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Technical Paper

Unifying Value Methodology and Robust Design to Achieve Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0998
The concept of product or system function is considered as described in the Taguchi System of Quality Engineering. The importance of transfer functions is also discussed and a review of conventional value analysis techniques is given. This paper proposes a combination of the principles of robust design and value methodology to enable on-target functionality and direct cost allocation early in the product development process. The discussion on integration of value analysis principles in robust design methodology is provided considering the six sigma environment.
Technical Paper

U.S. Automotive Corrosion Trends Over the Past Decade

1995-02-01
950375
Since 1985, the Body Division of the Automotive Corrosion and Prevention Committee of SAE (ACAP) has conducted biannual surveys of automotive body corrosion in the Detroit area. The purpose of these surveys is to track industry wide corrosion protection improvements and to make this information available for public consumption. The survey consists of a closed car parking lot survey checking for perforations, blisters, and surface rust. This paper reports the results of the five surveys conducted to date.
Technical Paper

Time Determinism and Semantics Preservation in the Implementation of Distributed Functions over FlexRay

2010-04-12
2010-01-0452
Future automobiles are required to support an increasing number of complex, distributed functions such as active safety and X-by-wire. Because of safety concerns and the need to deliver correct designs in a short time, system properties should be verified in advance on function models, by simulation or model checking. To ensure that the properties still hold for the final deployed system, the implementation of the models into tasks and communication messages should preserve properties of the model, or in general, its semantics. FlexRay offers the possibility of deterministic communication and can be used to define distributed implementations that are provably equivalent to synchronous reactive models like those created from Simulink. However, the low level communication layers and the FlexRay schedule must be carefully designed to ensure the preservation of communication flows and functional outputs.
Technical Paper

The Use of in Vehicle STL Testing to Correlate Subsystem Level SEA Models

2003-05-05
2003-01-1564
For the assessment of vehicle acoustics in the early design stages of a vehicle program, the use of full vehicle SEA models is becoming the standard analysis method in the US automotive industry. One benefit is that OEM's and Tier 1 suppliers are able to cascade lower level acoustic performance targets for NVH systems and components. Detailed SEA system level models can be used to assess the performance of systems such as dash panels, floors and doors, however, the results will be questionable until test data Is available. Correlation can be accomplished with buck testing, which is a common practice in the automotive industry for assessing the STL (sound transmission loss) of vehicle level components. The opportunity to conduct buck testing can be limited by the availability of representative bodies to be cut into bucks and the availability of a transmission loss suite with a suitably large opening.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

The Evolution of Microelectronics in Automotive Modules

2011-10-04
2011-36-0371
It has the aim to discuss the evolution of electronics components, integrated circuits, new transistors concepts and associate its importance in the automotive modules. Today, the challenge is to have devices which consume less power, suitable for high-energy radiation environment, less parasitic capacitances, high speed, easier device isolation, high gain, easier scale-down of threshold voltage, no latch-up and higher integration density. The improvement of those characteristics mentioned and others in the electronic devices enable the automotive industry to have a more robust product and give the possibility to integrate new features in comfort, safety, infotainment and telematics modules. Finally, the intention is to discuss advanced structures, such as the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and show how it affects the electronics modules applied for the automotive area.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0444
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

Sound Analysis Method for Warble Noise in Electric Actuators

2019-06-05
2019-01-1521
Multiple automotive applications exist for small electric motors that are activated by vehicle occupants for various functions such as window lifts and seat adjusters. For such a motor to be described as high quality, not only should the sound it produces be low in amplitude, but it also needs to be free from pulsations and variations that might occur during its (otherwise) steady-state operation. If a motor’s sound contains pulsations or variations between 2 and 8 cycles per second, the variation is described as warble. To establish performance targets for warble noise at both the vehicle and component level a way to measure and quantify the warble noise must be established. Building on existing sound quality metrics such as loudness and pitch variation, a method is established by which processed sound data is put through a secondary operation of Fourier analysis.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

2019-04-02
2019-01-1217
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Parametric Optimization of Planetary Carrier for Durability

2019-01-09
2019-26-0049
Planetary gear set is one of the most commonly used gear systems in automotive industry as they cater to high power density requirements. A simple planetary gear set consists of a sun gear, ring gear, planets and carrier which houses planet gears. Efficiency of a transmission is dependent upon performance of gear sets involved in power transfer to a great extent. Structural rigidity of a planetary carrier is critical in a planetary gear set as its deflection may alter the load distribution of gears in mesh causing durability and noise issues. Limited studies exist based on geometrical parameters of a carrier which would help a designer in selecting the dimensions at an early stage. In this study, an end to end automated FEA process based on DOE and optimization in Isight is developed. The method incorporates a workflow allowing for an update of carrier geometry, FE model setup, analysis job submission and post-processing of results.
Technical Paper

Overview - Painted Aluminum Wheels

1986-12-08
862022
This paper discusses the recent growth in aluminum wheel popularity and the problems associated with maintaining the wheel's appearance and corrosion protection. The various options in wheel coatings are then described as well as the adverse wheel environment. Finally, the variables affecting wheel corrosion resistance are explained and the testing that is undertaken to evaluate the performance characteristics of the wheel coating.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Human Response From Vehicle Performance Characteristics Using Artificial Neural Networks

2002-05-07
2002-01-1570
This study investigates a methodology in which the general public's subjective interpretation of vehicle handling and performance can be predicted. Several vehicle handling measurements were acquired, and associated metrics calculated, in a controlled setting. Human evaluators were then asked to drive and evaluate each vehicle in a winter driving school setting. Using the acquired data, multiple linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) techniques were used to create and refine mathematical models of human subjective responses. It is shown that artificial neural networks, which have been trained with the sets of objective and subjective data, are both more accurate and more robust than multiple linear regression models created from the same data.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
Technical Paper

Mercury Switches in Underhood and Trunk Lamp Applications: A Detailed Environmental and Economic Analysis of Alternatives

1997-02-24
970698
The largest application of mercury in automotive applications occurs in underhood and trunk lamp activation switches. A reduction of mercury in this application will have a significant impact on automotive mercury usage. Using environmentally conscious design and manufacturing principles, this paper will investigate functional alternatives for the activation of underhood (U/H) and trunk lamp applications. Five alternatives to perform the activation function will be analyzed in four areas over their life cycles: Environmental Economic Engineering Manufacturing Each alternative will be ranked on criteria in each of these four areas using documented LCA processes. Totals will be generated for each area, then weighted and added to arrive at an overall score. Four groups of weightings will be used based on the vehicle type: small cars, mid-size cars, large/luxury cars, and trucks.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of the UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts Vehicle Product System

2003-10-27
2003-01-2838
A life cycle inventory (LCI) study evaluates the environmental performance of the ULSAB-AVC (UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts) vehicle product system. The LCI quantifies the inputs and outputs of each life cycle stage of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle (998 kg) over the 193,000 km service lifetime of the vehicle. The use phase of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-diesel engine variant (1031 kg) is also quantified. The data categories measured for each life cycle phase include resource and energy consumption, air and water pollutant emissions, and solid waste production. The ULSAB-AVC LCI study is based on the methods, model and data from the 1999 study by the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), a consortium within the United States Council for Automotive Research. This model was modified to represent the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle for each life cycle phase as well as the use phase of the PNGV-diesel engine variant.
Journal Article

Integration of Component Design Data for Automotive Turbocharger with Vehicle Fault Model Using JA6268 Methodology

2017-03-28
2017-01-1623
Suppliers and integrators are working with SAE’s HM-1 standards team to develop a mechanism to allow “Health Ready Components” to be integrated into larger systems to enable broader IVHM functionality (reference SAE JA6268). This paper will discuss how the design data provided by the supplier of a component/subsystem can be integrated into a vehicle reference model with emphasis on how each aspect of the model is transmitted to minimize ambiguity. The intent is to enhance support for the analytics, diagnostics and prognostics for the embedded component. In addition, we describe functionality being delegated to other system components and that provided by the supplier via syndicated web services. As a specific example, the paper will describe the JA6268 data submittal for a typical automotive turbocharger and other engine air system components to clarify the data modeling and integration processes.
Technical Paper

Innovation Flow and Metrics Essentials

2011-10-04
2011-36-0147
The innovation term has been so widely misused that the confusion observed among the companies trying to get themselves into the innovation realm is a common and natural consequence. The lack of understanding of the innovation dynamics, flow and metrics generally culminate in a non-well-thought implementation of innovation processes and policies that are usually tragic in the short term. The most common consequences are the loss of credibility of the innovation process in general among leaders and employees, and the loss of credibility of the company as an innovative company among suppliers, partners and customers, causing these companies to abandon this powerful tool and, as consequence, to limit their capabilities to compete in the future. In order to prevent this from happening, companies that were not built upon innovation will need to grow capability and change cultural priorities to match the demands of the innovation process.
Technical Paper

Industry and Academic Relations - Engineering Education and the Future of the Engineering Workforce

2010-10-19
2010-01-2300
With the current increase in concern and awareness regarding sustainability and energy, a new focus has been placed on the field of engineering. In this realm of focus, how to educate engineers, more specifically how to continually educate engineers to keep up with technology and the changing workforce has become a very important topic of interest. There exists a gap between graduate studies and professional implementation of technology which the Energy Systems Engineering [ESE] program currently in deployment and development between the University of Michigan and General Motors seeks to address. This work outlines current efforts in encouraging new engineers to enter the field, but focuses primarily on continuing and re-educating the workforce to meet the needs of new technologies. Examples of academic-industry cooperation will be discussed, with some focus on the benefit and experience of the student.
Technical Paper

HELS Based Acoustic Holographic Measurements to Evaluate Structure-Borne Noise

2007-05-15
2007-01-2281
General Motors (GM) recently purchased an acoustic holography system based on the Helmholtz Equation Least Squares (HELS) methodology. Typically acoustic holography has utilized planar transformation of the Fourier acoustic equations. General Motors conducted a variety of experiments on a simple well understood structure. This enabled us to understand the setup parameters and confirm the manufacturer's claims for accuracy. Measurements on the structure were taken using the HELS based equipment and a laser vibrometer. Conclusions are drawn on how to set up the equipment for future testing on vehicles.
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