associated with maintaining the wheel's appearance and corrosion protection. The various options in wheel coatings are then described as well as the adverse wheel environment. Finally, the variables affecting wheel corrosion resistance are explained and the testing that is undertaken to evaluate the performance characteristics of the wheel coating.
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