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Journal Article

Vehicle-Level EMC Modeling for HEV/EV Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0194
Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is becoming more important in power converters and motor drives as seen in hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) to achieve higher reliability of the vehicle and its components. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) of the electronic components for a vehicle are evaluated and validated at a component-level test bench; however, it is sometimes observed that the EMI level of the components can be changed in a vehicle-level test due to differences in the vehicle's configuration (cable routing, connecting location etc.). In this presentation, a vehicle-level EMC simulation methodology is introduced to estimate radiated emissions from a vehicle. The comparison between the simulation and measurement results is also presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Using OCTO SOI nMOSFET to Handle High Current for Automotive Modules

2012-10-02
2012-36-0211
This paper presents an experimental comparative study between the OCTOGONAL-Gate Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) nMOSFET (OSM) and the conventional SOI nMOSFET (CSM) considering the same bias conditions and the same gate area (AG), in order to verify the influence of this new MOSFET layout style to handle high current for automotive modules. Analog integrated circuits (ICs) design tends to be considered an art due to a large number of variables and objectives to achieve the product specifications. The designer has to find the right tradeoffs to achieve the desired automotive specification such as low power, low voltage, high speed and high current driver. SOI MOSFET's technology is required to provide the growth of embedded electronics. This growth is driving demand for power-handling devices that are smaller yet still provide high current driver capabilities.
Technical Paper

Use of Single Point Interface Measures for Characterization of Attachments

2005-05-16
2005-01-2388
Often components or subsystems are attached to other systems through multiple fasteners at multiple locations. Examples may include things like compressors, alternators, engine cradles, powertrain mounting systems, suspension systems, body structures or almost any other interface between components or subsystems. Often during early design stages, alternative component or subsystem configurations are being considered that can have very different interface characteristics, such as alternators with different number of mounting fasteners, or suspension systems with different number of body structure interface attachments. Given these different mounting configurations, it can be difficult to meaningfully compare the interface performance of the two components or subsystems.
Technical Paper

Unifying Value Methodology and Robust Design to Achieve Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0998
The concept of product or system function is considered as described in the Taguchi System of Quality Engineering. The importance of transfer functions is also discussed and a review of conventional value analysis techniques is given. This paper proposes a combination of the principles of robust design and value methodology to enable on-target functionality and direct cost allocation early in the product development process. The discussion on integration of value analysis principles in robust design methodology is provided considering the six sigma environment.
Technical Paper

Un-Controlled Generation Modelling and Analysis for Hybrid Vehicles

2017-01-10
2017-26-0108
Interior permanent magnet machines are being widely used in hybrid vehicles owing to their compact size and high power density. Vehicle level application requires the motor to operate at high speed beyond the base speed of the motor. This is accomplished through flux weakening control. Nonfunctioning of inverter switches and/or gate driver circuit during flux weakening could give rise to a potential fault scenario called Un-Controlled Generation (UCG). This paper gives a detailed background of UCG and its impact on the high voltage and propulsion systems. In further sections the details related to modelling and analysis of UCG will be discussed. Finally, the paper will conclude with simulation results and comparison of the results with motor dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

1995-02-01
950375
Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

Trends in Bus Guardian for Automotive Communication - CAN, TTP/C and Flexray

2011-10-04
2011-36-0308
Safety critical systems are taking demands on automotive systems where the distributed embedded system needs a communication system with properties of fault tolerant real-time communication. In order to increase reliability of systems with serial communication, a device called bus guardian can be added on physical layer to perform management of schedules and data independently from the communication controller, monitoring timing and sending signals of bus status notifying error occurrences to the host. The goal of this paper is to present and perform a comparative analysis of different strategies of bus guardian used in CAN, TTP/C and Flexray protocols, applied in safety critical system in automobile domain. A comparison was carried out to describe the properties and application for each protocol.
Technical Paper

Trajectory-Tracking Control for Autonomous Driving Considering Its Stability with ESP

2018-08-07
2018-01-1639
With rapid increase of vehicles on the road, safety concerns have become increasingly prominent. Since the leading cause of many traffic accidents is known to be by human drivers, developing autonomous vehicles is considered to be an effective approach to solve the problems above. Although trajectory tracking plays one of the most important roles on autonomous driving, handling the coupling between trajectory-tracking control and ESP under certain driving scenarios remains to be challenging. This paper focuses on trajectory-tracking control considering the role of ESP. A vehicle model is developed with two degrees of freedom, including vehicle lateral, and yaw motions. Based on the proposed model, the vehicle trajectory is separated into both longitudinal and lateral motion. The coupling effect of the vehicle and ESP is analyzed in the paper. The lateral trajectory-tracking algorithm is developed based on the preview follower theory.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

2010-04-12
2010-01-0452
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Video

The Utility and Fuel Consumption of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles

2012-03-27
There are now a wide variety of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in or near production. They reduce or displace petroleum consumption with of various combinations of conventional IC engine, mechanical transmission, liquid fuel storage, electrical energy storage, electrical and electro-mechanical energy conversion, and vehicle-to-grid energy interface. These Electrified types of vehicles include Mild Hybrid, Full Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid, Extended Range Electric, and Battery Electric. Some types differ in their actual usability for the real mixes of driving trips, and further that differ in their effectiveness to reduce or displace fuel in actual real world driving use. Vehicle size is also a factor in total vehicle utility in transporting people. If we may segment drivers by their driving needs, in each segment, we see a particular type of electrified vehicle that is better suited than others at minimizing fuel cost and petroleum consumption for the purposes of transporting people.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Journal Article

The Next Generation “Voltec” Extended Range EV Propulsion System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1152
The Chevrolet Volt is an electric vehicle (EV) with extended-range (ER) that is capable of operation on battery power alone, and on power generated by an on-board gasoline engine after depletion of the battery charge. For 2016, GM has developed the next generation of the Volt vehicle and “Voltec” propulsion system. Building on the experience of the first generation Volt, the second generation targeted improved all-electric range, improved charge sustaining fuel economy, and improved performance. All of this was to be accomplished while maintaining the EV character of the first generation Volt which customers clearly valued. This paper describes the next generation “Voltec” system and the realized improvements in efficiency and performance. The features of the propulsion system components, including energy storage, transaxle, electric motors and power electronics, on-board charging, and engine are described and compared with the previous generation.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Importance of Analysis of Electrical Parameters for Design of Analog Circuits in Automotive Modules

2012-10-02
2012-36-0209
The intention of this paper is to discuss the importance of analysis of some electrical parameters in order to design analog circuits in electronic modules, including automotive ones. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, high performance and higher integration density, so that it explains why such analysis is crucial to achieve better performances and meet the desired results.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0444
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

TECH 1 Interactive Diagnostic Tester

1986-08-01
861108
Automotive electronic systems are becoming increasingly complex and servicing these systems is difficult and costly. These same electronics, however, when coupled with interactive diagnostic testers can provide opportunities for not only self-diagnosis but also for significantly improved overall vehicle diagnostic testing. General Motors has established a three-tiered system of diagnostic testing with Level I testing accomplished by on-board diagnostics and Levels II and III employing external test equipment utilizing a high degree of interactive diagnostic testing. A low cost handheld diagnostic tester called the TECH 1 has been developed to support Level II testing of GM vehicles by technicians in dealerships and aftermarket service centers.
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

2019-06-05
2019-01-1521
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach for Formability Simulation of Automotive Body Structures

2001-10-16
2001-01-3048
This paper presents a simplified approach for formability simulation of automotive body structural sections in the early design stage of vehicle development process. Plane strain approach is investigated for its applicability and accuracy by comparing the analytical results with the measured results of automotive body side panel. The plane strain approach was tried based on the fact that for a certain section location of a stamped panel, the minor strains are relatively small and negligible compared to the major strains. The state of plane strain can be induced mainly through symmetry and applied boundary conditions. This approach is both cost effective and time saving for analyzing sheet metal formability in early vehicle development stage, since only few sections of the entire panel need be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Rapid Spherical Near-Field Antenna Measurements for Vehicle Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0569
As more wireless services such as satellite radio (SDARS), navigation systems, OnStar, and mobile telephones are installed on GM vehicles, there is a need to make quick and accurate vehicle antenna pattern measurements. The interaction between vehicle and antenna must be included to ensure accurate vehicle antenna measurements. This implies that the size of the effective antenna should include both the antenna and vehicle interaction dimensions. For the frequency range of 500 MHz to 6 GHz, one solution is to use a spherical near-field system. The Satimo rapid probe array technology was selected to develop a vehicle antenna test system (ATS), which minimizes test time and maintains data accuracy. The ATS was designed to operate inside of an existing GM electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) anechoic chamber equipped with a nine-meter turntable.
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